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Viral Diseases

  • Yasuya Nomura
  • Yasuya Nomura
  • Yasuya Nomura
Chapter

Abstract

Some viral infections are known to cause sensorineural hearing loss, which may occur suddenly as an acute single insult, or insidiously with a slowly progressive course. When hearing loss occurs during the course of systemic viral infection, it will be apparent that the infection is responsible for the hearing loss. However, hearing loss is not uncommonly categorized as being of “unknown etiology” and left undiagnosed.

To promote better understanding of viral labyrinthitis, we will present human temporal bone histopathology and animal experiment results concerning three viruses: herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, and mumps virus.

In human temporal bone specimens from patients with viral labyrinthitis, the degenerated tectorial membrane often becomes rolled-up and encapsulated on the limbus spiralis or in the inner sulcus. Such findings are seen in patients with mumps and measles. In experimental herpes simplex virus labyrinthitis in guinea pigs, a rolled-up tectorial membrane with viral antigen deposition has been observed, along with bulges of varying sizes in the tectorial membrane. These bulges were found on the surface of the membrane as well as within it. With electron microscopy, virions were observed in and around the bulges. Similar findings were observed in a patient with bilateral sudden deafness. Reactivation of latent HSV infection was suspected in that case. However, not all cases of viral labyrinthitis show changes in the tectorial membrane.

Keywords

Cytomegalovirus Experimental viral labyrinthitis Herpes simplex virus Human temporal bone histopathology Mumps 

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Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yasuya Nomura
    • 1
  • Yasuya Nomura
    • 2
  • Yasuya Nomura
    • 3
  1. 1.The Society for Promotion of International Oto-Rhino-LaryngologyTokyoJapan
  2. 2.The University of TokyoTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Showa UniversityTokyoJapan

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