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Sex Differences in Ranging and Association Patterns in Chimpanzees in Comparison with Bonobos

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Dispersing Primate Females

Part of the book series: Primatology Monographs ((PrimMono))

Abstract

In this chapter, we examined the ranging and association patterns of chimpanzees and bonobos at a variety of sites, including new data from chimpanzees of the Kalinzu Forest and bonobos at Wamba. We found that male chimpanzees utilize the whole community range and that the home range of chimpanzee males is larger than that of females. However, the ranging pattern of female chimpanzees varies among study sites. Female chimpanzees at Taï, Sonso, and Kalinzu utilize a whole community range, supporting the bisexually bonded community model. The ranging patterns of female chimpanzees at Gombe and Kanyawara support the male-bonded community model. The differences in female ranging patterns are not explained by subspecies differences. Our findings show that both male and female bonobos utilize the whole group range, supporting the bisexually bonded community model. The association patterns of female chimpanzees also vary among study sites, although females are less gregarious than males at all sites. At Gombe, Kanyawara, and Kalinzu, association between female chimpanzees is very weak. At Taï, Ngogo, and Sonso, female chimpanzees have specific female partners with whom they associate more than average. These differences in association patterns are not explained by subspecies differences either. Associations between female bonobos are stronger than those between male bonobos. The variation in female chimpanzee patterns of association and intergroup transfer show that, as they are free from kin ties in a male-philopatric society, they can change their behavior according to various factors, such as ecological and/or social conditions.

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Acknowledgments

We thank Dr. Mulavwa, the late Mr. K. Yangozene, Mr. M. Yamba-Yamba, and Mr. B. Motema-Salo of the Research Center for Ecology and Forestry (CREF) of DR Congo for their support in data collection. We thank Mr. Etwodu Levi of the National Forestry Authority of Uganda, Dr. Peter Ndemere of Uganda National Council for Science and Technology, Mr. I. Monkengo-mo-Mpenge of CREF, and Mr. F. Bukasa of the Ministry of Scientific Research and Technology of DRC for research permits and logistic support. We thank the research assistants and other workers in Bushenyi, Uganda, and Wamba, DR Congo, for collecting data and maintenance of the study sites. We thank members of the Department of Biology at Meiji-Gakuin University and Primate Research Institute (PRI), Kyoto University, Drs. T. Kano, the late T. Nishida, T. Matsuzawa, S. Kuroda, G. Idani, D. Kimura, H. Ihobe, Y. Tashiro, T. Sakamaki, and M. Isaji for various support and encouragement. This study was financially supported by Japan Ministry of the Environment Global Environment Research Fund (F-061 to Nishida; D-1007 to Furuichi), JSPS Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (17570193, 19405015, 40379011, to Hashimoto; 17255005, 22255007, 26257408 to Furuichi; 24255010 to Yamagiwa; 21255006, 25257409 to Ihobe; 25257407 to Yumoto), JSPS Asia-Africa Science Platform Program (2009–2011, 2012–2014 to Furuichi), JSPS HOPE project of the Primate Research Institute (PRI) of Kyoto University (to Matsuzawa), MEXT special grant “Human evolution,” and JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Strategic Young Researcher Overseas Visits Program for Accelerating Brain Circulation (to PRI, Kyoto University).

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Hashimoto, C., Furuichi, T. (2015). Sex Differences in Ranging and Association Patterns in Chimpanzees in Comparison with Bonobos. In: Furuichi, T., Yamagiwa, J., Aureli, F. (eds) Dispersing Primate Females. Primatology Monographs. Springer, Tokyo. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-4-431-55480-6_5

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