Music in Advertising: Effects on Brand and Endorser Perception

  • Mark F. Zander
  • Vanessa Apaolaza-Ibáñez
  • Patrick Hartmann


The ability of music to create differentiating effects on subjects’ impressions of product endorsers and brands of an advertisement were examined based on the theory of ‘musical fit’. Subjects (N = 405) listened to one of three versions of a radio commercial in which the music varied in each version. The music selections differed in style, tempo, rhythm, etc., but matched product and message of the commercial in terms of ‘musical fit’. After listening to the commercial, subjects rated the endorser’s personality via the external version of a personality inventory. Impressions of the brand were measured using Likert-type scales. The results concur with previous findings: depending on musical style, music can lead to significantly different impressions of the endorser as well as the brand.


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Copyright information

© Gabler Verlag | Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark F. Zander
    • 1
  • Vanessa Apaolaza-Ibáñez
    • 2
  • Patrick Hartmann
    • 3
  1. 1.University of FreiburgFreiburgGermany
  2. 2.University of the Basque CountryBasqueSpain
  3. 3.University of the Basque CountryBasqueSpain

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