Oral Cancer pp 157-167 | Cite as

Clinical Evaluation and Differential Diagnosis

  • Seiji NakamuraEmail author


In this chapter, the focus is on the clinical characteristics of oral cancers. The general characteristics regarding site distribution, observational findings, symptoms, examinations to diagnose, and evaluate, and site-specific clinical characteristics are described. Second, other oral lesions with clinical similarities to oral cancers, precancerous lesions and conditions with early malignant changes, and other malignancies in the oral cavity, which occasionally involve the oral cavity and should be carefully differentiated from oral cancers, are listed and their clinical characteristics are described.


Clinical evaluation Differential diagnosis Oral cancer Precancerous lesion Squamous cell carcinoma 


  1. 1.
    UICC (2009) TNM classification of malignant tumours, 7th edn. Wiley-Blackwell, LondonGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Paymaster JC (1956) Cancer of the buccal mucosa: a clinical study of 650 cases in Indian patients. Cancer 9:431–435CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Stones HH (1957) Oral and dental diseases. Livingstone, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fletcher GH, MacComb WS (1962) Radiation therapy in the management of cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx. Springfield, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gardner AF, Hamburger S, Love S (1963) Oral carcinoma: analysis of one hundred and eighty-nine cases. J Am Dent Assoc 66:456–465CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Paterson P (1963) The treatment of malignant disease by radiation. Edward Arnold, LondonGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    McCarthy PL, Shklar G (1964) Diseases of the oral mucosa. Mcgraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Spiessl B (1966) Plattenepithelkarzinom der Mund-höhle. Georg Thieme Verlag, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sandler HC (1970) A retrospective study of a head and neck cancer control program. Cancer 25:1153–1161CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ueno T (1969) Studies on treatment and results of cancer of the buccal cavity. J Jpn Stomatol Soc 36:4–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Izumo T, Kirita T, Ariji E, Ozeki S, Okada N, Okabe S et al (2012) General rules for clinical and pathological studies on oral cancer: a synopsis. Jpn J Clin Oncol 42:1099–1109. doi: 10.1093/jjco/hys141 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Barners L, Eveson JW, Reichart P, Sidransky D (2005) Pathology and genetics of the head and neck tumours. IARC, LyonGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Section of Oral and Maxillofacial Oncology, Division of Maxillofacial Diagnostic and Surgical Sciences, Faculty of Dental ScienceKyushu UniversityFukuokaJapan

Personalised recommendations