Advertisement

Morbus Parkinson — Pathophysiologie, Diagnose und medikamentöse Therapie

  • J. C. Wöhrle
  • M. G. Hennerici

Zusammenfassung

Die Parkinsonkrankheit (Morbus Parkinson, primäres oder idiopathisches Parkinsonsyndrom, im Englischen Parkinson’s disease, PD) ist eine der häufigsten altersabhängigen neurodegenerativen Erkrankungen. Sie wird durch einen progredienten Verlust pigmentierter, dopaminerger Neurone pathologisch-anatomisch charakterisiert. Im Jahre 1817 beschrieb der englische Arzt James Parkinson (1755–1824) in seinem „Essay on the Shaking Palsy“ die grundlegenden klinischen Charakteristika der Parkinsonkrankheit (Ruhe-) Tremor, Rigor, Akinese und gestörte posturale Kontrolle, die eine unveränderte Wertigkeit für die klinische Diagnose besitzen: „Involuntary tremulous motion, with lessened muscular power, in parts not in action and even when supported, with a propensity to bend the trunk forwards and to pass from a walking to a running pace; the senses and intellects being uninjured.“ Parkinson nahm verschiedene Ursachen für die Erkrankung seiner Patienten an und wies so auf ihre Heterogenität hin. Heute unterscheiden wir neben der Parkinsonkrankheit verschiedene Parkinsonsyndrome (Parkinsonismus), die zum einen sekundär bei bekannter Ursache (z.B. nach Intoxikation mit 1 -Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin (MPTP) oder medikamenteninduziert durch Neuroleptika), und zum anderen als Teil einer sporadischen oder hereditären neurodegenerativen Erkrankung mit mehr oder weniger im Vordergrund stehender rigidakinetischer Symptomatik auftreten.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. 1.
    Albers DS, Augood JF, Park LC et al. (2000) Frontal lobe dysfunction in progressive supranuclear palsy: evidence for oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment. J Neurochem 74:878–881PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ascherio A, Zhang SM, Hernan MA et al. (2001) Prospective study of caffeine consumption and risk of Parkinson’s disease in men and women. Ann Neurol 50:56–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bain P, Brin M, Deuschl G, Elble R, Jankovic J, Findley L, Koller WC, Pahwa R (2000) Criteria for the diagnosis of essential tremor. Neurology 54(Suppl 4):S7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Baldereschi M, Di Carlo A, Rocca WA, Vanni P, Maggi S, Perissinotto E, Grigoletto F, Amaducci L, Inzitari D (2000) Parkinson’s disease and parkinsonism in a longitudinal study — Two-fold higher incidence in men. Neurology 55:1358–1363PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bäzner H, Oster M, Daffertshofer M, Hennerici M (2000) Assessment of gait in subcortical vascular encephalopathy by computerized analysis: a crosssectional and longitudinal study. J Neurol 414:841–849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bäzner H, Oster M, Henning O, Cohen S, Hennerici MG (2001) Amantadine increases gait steadiness in frontal gait disorder due to subcortical vascular encephalopathy: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial based on quantitative gait analysis. Cerebrovasc Dis 11:235–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Beck AT, Ward CH, Mendelson M, Mock JE, Erbaugh JK (1961) An inventory for measuring depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 4:561–571PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Betarbet R, Sherer TB, MacKenzie G et al. (2000) Chronic systemic pesticide exposure reproduces features of Parkinson’s disease. Nat Neurosci 3:1301–1306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bianchine J, Poole K, Woltering F (2002) Efficacy and dose response of the novel transdermally applied dopamine agonist Rotigotine CDS in early Parkinson’s disease. Neurology 58:A162–163Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Birkmayer W, Hornykiewicz O (1961) Der L-3,4-Dioxyphenylalanin (=DOPA) Effekt bei der Parkinson-Akinese. Wien Klin Wochenschr 73:787–788PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Blanchet PJ, Calon F, Morissette M et al. (2001) Regulation of dopamine receptors and motor behavior following pulsatile and continuous dopaminergic replacement strategies in the MPTP primate model. Adv Neurol 86:337–344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bower JH, Maraganore DM, McDonnell SK, Rocca WA (1999) Incidence and distribution of parkinsonism in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1976-1990. Neurology 52:1214–1220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Brooks DJ (2000) Functional imaging studies in corticobasal degeneration. Adv Neurol 82:109–215Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Brooks DJ, Doder M (2001) Depression in Parkinson’s disease. Curr Opin Neurol 14:465–470PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Brown P, Thompson PD (2001) Electrophysiological aids to the diagnosis of psychogenic jerks, spasms, and tremors. Mov Disord 16:595–599PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bucciantini M, Giannoni E, Chiti F, Baroni F, Formigli L, Zurdo J, Taddei N, Ramponi G, Dobson CM, Stefani M (2002) Inherent toxicity of aggregates implies a common mechanism for protein misfolding diseases. Nature 416:507–511PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Burk K, Skalej M, Dichgans J (2001) Pontine MRI hyperintensities (“the cross sign”) are not pathognomonic for multiple system atrophy (MSA). Mov Disord 16:535–536PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Castagnoli KP, Steyn SJ, Petzer JP, Van der Schyf CJ, Castagnoli N Jr (2001) Neuroprotection in the MPTP Parkinsonian C57BL/6 mouse model by a compound isolated from tobacco. Chem Res Toxicol 14:523–527PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cedarbaum JM, Kutt H, Dhar AK, Watkins S, McDowell FH (1986) Effect of supplemental carbidopa on bioavailability of 1-dopa. Clin Neuropharmacol 9:153–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chen JF, Xu K, Petzer JP, Staal R, Xu YH, Beilstein M, Sonsalla PK, Castagnoli K, Castagnoli N Jr, Schwarzschild MA (2001) Neuroprotection by caffeine and A(2A) adenosine receptor inactivation in a model of Parkinson’s disease. J Neurosc 21:RC143Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Conrad B (1996) Wilson-Krankheit. In: Conrad B, Ceballos-Baumann AO (Hrsg) Bewegungsstörungen in der Neurologic Thieme, Stuttgart New York, S 141–154Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Conway KA, Lee SJ, Rochet JC, Ding TT, Williamson RE, Lansbury PT Jr (2000) Acceleration of oligomerization, not fibrillization, is a shared property of both a-synuclein mutations linked to early-onset Parkinson’s disease: implications for pathogenesis and therapy. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:571–576PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cotzias GC, Papavasiliou PS, Gellene R (1969) Modification of parkinsonism — chronic treatment with L-dopa. New Engl J Med 280:337–345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    De Rijk, MC, Launer LJ, Berger K, Breteler MMB, Dartigues JF, Baldereschi M, Fratiglioni L, Lobo A, Martinez-Lage J, Trenkwalder C, Hofman A (2000) Prevalence of Parkinson’s disease in Europe: A collaborative study of population-based cohorts. Neurology 54:21–23Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Demirkiran M, Bozdemir H, Sarica Y (2001) Vascular parkinsonism: a distinct, heterogeneous clinical entity. Acta Neurol Scand 104:63–67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Deuschl G, Volkmann J (2002) Tremors: Differential diagnosis pathophysiology and therapy. In: Jankovic JJ, Tolosa E (eds) Parkinson’s disease and movement disorders. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 270–290Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dexter DT, Sian J, Rose S et al. (1994) Indices of oxidative stress and mitochondrial function in individuals with incidental Lewy body disease. Ann Neurol 35:38–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Fahn S, Elton RL, Members of the UPDRS Development Committee (1987) Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale. In: Fahn S, Marsden CD, Calne DB, Goldstein M (eds) Recent Developments in Parkinson’s disease. Vol II Macmilan Healthcare Information, Florham Park (NJ) pp 153–163, 293-304Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Findley LJ (1999) Quality of life in Parkinson’s disease. Int J Clin Pract 53:404–405PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Folstein MF, Folstein SE, McHugh PR (1975) “Mini-Mental State” a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiat Res 12:189–198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Forno LS (1996) Neuropathology of Parkinson’s disease. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 55:259–272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Fowler JS, Volkow ND, Wang GJ et al. (1996) Inhibition of monoamine oxidase B in the brains of smokers. Nature 379:733–736PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Fox SH, Henry B, Hill MP et al. (2001) Neural mechanisms underlying peak-dose dyskinesia induced by levodopa and apomorphine are distinct: evidence from the effects of the alpha(2) adrenoceptor antagonist idazoxan. Mov Disord 16:642–650PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Frucht S, Rogers JD, Greene PE, Gordon MF, Fahn S (1999) Falling asleep at the wheel: motor vehicle mishaps in persons taking pramipexole and ropinirole. Neurology 52:1908–1910PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gai WP, Power JH, Blumbergs PC et al. (1998) Multiple-system atrophy: a new a-synuclein disease? Lancet 352:547–548PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gass A, Oster M, Cohen S, Daffertshofer M, Schwartz A, Hennerici MG (1998) Assessment of T2-and T1-weighted MRI brain lesion load in patients with subcortical vascular encephalopathy. Neuroradiology 40:503–506PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gelb GJ, Oliver E, Gilman S (1999) Diagnostic Criteria for Parkinson’s disease. Arch Neurol 56:33–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Gibb WR, Lees AJ (1988) The relevance of the Lewy body to the pathogenesis of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 51:745–752PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gilad R, Giladi N, Korczyn AD et al. (2001) Quantitative anal sphincter EMG in multisystem atrophy and 100 controls. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 71:596–599PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gilman S, Low P, Quinn N et al. (1999) Consensus statement on the diagnosis of multiple system atrophy. J Neurol Sci 163:94–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Golbe LI, Di Iorio G, Sanges G, Lazzarini AM, La Sala S, Bonavita V, Duvoisin RC (1998) Clinical genetic analysis of Parkinson’s disease in the Contursi kindred. Ann Neurol 40:767–775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gorell JM, Johnson CC, Rybicki BA, Peterson EL, Richardson RJ (1998) The risk of Parkinson’s disease with exposure to pesticides, farming, well water, and rural living. Neurology 50:1346–1350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Grandinetti A Morens DM, Reed D et al. (1994) Prospective study of cigarette smoking and the risk of developing idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. Am J Epidemiol 139:1129–1138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Greicius MD, Geschwind MD, Miller BL (2002) Presenile dementia syndromes: an update on taxonomy and diagnosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 72:691–700PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hamilton M (1967) Development of a rating scale for primary depressive illness. Br J Clin Psychol 6:278–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hanna PA, Doody RS (2000) Alien limb sign. Adv Neurol 82:135–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hayflick SJ, Westaway SK, Levinson B, Zhou B, Johnson MA, Ching KHL, Gitschier J (2003) Genetic, clinical, and radiographic delineation of Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome. N Engl J Med 348:33–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hennerici M, Bäzner H, Daffertshofer M (2000) White matter changes: Symptoms and signs. In: Pantoni L, Inzitari D, Wallin A (eds) The matter of white matter. Academic Pharmaceutical Production, Utrecht, 10:55–80Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hoehn MM (1992) The natural history of Parkinson’s disease in the pre-levodopa eras. Neurol Clin 10:331–340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Hoehn MM, Yahr MD (1967) Parkinsonism: onset, progression, and mortality. Neurology 17:427–442PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Högl B, Wetter TC, Trenkwalder C (2001) Pathophysiologie, Klinik und Therapie von Schlafstörungen beim Morbus Parkinson. Nervenarzt 72:416–424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hughes AJ, Ben-Shlomo Y, Daniel SE, Lees AJ (1992) What features improve the accuracy of clinical diagnosis in Parkinson’s disease: A clinicopathologic study. Neurology 42:1142–1146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hughes AJ, Daniel SE, Kilford L, Lees AJ (1992) Accuracy of clinical diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease: a clinico-pathological study of 100 cases. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 55:181–184PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hughes AJ, Daniel SE, Lees AJ (2001) Improved accuracy of clinical diagnosis of Lewy body Parkinson’s disease. Neurology 57:1497–1499PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hughes AJ, Lees AJ, Stern GM (1991) Challenge tests to predict the dopaminergic response in untreated Parkinson’s disease. Neurology 41:1723–1725PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hutton JT, Metman LV, Chase TN et al. (2001) Transdermal dopaminergic D(2) receptor agonist therapy in Parkinson’s disease with N-0923 TDS: a doubleblind, placebo-controlled study. Mov Disord 16:459–463PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Ichinose H, Ohye T, Takahashi E et al. (1994) Hereditary progressive dystonia with marked diurnal fluctuation caused by mutations in the GTP cyclohydrolase I gene. Nat Genet 8:236–242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Jankovic J, Kapadia AS (2001) Functional decline in Parkinson Disease. Arch Neurol 58:1611–1615PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kashmere J, Camicioli R, Martin W (2002) Parkinsonian syndromes and differential diagnosis. Curr Opin Neurol 15:461–466PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Krauss JK, Regel JP, Droste DW, Orszagh M, Borremans JJ, Vach W (1997) Movement disorders in adult hydrocephalus. Mov Disord 12:53–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kruger R, Kuhn W, Müller T, Woitalla D, Graeber M, Kosel S, Przuntek H, Epplen JT, Schöls L, Riess O (1998) Ala30Pro mutation in the gene encoding alpha-synuclein in Parkinson’s disease. Nat Genet 2:106–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kuopio AM, Marttila RJ, Helenius H, Rinne UK (1999) Changing epidemiology of Parkinson’s disease in southwestern Finland. Neurology 52:302–308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Längsten JW, Ballard PA, Tetrud JW et al. (1983) Chronic parkinsonism in humans due to a product of meperidine analog synthesis. Science 219:979–980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Lashuel HA, Hartley D, Petre BM, Walz T, Lansbury PT (2002) a-Synuclein, especially the Parkinson’s disease-associated mutants, forms pore-like annular and tubular protofibrils. J Mol Biol 322:1089PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Lees AJ, and the Parkinson’s disease Research Group of the United Kingdom (1995) Comparison of therapeutic effects and mortality data of levodopa and levodopa combined with selegiline in patients with early, mild Parkinson’s disease. BMJ 311:1602–1607PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Lewy F (1912) Paralysis agitans. Pathologische Anatomic In Lewandowski M, Abelsdorff G (Hrsg) Handbuch der Neurologic Bd. 3, Springer, Berlin, S 920–933Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Litvan I, Agid Y, Calne D et al. (1996) Clinical research criteria for the diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy (Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome): report of the NINDS-PSP international workshop. Neurology 47:1–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Litvan I, Maclntyre A, Goetz CG et al. (1998) Accuracy of the clinical diagnosis of Lewy body disease, Parkinson’s disease, and dementia with Lewy bodies: a clinico-pathologic study. Arch Neurol 55:969–978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Lotharius J, Barg S, Wiekop P, Lundberg C, Raymon HK, Brundin P (2002) Effect of mutant a-synuclein on dopamine homeostasis in a new human mesencephalic cell line. J Biol Chem 277:38884–38894PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Lotharius J, Brundin P (2002) Pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease: dopamine, vesicles and alphasynuclein. Nat Rev Neurosci 3:932–942PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Louis ED (2001) Clinical practice. Essential tremor. N Engl J Med 345:887–891PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    MacDonald BK, Cockerell OC, Sander JW, Shorvon SD (2000) The incidence and lifetime prevalence of neurological disorders in a prospective community-based study in the UK. Brain 123:665–676PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Macia F, Yekhlef F, Ballan G et al. (2001) T2-hyperintense lateral rim and hypointense putamen are typical but not exclusive of multiple system atrophy. Arch Neurol 58:1024–1025PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Maggio R, Riva M, Vaglini F et al. (1997) Striatal increase of neurotrophic factors as a mechanism of nicotine protection in experimental parkinsonism. J Neural Transm 104:1113–1123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Marek K, Seibyl J, Shoulson I et al. (2002) Dopamine transporter brain imaging to assess the ef-fects of pramipexole vs. levodopa on Parkinson disease progression. JAMA 287:1653–1661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Marttila RJ, Rinne UK (1976) Epidemiology of Parkinson’s disease in Finland. Acta Neurol Scand 53:81–102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Matsumine H, Saito M, Shimoda-Matsubayashi S, Tanaka H, Ishikawa A, Nakagawa-Hattori Y, Yokochi M, Kobayashi T, Igarashi S, Takano H, Sanpei K, Koike R, Mori H, Kondo T, Mizutani Y, Schaffer AA, Yamamura Y, Nakamura S, Kuzuhara S, Tsuji S, Mizuno Y (1997) Localization of a gene for an autosomal recessive form of juvenile Parkinsonism to chromosome 6q25.2-27. Am J Hum Genet 60:588–596PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    McCann SJ, LeCouteur DG, Green AC et al. (1998) The epidemiology of Parkinson’s disease in an Australian population. Neuroepidemiolgy 17:310–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    McKeith I, Galasko D, Kosaka K, Perry EK, Dickson DW, Hansen LA, Salmon DP, Lowe J, Mirra SS, Byrne EJ, Lennox G, Quinn NP, Edwardson JA, Ince PG, Bergeron C, Burns A, Miller BL, Lovestone S, Collerton D, Jansen EN, Ballard C, de Vos RA, Wilcock GK, Jellinger KA, Perry RH (1996) Consensus guidelines for the clinical and pathologic diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB): report of the consortium on DLB international workshop. Neurology 47:1113–1124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    McKeith IG, Perry EK, Perry RH, for the Consortium on Dementia with Lewy Bodies (1999) Report of the second dementia with Lewy body international workshop — Diagnosis and treatment. Neurology 53:902–905PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Miyasaki JM, Martin W, Suchowersky O et al. (2002) Practice parameter: initiation of treatment for Parkinson’s disease: an evidence-based review: Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 58:11–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Mizuno Y, Hattori N, Mori H, Suzuki T, Tanaka K (2001) Parkin and Parkinson’s disease. Curr Opin Neurol 14:477–482PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Montastruc JL, Rascol O, Senard J, Rascol A (1994) A randomized controlled study comparing bromocriptine to which levodopa was later added, with levodopa alone in previously untreated patients with Parkinson’s disease: a five year follow up. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 57:1034–1038PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Müller J, Wenning GK, Verny M et al. (2001) Progression of dysarthria and dysphagia in postmortem-confirmed parkinsonian disorders. Arch Neurol 58:259–264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Murreil JR, Koller D, Foroud T, Goedert M, Spillantini MG, Edenberg HJ, Farlow MR, Ghetti B (1997) Familial multiple-system tauopathy with presenile dementia is localized to chromosome 17. Am J Hum Genet 61:1131–1138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Nutt JG, Woodward WR, Anderson JL (1984) Pharmacokinetics of levodopa. Clin Neuropharmacol 7:35–49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Oertel WH (2000) Pergolide versus L-Dopa (PEL-MOPET). Mov Disord 15(Suppl 3):4Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Olanow CW, Fahn S, Längsten JW et al. (1996) Selegiline and mortality in Parkinson’s disease. Ann Neurol 40:841–845PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Ondo WG, Dat Vuong K, Khan H et al. (2001) Daytime sleepiness and other sleep disorders in Parkinson’s disease. Neurology 57:1392–1396PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Paci C, Thomas A, Onofrj M (2001) Amantadine for dyskinesia in patients affected by severe Parkinson’s disease. Neurol Sci 22:75–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Parkinson Study Group (1993) Effects of tocopherol and deprenyl on the progression of disability in early Parkinson’s disease. N Engl J Med 328:176–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Parkinson Study Group (1997) The COMT inhibitor entacapone improves motor fluctuations in patients with levodopa-treated Parkinson’s disease. Ann Neurol 42:747–755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Parkinson Study Group (2000) A multicenter assessment of dopamine transporter imaging with DOPASCAN/SPECT in parkinsonism. Neurology 55:1540–1547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Parkinson Study Group Pramipexol vs. Levodopa as initial treatment for Parkinson’s disease (2000) JAMA 284:1931–1938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Parkinson Study Group (2002) A controlled trial of rasagiline in early Parkinson disease. Arch Neurol 59:1937–1943CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Peto V, Jenkinson C, Fitzpatrick R (1998) PDQ-39: a review of the development, validation and application of a Parkinson’s disease quality of life questionnaire and its associated measures. J Neurol 245(Suppl 1):10–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Piccini P, Burn DJ, Ceravolo R et al. (1999) The role of inheritance in sporadic Parkinson’s disease: evidence from a longitudinal study of dopaminergic function in twins. Ann Neurol 45:577–582PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Poewe W, Wenning G (2002) Levodopa in Parkinson’s disease: Mechanisms of action and pathophysiology of late failure. In: Jankovic JJ, Tolosa E (Hrsg) Parkinson’s disease and movement disorders. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 104–115Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Polymeropoulos MH, Higgins JJ, Golbe LI, Johnson WG, Ide SE, Di Iorio G, Sanges G, Stenroos ES, Pho LT, Schaffer AA, Lazzarini AM, Nussbaum RL, Duvoisin RC (1996) Mapping of a gene for Parkinson’s disease to chromosome 4q21-q23. Science 274:1197–1199PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Polymeropoulos MH, Lavedan C, Leroy E, Ide SE, Dehejia A, Dutra A, Pike B, Root H, Rubenstein J, Boyer R, Stenroos ES, Chandrasekharappa S, Athanassiadou A, Papapetropoulos T, Johnson WG, Lazzarini AM, Duvoisin RC, Di Iorio G, Golbe LI, Nussbaum RL (1997) Mutation in the a-synuclein gene identified in families with Parkinson’s disease. Science 276:2045–2047PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Priyadarshi A, Khuder SA, Schaub EA et al. (2001) Environmental risk factors and Parkinson’s disease: a meta-analysis. Environ Res 86:122–127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Przuntek H, Bittkau S, Bliesath H et al. (2002) Budipine provides additional benefit in patients with Parkinson’s disease receiving a stable optimum dopaminergic drug regimen. Arch Neurol 59:803–806PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Przuntek H, Welzel D, Gerlach M et al. (1996) Early institution of bromocriptine in Parkinson’s disease inhibits the emergence of levodopa-associated motor side effects. Long-term results of the PRADO study. J Neural Transm Gen Sect 103:699–715CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Racette BA, McGee-Minnich L, Moerlein SM et al. (2001) Welding-related parkinsonism: clinical features, treatment, and pathophysiology. Neurology 56:8–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Rajput AH, Gibb WRG, Zhong XH et al. (1994) DOPA-responsive dystonia: pathological and biochemical observations in a case. Ann Neurol 35:396–402PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Rajput AH, Offord KP, Beard CM, Kurland LT (1984) Epidemiology of parkinsonism: incidence, classification, and mortality. Ann Neurol 16:278–282PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Rascol O, Arnulf I, Peyro-Saint Paul H et al. (2001) Idazoxan, an alpha-2 antagonist, and L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 16:708–713PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Rascol O, Brooks DJ, Korczyn AD, De Deyn PP, Clarke CE, Lang AE (2000) A five-year study of the incidence of dyskinesia in patients with early Parkinson’s disease who were treated with ropinirole or levodopa. 056 Study Group. N Engl J Med 342:1484–1491PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Riley D, Lang A (2001) Corticobasal degeneration. Clinical diagnostic criteria. Adv Neurol 82:29–34Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Riley DE, Lang AE (1993) The spectrum of levodopa-related fluctuations in Parkinson’s disease. Neurology 43:1459–1464PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Riley DE, Lang AE, Lewis A, Resch L, Ashby P, Hornykiewicz O, Black S (1990) Cortical-basal ganglionic degeneration. Neurology 40:1203–1212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Rinne JO, Lee MS, Thompson PD et al. (1994) Corticobasal degeneration: a clinical study of 36 cases. Brain 117:1183–1196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Rinne UK, Bracco F, Chouza C et al. (1997) Cabergoline in the treatment of early Parkinson’s disease: results of the first year of treatment in a double-blind comparison of cabergoline and levodopa. Neurology 48:363–368PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Rinne UK, Larsen JP, Siden A, Worm-Petersen J for the Nomecomt Study Group (1998) Entacapone enhances the response to levodopa in par-kinsonian patients with motor fluctuations. Neurology 51:1309–1314PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Rivaud-Pechoux S, Vidailhet M, Gallouedec G et al. (2000) Longitudinal ocular motor study in corticobasal degeneration and progressive supranuclear palsy. Neurology 54:1029–1032PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Ross GW, Abbott RD, Petrovitch H, Morens DM, Grandinetti A, Tung KH, Tanner CM, Masaki KH, Blanchette PL, Curb JD, Popper JS, White LR (2000) Association of coffee and caffeine intake with the risk of Parkinson disease. JAMA 283:2674–2679PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    S. Fahn, Parkinson’s Study Group (2002) Results of the ELLDOPA (Earlier vs. Later Levodopa) study. Mov Disord 17(Suppl 5):13–14Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Savoiardo M, Grisoli M, Girotti F (2000) Magnetic resonance imaging in CBD-related atypical parkinsonian disorders and dementias. Adv Neurol 82:197–208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Schapira AH, Mann VM, Cooper JM, Dexter D, Daniel SE, Jenner P, Clark JB, Marsden CD (1990) Anatomic and disease specificity of NADH CoQl reductase (complex I) deficiency in Parkinson’s disease. J Neurochem 55:2142–2145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Schräg A, Good CD, Miszkiel K, Morris HR, Mathias CJ, Lees AJ, Quinn NP (2000) Differentiation of atypical parkinsonian syndromes with routine MRI. Neurology 54:697–702PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Schwab RS, England AC (1969) Projection technique for evaluating surgery in Parkinson’s disease. In: Gillingham FJ, Donaldson MC (Hrsg) Third symposium on Parkinson’s disease. ES Livingston, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Shimura H, Hattori N, Kubo S et al. (2000) Familial Parkinson disease gene product, parkin, is a ubiquitin-protein ligase. Nat Genet 25:302–305PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Sieradzan KA, Fox SH, Hill M et al. (2001) Cannabinoids reduce levodopa-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson’s disease: a pilot study. Neurology 57:2108–2111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Spillantini MG, Goedert M (2000) The a-synucleinopathies: Parkinson’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy. Ann NYAcad Sci 920:16–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Spillantini MG, Schmidt ML, Lee VM, Trojanowski JQ, Jakes R, Goedert M (1997) a-Synuclein in Lewy bodies. Nature 388:839–840PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Steele JC, Richardson JC, Olszewski J (1964) Progressive supranuclear palsy: a heterogeneous degeneration involving the brainstem, basal ganglia and cerebellum with vertical gaze and peudobulbar palsy, nuchal dystonia, and dementia. Arch Neurol 10:333–358PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Sugita M, Izuno T, Tatemichi M et al. (2001) Meta-analysis for epidemiologic studies on the relationship between smoking and Parkinson’s disease. J Epidemiol 11:87–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Takahashi H, Ohama E, Suzuki S et al. (1994) Familial juvenile parkinsonism: clinical and pathologic study in a family. Neurology 44:437–441PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Tanner CM, Aston DA (2000) Epidemiology of Parkinson’s disease and akinetic syndromes. Curr Opin Neurol 13:427–430PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Tanner CM, Ottman R, Goldman SM et al. (1999) Parkinson disease in twins: an etiologic study. JAMA 281:341–346PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Tintner R, Jankovic J (2002) Treatment options for Parkinson’s disease. Curr Opin Neurol 15:467–476PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Tolosa E, Valldeoriola F, Cruz-Sanches F (1995) Progressive supranuclear palsy: clinical and pathological diagnosis. Eur J Neurol 2:258–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Tolosa E, Valldeoriola F, Pastor P (2002) Progressive supranuclear palsy. In: Jankovic JJ, Tolosa E (eds) Parkinson’s disease and movement disorders. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 152–169Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Uversky VN, Ki J, Fink AL (2001) Pesticides directly accelerate the rate of a-synuclein fibril formation: a possible factor in Parkinson’s disease. FEBS Lett 500:105–108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Varrone A, Marek KL, Jennings D, Innis RB, Seibyl JP (2001) [(123)I]beta-CIT SPECT imaging demonstrates reduced density of striatal dopamine transporters in Parkinson’s disease and multiple system atrophy. Mov Disord 16:1023–1032PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Verhagen Metman L, Del Dotto P, LePoole K et al. (1999) Amantadine for levodopa-induced dyskinesias — a 1 year follow-up study. Arch Neurol 56:1383–1386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Vieregge P, Hagenah J, Heberlein I et al. (1999) Parkinson’s disease in twins: a follow-up study. Neurology 53:566–572PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Vodusek DB (2001) Sphincter EMG and differential diagnosis of multiple system atrophy. Mov Disord 16:600–607PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Voiles MJ, Lee SJ, Rochet JC, Shtilerman MD, Ding TT, Kessler JC, Lansbury PT Jr (2001) Vesi-cle permeabilization by protofibrillar a-Synuclein: implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Biochemistry 40:7812–7819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Warmuth-Metz M, Naumann M, Csotti I, Solymosi L (2001) Measurement of the midbrain diameter on routine magnetic resonance imaging. Arch Neurol 58:1076–1079PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Waters CH (1997) Managing the late complications of Parkinson’s disease. Neurology 49(Suppl 1):49–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Wenning GK, Tison F, Ben Shlomo Y, Daniel SE, Quinn NP (1997) Multiple system atrophy: a review of 203 pathologically proven cases. Mov Disord 12:133–147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Whone A, Remy P, Davis M et al. (2002) The REAL-PET study: slower progression in early Parkinson’s disease treated with ropinirole compared to L-Dopa. Neurology 58:A82–A83Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Xu J, Kao SY, Lee FJ, Song W, Jin LW, Yankner BA (2002) Dopamine-dependent neurotoxicity of a-synuclein: a mechanism for selective neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s disease. Nature Med 8:600–606PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Yamada H, Momose T, Okada M, Kuroiwa Y (2002) Anticholinergic drugs: response of parkinsonism not responsive to levodopa. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 72:111–113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Youdim MB, Ben-Shachar D, Eshel G et al. (1993) The neurotoxicity of iron and nitric oxide: relevance to the etiology of Parkinson’s disease. Adv Neurol 60:259–266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Zhang ZX, Roman GC (1993) Worldwide occurrence of Parkinson’s disease: an updated review. Neuroepidemiology 12:195–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. C. Wöhrle
  • M. G. Hennerici

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations