Aggregate “Calculation” in Economic Phenomena: Distributions and Fluctuations

  • Yoshi Fujiwara
Open Access
Conference paper
Part of the Proceedings in Information and Communications Technology book series (PICT, volume 6)


I review recent studies on distributions and fluctuations for personal-income and firm-size in real-economy by using recently available large-data. Specifically explained are Pareto-Zipf laws, Gibrat’s law and detailed-balance, and the fact that they are mutually related in a simple way. These patterns and shapes are not “laws” in physics, but can break down in abnormal situations such as bubble-collapse. These findings provide an important foundation of phenomenology for real-economy. The expression “aggregate calculation” nicely fits into the paradigm of this workshop.


Pareto-Zipf laws Gibrat’s law detailed-balance income distributions firm-size distributions growth and fluctuation 


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    Aoyama, H., Fujiwara, Y., Ikeda, Y., Iyetomi, H., Souma, W.: Econophysics and Companies: Statistical Life and Death in Complex Business Networks. Cambridge University Press (2010)Google Scholar
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    Sutton, J.: Gibrat’s legacy. J. Economic Literature 35, 40–59 (1997)Google Scholar

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Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoshi Fujiwara
    • 1
  1. 1.Graduate School of Simulation StudiesUniversity of HyogoKobeJapan

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