Preface: Natural Computing and Computational Aesthetics
Computational aesthetics already has had a long history. As early as 1928, G.D. Birkhoff introduced the concept of the aesthetic measure (M) and defined it as the ratio between order (O) and complexity (C): M = O/C. In Japan, in September 1964, art philosopher H. Kawano published the first computer-generated works in IBM Review (see the Website [ http://on1.zkm.de/zkm/stories/storyReader$7663 ] of the exhibition: “Hiroshi Kawano –The Philosopher at the Computer,” 2012, ZKM, Karlsruhe, Germany).
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