Perceptual and Cognitive Processes in Human Behavior

  • Kazumitsu Shinohara


In this chapter, major models of perception and cognition are reviewed with a focus on human information processing and some related research paradigms. The main focus is on the psychological models of perception and cognition that experimental psychology has developed to explicate the psychological functions of human information processing. By adopting these models, many studies have clarified the roles of the brain activities that are closely related to the components of the models. The models are then important for understanding how we perceive and recognize surrounding environments and how we decide to behave in response to them.


Skill-Rule-Knowledge based model (SRK model) Selective attention Cocktail party phenomenon Divided attention Spotlight Orientation Useful field of view Visual search Feature integration theory Coherence theory Attentional resources Multitasking Working memory 


  1. Baddeley, A.D.: Working Memory. Oxford University Press, New York (1986)Google Scholar
  2. Baddeley, A.D.: Working memory or working attention? In: Baddeley, A., Weiskrantz, L. (eds.) Attention: Selection, Awareness and Control. A Tribute to Donald Broadbent, pp. 152–170. Clarendon Press University, Oxford (1993)Google Scholar
  3. Baddeley, A.D.: Exploring the central executive. Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 49, 5–28 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baddeley, A.D.: Human Memory: Theory and Practice Revised Edition. Psychology Press, Hove (1997)Google Scholar
  5. Baddeley, A.D.: The episodic buffer: a new component of working memory? Trends Cogn. Sci. 4, 417–423 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baddeley, A.D., Logie, R.H.: Working memory: the multiple-component model. In: Miyake, A., Shah, P. (eds.) Models of Working Memory: Mechanisms of Active Maintenance and Executive Control. Cambridge University Press, New York (1999)Google Scholar
  7. Broadbent, D.: Perception and Communication. Penguin Press, London (1958)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brooks, L.: Spatial and verbal components of the act of recall. Can. J. Psychol. 22, 349–368 (1968)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bunge, S.A., Ochsner, K.N., Desmond, J.E., Glover, G.H., Gabriel, J.D.E.: Prefrontal regions involved in keeping information in and out of mind. Brain 124, 2072–2086 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Charron, S., Koechlin, E.: Divided representation of concurrent goals in the human frontal lobes. Science 16, 360–363 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cherry, E.C.: Some experiments on the recognition of speech, with one and with two ears. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 25, 975–979 (1953)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Clay, O.J., Wadley, V.G., Edwards, J.D., Roth, D.L., Roenker, D.L., Ball, K.K.: Cumulative meta-analysis of the relationship between useful field of view and driving performance in older adults: current and future implications. Optom. Vis. Sci. 82, 724–731 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Conway, A.R.A., Cowan, N., Bunting, M.F.: The cocktail party phenomenon revisited: the importance of working memory capacity. Psychon. Bull. Rev. 8, 331–335 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. D’Esposito, M., Detre, J.A., Alsop, D.C., Atlas, R.K., Grossman, M.: The neural basis of the central executive system of working memory. Nature 378, 279–281 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Deutsch, J.A., Deutsch, D.: Attention: some theoretical considerations. Psychol. Res. 70, 80–90 (1963)Google Scholar
  16. Duncan, J., Humphreys, G.W.: Visual search and visual similarity. Psychol. Rev. 96, 433–458 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Eriksen, B.A., Eriksen, C.W.: Effects of noise letters upon the identification of a target letter in nonsearch task. Percept. Psychophys. 16, 143–149 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Eriksen, C.W., St. James, J.D.: Visual attention within and around the field of focal attention: a zoom lens model. Percept. Psychophys. 40, 225–240 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jonides, J.: Voluntary versus automatic control over the mind’s eye’s movement. In: Long, J.B., Baddeley, A.D. (eds.) Attention and Performance, IX, pp. 187–203. Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale (1981)Google Scholar
  20. Kahneman, D.: Attention and Effort. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1973)Google Scholar
  21. Kahneman, D.: Thinking, Fast and Slow. Penguin, London (2011)Google Scholar
  22. Kahneman, D.: Maps of Bounded Rationality: A Perspective on Intuitive Judgment and Choice. Nobel Prize Lecture. (2002)
  23. LaBerge, D.: Spatial extent of attention to letters and words. J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 9, 371–379 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lavie, N.: The role of perceptual load in visual awareness. Brain Res. 1080, 91–100 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mackworth, N.: Visual noise causes tunnel vision. Psychon. Sci. 3, 67–68 (1965)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Miller, J.: The flanker compatibility effect as a function of visual angle, attentional focus, visual transients and perceptual load: a search for boundary conditions. Percept. Psychophys. 49, 270–288 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Miura, T.: Coping with situational demands: a study of eye movements and peripheral vision. In: Gale, A.G., Freeman, M.H., Haslegrave, C.M., Smith, P., Taylor, S.P. (eds.) Vision in Vehicles, pp. 205–216. Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V, Amsterdam (1986)Google Scholar
  28. Miura, T.: Visual behavior: research on eye movement, useful field of view, and depth attention relating to this study. In: Miura, T. (ed.) Visual Attention and Behavior: Bridging the Gap Between Basic and Practical Research. Kazama Shobo, Tokyo (2012)Google Scholar
  29. Müller, H.J., Rabbitt, P.M.A.: Reflexive orienting of visual attention: time course of activation and resistance to interruption. J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 15, 315–330 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nakayama, K., Silverman, G.H.: Serial and parallel processing of visual feature conjunctions. Nature 320, 264–265 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Norman, D.A., Bobrow, D.G.: On data-limited and resource-limited processes. Cogn. Psychol. 7, 44–64 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Norman, D.A., Shallice, T.: Attention to action: willed and automatic control of behavior. In: Davidson, R.J., Schwarts, G.E., Shapiro, D. (eds.) Consciousness and Self-Regulation. Advances in Research and Theory, vol. 4, pp. 1–18. Plenum Press, New York (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. O’Reagan, J.K., Rensink, R.A., Clark, J.J.: Change-blindness as a result of ‘mudsplashes’. Nature 398, 34 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Osaka, M., Osaka, N.: Neural bases of focusing attention in working memory. In: Osaka, N., Logie, R.H., E’sposito, M. (eds.) The Cognitive Neuroscience of Working Memory, pp. 99–118. Oxford University Press, Oxford (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Osaka, N., Osaka, M., Kondo, H., Morishita, M., Fukuyama, H., Shibasaki, H.: The neural basis of executive function in working memory: an fMRI study based on individual differences. Neuroimage 21, 623–631 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Posner, M.I.: Orienting of attention. Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 32, 3–25 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Posner, M.I., Cohen, Y.: Components of visual orienting. In: Bouma, H., Bouwhuis, D.G. (eds.) Attention and Performance X, pp. 531–556. Erlbaum, Hillsdale (1984)Google Scholar
  38. Posner, M.I., Peterson, S.E.: The attention system of the human brain. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 13, 25–42 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Posner, M.I., Snyder, C.R.R., Davidson, B.J.: Attention and the detection of signals. J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 109, 160–174 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rasmussen, J.: Skills, rules, and knowledge; signals, signs and simbols, and other distinctions in human performance model. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, SMC-13, 257–266 (1983)Google Scholar
  41. Rasmussen, J.: Information Processing and Human-Machine Interaction: An Approach to Cognitive Engineering. North Holland, New York (1986)Google Scholar
  42. Rasmussen, J.: The definition of human error and a taxonomy for technical system design. In: Rasmussen, J., Duncan, K., Leplat, J. (eds.) New Technology and Human Error, pp. 23–30. Wiley, Chichester (1987)Google Scholar
  43. Rensink, R.A.: The dynamic representation of scenes. Vis. Cogn. 7, 17–42 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rensink, R.A.: Change detection. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 53, 245–277 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Rensink, R.A.: The management of visual attention in graphic displays. In: Roda, C. (ed.) Human Attention in Digital Environment, pp. 63–92. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Robbins, T., Anderson, E., Barker, D., Bradley, A., Fearneyhough, C., Henson, R. …, Baddeley, A.: Working memory in chess. Mem. Cogn. 24, 83–93 (1996)Google Scholar
  47. Saida, S., Ikeda, M.: Useful visual field size for pattern perception. Percept. Psychophys. 25, 119–125 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Schmeichel, B., Baumeister, R.F.: Effortful attention control. In: Bruya, B. (ed.) Effortless Attention: A new Perspective in the Cognitive Science of Attention and Action, pp. 29–49. MIT Press, Cambridge (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sekuler, R.W., Blake, R.: Perception, 4th edn. McGraw-Hill, New York (2001)Google Scholar
  50. Shinohara, K.: Attention and human error. In: Harada, E., Shinohara, K. (eds.) Theories and Applications of Cognitive Psychology 4: Attention and Safety, pp. 186–208. Kitaoji Syobo, Kyoto (in Japanese) (2011)Google Scholar
  51. Simons, D., Ambinder, M.: Change blindness: theory and consequences. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 14, 44–48 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Simons, D., Levin, D.: Change blindness. Trends Cogn. Sci. 1, 261–267 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Stanovich, K.E., West, R.F.: Individual differences in reasoning: implications for the rationality debate. Behav. Brain Sci. 23, 645–665 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Treisman, A.: Verbal cues, language, and meaning in selective attention. Am. J. Psychol. 77, 206–219 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Treisman, A.: The perception of features and objects. In: Baddeley, A., Weiskrantz, L. (eds.) Attention: Selection, Awareness and Control. A Tribute to Donald Broadbent, pp. 5–35. Clarendon Press University, Oxford (1993)Google Scholar
  56. Treisman, A., Gelade, G.: A feature-integration theory of attention. Cogn. Psychol. 12, 97–136 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Treisman, A., Sato, S.: Conjunction search revisited. J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 16, 459–478 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Treisman, A., Schmidt, H.: Illusory conjunctions in the perception of objects. Cogn. Psychol. 14, 107–141 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Watson, J.M., Strayer, D.L.: Supertaskers: profiles in extraordinary multitasking ability. Psychon. Bull. Rev. 17, 479–485 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Wickens, C.D.: Processing resources in attention. In: Parasuraman, R., Davies, D.R. (eds.) Varieties of Attention, pp. 63–102. Academic, New York (1984)Google Scholar
  61. Wickens, C.D., Hollands, J.G.: Engineering Psychology and Human Performance, 3rd edn. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River (1999)Google Scholar
  62. Wickens, C.D., Kessel, C.: Processing resource demands of failure detection in dynamic systems. J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 6, 564–577 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Wickens, C.D., Liu, Y.: Codes and modalities in multiple resources: a success and a qualification. Hum. Factors 30, 599–616 (1988)Google Scholar
  64. Wickens, C.D., McCarley, J.S.: Applied Attention Theory. CRC Press, Boca Raton (2008)Google Scholar
  65. Wickens, C.D., Sandry, D., Vidulich, M.: Compatibility and resource competition between modalities of input, output, and central processing. Hum. Factors 25, 227–248 (1983)Google Scholar
  66. Wickes, C.D.: Multiple resources and mental workload. Hum. Factors 50, 449–455 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Yerkes, R.M., Dodson, J.D.: The relation of strength of stimulus to rapidity of habit-formation. J. Comp. Neurol. Psychol. 18, 459–482 (1908)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of Human SciencesOsaka UniversitySuitaJapan

Personalised recommendations