Space Medicine and Astrobiology
The environment in space is characterized by the absence of a life-supporting, life-protecting, and flight-supporting atmosphere.
To travel through such a vacuum environment requires a sealed cabin, a synthetic little earth with an artificial atmosphere, surrounded by a hull having life-protecting capabilities with regard to radiations and meteorites.
The astronauts occupying this isolated island in space represent, psychologically, a world of their own.
The physical environments on the target celestial bodies are qualitatively and quantitatively different from that of the astronauts’ home planet, the Earth, which requires special biotechnical measures for their survival.
They may discover on target celestial bodies another living world with a strange, exotic flora and fauna, which may pose important problems of useful and harmful biotic interrelations, such as contamination.
During the larger part of the space flight trajectory, the vehicle itself behaves like a celestial body following the laws of celestial mechanics. This condition, and the transformation of an earthly machine into a celestial body and its retransformation into an aerodynamic vehicle, and also the gravities found on the targets, such as the Moon and Mars, subject the astronaut, who is basically a 1-g creature, to a large spectrum of G-forces from zero to multiples of one g.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- H. G. Armstrong, Principles and Practice of Aerospace Medicine ( The Williams & Williams Co., Baltimore, 1961 ).Google Scholar
- H. G. Clamann, Space Medicine. In: Medical Physics, Vol. 3, G. Glasser, Ed. ( The Year Book Publishers, Inc., Chicago, 1959 ).Google Scholar
- S. Gerathewohl,Weightlessness. In Ref. .Google Scholar
- H. Haber, The Physical Environment of the Flyer (Air University, School of Aviation Medicine, Randolph AFB, Texas, 1954 ).Google Scholar
- A. G. Kousnetzov, Some Results of Biological Experiments on Rockets and Sputnik II. J. Aviation Med., 29, 781–784 (1958).Google Scholar
- M. P. Lansberg, Ruimtefart Geneeskunde (Amsterdam, 1958 ).Google Scholar
- Man in Space. Gantz, K. F., Ed. (Duell, Sloan and Pearce, New York, 1959 ).Google Scholar
- M. Oshima, Space Medicine (Tokyo, 1959 ).Google Scholar
- Physics and Medicine of the Atmosphere and Space Ed. by O. O. Benson, Jr., and H. Strughold (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1960).Google Scholar
- Psychophysiological Aspects of Space Flight, Symposium Ed. by O. O. Benson, Jr., and B. E. Flaherty (Columbia Univ. Press, New York, 1961).Space Medicine and AstrobiologyGoogle Scholar
- O. L. Ritter, The Sun’s Retina-Burning Power in Space. XI. International Astronautical Congress Stockholm (1960).Google Scholar
- P. Stapp,Biodynamics of Space Flight. In Ref. .Google Scholar
- S. A. Arrhenius, Werden der Welten ( Leipzig, Akad. Verlagsgesellschaft, 1908 ).Google Scholar
- C. Flammarion, La Pluralitée des Mondes Habitées (Paris, 1862 ).Google Scholar
- H. S. Jones, Life on Other Worlds ( New York: The Macmillan Co., 1940 ).Google Scholar
- G. P. Kuiper, The Atmospheres of the Earth and Planets ( Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1951 ).Google Scholar
- P. Lowell, Mars as the Abode of Life ( New York, The Macmillan Co., 1908 ).Google Scholar
- E. W. Maunder, Are the Planets Inhabited? ( New York, Harper and Bros., 1913 ).Google Scholar
- F. A. Pereira, Introducao A Astrobiologia (Biblioteca International de Ciencia, Vol. 1, 1958, San Paulo, Brazil).Google Scholar
- H. Shapley, Extraterrestrial Life. Astronautics, 5, 32 (1960).Google Scholar
- W. Sinton,Spectroscopic Evidence of Vegetation on Mars. Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 50,50 (1958).Google Scholar
- H. Strughold, The Green and Red Planet ( Albuquerque, University of New Mexico Press, 1953 ).Google Scholar
- H. Strughold, Introduction to Astrobiology. Astronautics, 5, 20 (1960).Google Scholar
- F. Salisbury, The Inhabitants of Mars. Engineering and Science, 18, 23 (1955).Google Scholar
- G. A. Tikhov, Astrobotany (Moscow, 1947 ).Google Scholar
- G. A. Tikhov, Astrobiology (Moscow, 1953 ).Google Scholar
- V. Troizkaya, On the Possibility of the Existence of Plants on Mars. Soviet Science, Nat. Scient. Sec. p. 283 (1952).Google Scholar