Emotions have impacts on a variety of behaviors in animals and human. But they are not easy to define, and there exist multiple definitions of emotions. In this chapter, the basic concepts, functions, and features of emotions are summarized, and the roles and natures of emotional facial expressions are introduced. Two main roles of emotion are distinguished: intra-individual (intra-personal) roles and inter-individual (inter-personal or social) roles. Emotion is related to primary drives that arise from innate needs, and hence have intra-individual roles. In addition, an emotional output of a person may influence the other’s emotion and behavior, and hence emotion has inter-individual roles.


James-Lange theory Drive-reduction theory Homeostasis Fight-or-flight Amygdala Facial expressions Facial feedback theory Flat affect Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) Generalization Palatability shift communication box Ultrasonic vocalization Duchenne smile Orbitofrontal cortex 


  1. Adolphs, R.: Fear, faces, and the human amygdala. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 18, 166–172 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adolphs, R., Tranel, D., Damasio, H., Damasio, A.: Impaired recognition of emotion in facial expressions following bilateral damage to the human amygdala. Nature 372, 669–672 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Assogna, F., Pontieri, F.E., Caltagirone, C., Spalletta, G.: The recognition of facial emotion expressions in Parkinson’s disease. Eur. Neuropsychopharmacol. 18, 835–848 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bell, A.M.: Approaching the genomics of risk-taking behavior. Adv. Genet. 68, 83–104 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Berridge, K.C.: Measuring hedonic impact in animals and infants: microstructure of affective taste reactivity patterns. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 24, 173–198 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beukeboom, C.J.: When words feel right: how affective expressions of listeners change a speaker’s language use. Eur. J. Soc. Psychol. 39, 747–756 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bizzarri, C., Rigamonti, A.E., Luce, A., Cappa, M., Cella, S.G., Berini, J., Sartorio, A., Müller, E.E., Salvatoni, A.: Children with Prader-Willi syndrome exhibit more evident meal-induced responses in plasma ghrelin and peptide YY levels than obese and lean children. Eur. J. Endocrinol. 162, 499–505 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blair, R.J.R.: Neurobiological basis of psychopathy. Br. J. Psychiatry 182, 5–7 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bryant, G., Barrett, H.C.: Recognizing intentions in infant-directed speech: evidence for universals. Psychol. Sci. 18, 746–751 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Buck, R.: Nonverbal behavior and the theory of emotion: the facial feedback hypothesis. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 38, 811–824 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bures, J., Bermúdez-Rattoni, F., Yamamoto, T.: Conditioned Taste Aversion: Memory of a Special Kind. Oxford University Press, Oxford (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cabanac, M.: Physiological role of pleasure. Science 173, 1103–1107 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Camerer, C.: Behavioral economics: reunifying psychology and economics. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 96, 10575–10577 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chapman, H.A., Anderson, A.K.: Understanding disgust. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1251, 62–76 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cosmides, L., Tooby, J.: Evolutionary psychology and the emotion. In: Lewis, M., Haviland-Jones, J.M. (eds.) Handbook of Emotions, 2nd edn. The Guilford Press, New York (2000)Google Scholar
  16. Damasio, A.: Descartes’ Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York (1994)Google Scholar
  17. Daniels, D., Fluharty, S.J.: Salt appetite: a neurohormonal viewpoint. Physiol. Behav. 81, 319–337 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Darwin, C.: The Expression of Emotion in Man and Animals. The Project Gutenberg EBook (EBook #1227). http://www.gutenberg.org/files/1227/1227-h/1227-h.htm. (01/17/2014). (Original work published 1872) (1998)
  19. Davidson, R.J., Putnam, K.M., Larson, C.L.: Dysfunction in the neural circuitry of emotion regulation-a possible prelude to violence. Science 289, 591–594 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Davis, J.I., Senghas, A., Brandt, F., Ochsner, K.N.: The effects of Botox injections on emotional experience. Emotion 10, 433–440 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ekman, P.: Basic emotions. In: Dalgleish, T., Power, M. (eds.) Handbook of Cognition and Emotion. Wiley, Sussex (1999)Google Scholar
  22. Ekman, P., Friesen, W.V.: Constants across cultures in the face and emotion. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 17, 124–129 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ekman, P., Levenson, R.W., Friesen, W.V.: Autonomic nervous system activity distinguishes among emotions. Science 221, 1208–1210 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ekman, P., Davidson, R.J., Friesen, W.V.: The Duchenne smile: emotional expression and brain physiology. II. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 58, 342–353 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Grill, H.J., Norgren, R.: The taste reactivity test. I. Mimetic responses to gustatory stimuli in neurologically normal rats. Brain Res. 143, 263–279 (1978a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Grill, H.J., Norgren, R.: The taste reactivity test. II. Mimetic responses to gustatory stimuli in chronic thalamic and chronic decerebrate rats. Brain Res. 143, 281–297 (1978b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Grill, H.J., Norgren, R.: Chronically decerebrate rats demonstrate satiation but not bait shyness. Science 201, 267–269 (1978c)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hampson, E., van Anders, S.M., Mullin, L.I.: A female advantage in the recognition of emotional facial expressions: test of an evolutionary hypothesis. Evol. Hum. Behav. 27, 401–416 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hannon-Engel, S.: Regulating satiety in bulimia nervosa: the role of cholecystokinin. Perspect. Psychiatr. Care 48, 34–40 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Havas, D.A., Matheson, J.: The functional role of the periphery in emotional language comprehension. Front. Psychol. 4, 294 (2013). doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00294 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Holsen, L.M., Savage, C.R., Martin, L.E., Bruce, A.S., Lepping, R.J., Ko, E., Brooks, W.M., Butler, M.G., Zarcone, J.R., Goldstein, J.M.: Importance of reward and prefrontal circuitry in hunger and satiety: Prader-Willi syndrome vs simple obesity. Int. J. Obes. (Lond) 36, 638–647 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hull, C.: Principles of Behavior. Appleton, New York (1943)Google Scholar
  33. Ishikawa, M., Hara, C., Ohdo, S., Ogawa, N.: Plasma corticosterone response of rats with sociopsychological stress in the communication box. Physiol. Behav. 52, 475–480 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. James, W.: What is an emotion? Mind 9, 188–205 (1884)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jankovic, J.: Parkinson’s disease: clinical features and diagnosis. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 79, 368–376 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kleinke, C.L., Peterson, T.R., Rutledge, T.R.: Effects of self-generated facial expressions affect emotional status. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 74, 272–279 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kojima, S., Nakahara, T., Nagai, N., Muranaga, T., Tanaka, M., Yasuhara, D., Masuda, A., Date, Y., Ueno, H., Nakazato, M., Naruo, T.: Altered ghrelin and peptide YY responses to meals in bulimia nervosa. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) 62, 74–78 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Krebs, J.R., Davies, N.B.: An Introduction to Behavioural Ecology, pp. 48–76. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford (1993)Google Scholar
  39. Lange, C. G.: The Mechanism of the Emotions (1885) (translated by Rand, B.) Reprinted from Rand, B. The Classical Psychologists, pp. 672–684. Houghton Mifflin, Boston (1912)Google Scholar
  40. LeDoux, J., Phelps, E.: Emotional networks in the brain. In: Lewis, M., Haviland-Jones, J., Barrett, L. (eds.) Handbook of Emotions, pp. 159–179. Guilford Press, New York (2008)Google Scholar
  41. Mather, M., Canli, T., English, T., Whitfield, S., Wais, P., Ochsner, K., Gabrieli, J.D.E., Carstensen, L.L.: Amygdala responses to emotionally valenced stimuli in older and younger adults. Psychol. Sci. 15, 259–263 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Monteleone, P., Martiadis, V., Rigamonti, A.E., Fabrazzo, M., Giordani, C., Muller, E.E., Mai, M.: Investigation of peptide YY and ghrelin responses to a test meal in bulimia nervosa. Biol. Psychiatry 57, 926–931 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mujica-Parodi, L.R., Strey, H.H., Frederick, B., Savoy, R., Cox, D., Botanov, Y., Tolkunov, D., Rubin, D., Weber, J.: Chemosensory cues to conspecific emotional stress activate amygdala in humans. PLoS One 4, e6415 (2009). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006415 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Oberlin, B.G., Dzemidzic, M., Tran, S.M., Soeurt, C.M., Albrecht, D.S., Yoder, K.K., Kareken, D.A.: Beer flavor provokes striatal dopamine release in male drinkers: mediation by family history of alcoholism. Neuropsychopharmacology 38, 1617–1624 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ogawa, N., Kuwahara, K.: Psychophysiology of emotion-communication of emotion. Jpn. J. Psychosom. Med. 6, 352–357 (1966)Google Scholar
  46. Ogawa, N., Hara, C., Ishikawa, M.: Characteristic of socio-psychological stress induced by the communication box method in mice and rats. In: Mannine, O. (ed.) Environmental Stress, pp. 417–427. ACES Publishing Ltd, Tampere (1990)Google Scholar
  47. Pause, B.M.: Processing of body odor signals by the human brain. Chemosens. Percept. 5, 55–63 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Royet, J.P., Zald, D., Versace, R., Costes, N., Lavenne, F., Koenig, O., Gervais, R.: Emotional responses to pleasant and unpleasant olfactory, visual, and auditory stimuli: a positron emission tomography study. J. Neurosci. 20, 7752–7759 (2000)Google Scholar
  49. Sánchez, C., Meier, E.: Behavioral profiles of SSRIs in animal models of depression, anxiety and aggression. Are they all alike? Psychopharmacology (Berl) 129, 197–205 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sauter, D.A., Eimer, M.: Rapid detection of emotion from human vocalizations. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 22, 474–481 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sauter, D.A., Scott, S.K.: More than one kind of happiness: can we recognize vocal expressions of different positive states? Motiv. Emot. 31, 192–199 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sclafani, A., Ackroff, K.: Role of gut nutrient sensing in stimulating appetite and conditioning food preferences. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 302, R1119–R1133 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Shapira, N.A., Lessig, M.C., He, A.G., James, G.A., Driscoll, D.J., Liu, Y.: Satiety dysfunction in Prader-Willi syndrome demonstrated by fMRI. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 76, 260–262 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Steiner, J.E.: The gustofacial response: observation on normal and anencephalic newborn infants. In: Bosma, J.F. (ed.) Fourth Symposium on Oral Sensation and Perception. Development in the Fetus and Infant, pp. 254–278. US Department Health, Education, and Welfare, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (1973)Google Scholar
  55. Steiner, J.E., Glaser, D., Hawilo, M.E., Berridge, K.C.: Comparative expression of hedonic impact: affective reactions to taste by human infants and other primates. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 25, 53–74 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Suzuki, A., Hoshino, T., Shigemasu, K., Kawamura, M.: Disgust-specific impairment of facial expression recognition in Parkinson’s disease. Brain 129(Pt 3), 707–717 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Tindell, A.J., Smith, K.S., Pecina, S., Berridge, K.C., Aldridge, J.W.: Ventral pallidum firing codes hedonic reward: when a bad taste turns good. J. Neurophysiol. 96, 2399–2409 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. von Holst, E.: Relations between the central nervous system and the peripheral organs. Br. J. Anim. Behav. 2, 89–94 (1954)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Winograd-Gurvich, C., Fitzgerald, P.B., Georgiou-Karistianis, N., Bradshaw, J.L., White, O.B.: Negative symptoms: a review of schizophrenia, melancholic depression and Parkinson’s disease. Brain Res. Bull. 70, 312–321 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Yamamoto, T., Matsuo, R., Kiyomitsu, Y., Kitamura, R.: Taste responses of cortical neurons in freely ingesting rats. J. Neurophysiol. 61, 1244–1258 (1989)Google Scholar
  61. Yamamoto, T., Shimura, T., Sako, N., Yasoshima, Y., Sakai, N.: Neural substrates for conditioned taste aversion in the rat. Behav. Brain Res. 65, 123–137 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Yasoshima, Y., Yamamoto, T.: Short-term and long-term excitability changes of the insular cortical neurons after the acquisition of taste aversion learning in behaving rats. Neuroscience 84, 1–5 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Yasoshima, Y., Shimura, T., Yamamoto, T.: Single unit responses of the amygdala after conditioned taste aversion in conscious rats. Neuroreport 6, 2424–2428 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Zald, D.H., Pardo, J.V.: Emotion, olfaction, and the human amygdala: amygdala activation during aversive olfactory stimulation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 4119–4124 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of Human SciencesOsaka UniversitySuitaJapan

Personalised recommendations