Methods of Developmental Research
Neural tube defects (NTD) caused by abnormal neurulation are the major congenital anomalies which result in fetal or embryonic death, and medical, financial and social problems. The multifactorial events of neurulation have attracted researchers to identify the mechanisms of this disability.
Research focused on NTDs is one of the major topics in developmental experiments. Mammalian, avian, amphibian and computer models are used as fundamental models to discover specific events causing NTDs. There are advantages of working on some models: rats and mice are mammalian models of neurulation; amphibians and avian embryos are simple models and more practical.
Advancement in laboratory techniques has yielded more detailed information about neurulation which will assist in future with prevention and therapy of these defects.
KeywordsMethod neural tube defect neurulation avian embryo
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 2.Bush KT, Lynch FJ, DeNittis AS, Steinberg AB, Lee HY, Nagele RG (1990) Neural tube formation in the mouse: a morpho- metric and computerized three-dimensional reconstruction study of the relationship between apical constriction of neuroepithelial cells and the shape of the neuroepithelium. Anat Em- bryol 181(1): 49–58.Google Scholar
- 3.Butler H, Juurlink BHJ (1987) An atlas for staging mammalian and chick embryos. CRC Press. Inc, Florida.Google Scholar
- 4.Clausi DA, Brodland GW (1993) Mechanical evaluation of theories of neurulation using computer simulations. Development 118:1013–1023.Google Scholar
- 8.Dale K, Sattar N, Heemskerk J, Clarke JD, Placzek M, Dodd J (1999) Differential patterning of ventral midline cells by axial mesoderm is regulated by BMP7 and chordin. Development 126(2): 397–408.Google Scholar
- 14.Friedberg W, Faulkner DN, Neas BR, Hanneman GD, Darden EB Jr, Deal RB Jr, Parker DE (1987) Dose-incidence relationships for exencephalia, anophthalmia and prenatal mortality in mouse embryos irradiated with fission neutrons or 250 kV X- rays. Int J Radiat Biol Relat Stud Phys Chem Med 52(2): 223–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 23.New DAT (1955) A new technique for the cultivation of the chick embryo in vitro. J Embryol Exp Morphol 3: 326–331.Google Scholar
- 26.Schoenwolf GC (1991) Cell movements driving neurulation in avian embryos. Development [Suppl] 2: 157–168.Google Scholar
- 30.Schoenwolf GC, Smith JL (2000) Mechanisms of neurulation. MethMol Biol 136: 125–134.Google Scholar