Heckscher–Ohlin Theory (1)

  • Takashi Negishi
  • Takashi Negishi
Part of the Advances in Japanese Business and Economics book series (AJBE, volume 2)


In the classical theory of international trade, the comparative advantage in the sense of the comparative costs is simply given exogenously. In other words, it is presupposed that different countries have different technology of production, which includes the difference in natural conditions for the production like the climate. In the modern theory of international trade, however, it is assumed that different countries have the identical technology which is given in the form of the identical production function. The comparative advantage of the different countries is explained, then, not by the difference in technology, but by the difference in the factor endowments. Such a modern theory is generally known as Heckscher–Ohlin theory, because the groundwork for substantial developments in the theory is laid by Eli Heckscher (1919) and Bertil Ohlin (1933).


Comparative advantage Heckscher Ohlin theory Factor endowments 


  1. Gandolfo, G. (1994). International economics. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  2. Heckscher, E. F. (1919). Utrikshandelns verkan pa inkomstfoerdelningen. Ekonomist Tradskrift, 21(Del 2), 1–32.Google Scholar
  3. Ohlin, B. (1933). Interregional and international trade. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Takashi Negishi
    • 1
  • Takashi Negishi
    • 2
  1. 1.The Japan AcademyTokyoJapan
  2. 2.The University of TokyoTokyoJapan

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