Compliant Body as a Source of Intelligence

  • Koh Hosoda


No one denies that the brain is the main organ for cognition. However, the brain has evolved with the body. We cannot really understand how the brain works unless we understand the function of the body. In this chapter, we review several experimental examples of robots that have similar structures to humans and investigate the function of the body. It turns out that in order for a robot to achieve intelligent behavior, it is extremely important to have a compliant body with a muscular–skeletal structure.


Trade-off between the stability and controllability Structural compliance Biarticular muscle Underactuated mechanism Dynamic touch Proprioceptive sensor Passive dynamic walking Coordination between joints (joint coordination) 


  1. Braun, D.J., et al.: Robots driven by compliant actuators: optimal control under actuation constraints. IEEE Trans. Robot. 29(5), 1085–1101 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chou, C.P., Hannaford, B.: Measurement and modeling of McKibben pneumatic artificial muscles. IEEE Trans. Robot. Autom. 12(1), 90–102 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Coleman, M.J., Chatterjee, A., Ruina, A.: Motions of a rimless spoked wheel: a simple 3d system with impacts. Dynam. Stabil. Syst. 12(3), 139–160 (1997)MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  4. Hosoda, K., et al.: Pneumatic-driven jumping robot with anthropomorphic muscular skeleton structure. Auton. Robots 28(3), 307–316 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hosoda, K., et al.: Anthropomorphic muscular-skeletal robotic upper limb for understanding embodied intelligence. Adv. Robot. 26(7), 729–744 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Jacobs, R., Bobbert, M.F., van Ingen Schenau, G.J.: Mechanical output from individual muscles during explosive leg extensions: the role of biarticular muscles. J. Biomech. 29(4), 513–523 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. McGeer, T.: Passive dynamic walking. Int. J. Robot. Res. 9(2), 62–82 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Pfeifer, R., Bongard, J.: How the Body Shapes the Way We Think, Chapter 3. The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA (2007)Google Scholar
  9. Takuma, T., Hosoda, K.: Terrain negotiation of a compliant biped robot driven by antagonistic artificial muscles. J. Robot. Mechatron. 19(4), 423–428 (2007a)Google Scholar
  10. Takuma, T., Hosoda, K.: Controlling walking behavior of passive dynamic walker utilizing passive joint compliance. In: Proceedings of 2007 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp. 2975–2980 (2007b)Google Scholar
  11. Wisse, M., van Frankenhuyzen, J.: Design and control of ‘Mike’; A 2D autonomous biped based on passive dynamic walking. In: Proceedings of International Conference on Adaptive Motion of Animals and Machines (AMAM) (2003)Google Scholar
  12. Yoshikawa, T.: Foundations of Robotics. The MIT Press, Boston (1990)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of Engineering ScienceOsaka UniversityToyonakaJapan

Personalised recommendations