Abstract

Neem (Indian liliac, Azadirachta indica A. Juss., synonyms Melia azadirachta L., family Meliaceae) a native of the Indian sub-continent, has received world-wide attention for various reasons (189). Teams of scientists from fields as diversified as agriculture, medicine, veterinary science, pest control, population control etc. have concentrated their attention on the therapeutic, preventive and bio-active constituents of neem (47, 52, 54, 63, 107, 109, 115, 125, 126, 167, 296, 299, 312). These compounds, either in pure form or in the form of extracts obtained from different plant parts, display a vast array of biological activities (120, 124) such as antimalarial (48, 69, 106, 108, 112, 191, 192, 298), antitubercular, antiviral (216), antiallergic, antieczemic, antiscabic, antidermatic, antidiabetic (67, 250), antigingivitic, antiinflammatory (31, 195), antiperiodontitic, antipyretic (195), antimiotitic (235, 307), cardioctonic (302), antipyrrhoeic, antiseborrhoeic, antifeedant (290, 313), antifungal (32, 213, 292), antifuruncular, bactericidal (215), insecticidal (104, 152), larvicidal (118, 119), nematicidal (62), piscicidal, amoebicidal, diuretic, spermicidal (60, 224, 303), vaginal contraceptive (282, 283), hypoglycaemic (180, 202), immunomodulatory (310), antimicrobial (281) anti-complement (309) activities and several others (207). Several toxicity studies have also been conducted on the extracts (83, 284, 285, 286).

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Akhila, A., M. Srivastav, and K. Rani: Production of Radioactive Azadirachtin in the Seed Kernels of Azadirachta indica. Nat. Prod. Letters, 11, 107 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Allen, E.J., J.R. Easwara, S. Johnson, J. Mordue (Luntz), E.D. Morgan, and T. Stuchbury: The Production of Azadirachtin by in-vitro Tissue Cultures of Neem, Azadirachta indica. Pest. Sci., 42, 147 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Anderson, D.M.W., and A. Hendrie: The Proteinaceous Gum Polysaccharide from Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Carbohydrate Research, 20, 259 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Anderson, D.M.W., A. Hendrie, and A.C. Munro: The Amino Acid and Amino Sugar Composition of Some Plant Gums. Phytochem., 11, 733 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Anderson, J.C., and S.V. Ley: Chemistry of Insect Antifeedants from Azadirachta indica (Part 6): Synthesis of an Optically Pure Acetal Intermediate for Potential Use in the Synthesis of Azadirachtin and Novel Antifeedants. Tetrahedron Letters, 31, 431 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Anderson, J.C., and S.V. Ley: Chemistry of Insect Antifeedants from Azadirachta indica (Part 7): Preparation of an Optically Pure Hydroxy Acetal Epoxide Related to Azadirachtin. Tetrahedron Letters, 31, 3437 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Anderson, J.C., S.V. Ley, O. Santafianos, and R.N. Sheppard: Chemistry of Insect Antifeedant from Azadirachta indica (Part 8): Synthesis of Hydroxy Dihydrofuran Acetal Fragments for Biological Evaluation and Azadirachtin Total Synthesis Studies. Tetrahedron, 47, 6813 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ara, I., B.S. Siddiqui, S. Faizi, and S. Siddiqui: Terpenoids from the Stem Bark of Azadirachta indica. Phytochem., 27, 1801 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ara, I., B.S. Siddiqui, S. Faizi, and S. Siddiqui: Tricyclic Diterpenoids from the Stem Bark of Azadirachta indica. J. Nat. Prod., 51, 1054 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ara, I., B.S. Siddiqui, S. Faizi, and S. Siddiqui: Diterpenoids from the Root Bark of Azadirachta indica. Phytochem., 28, 1177 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ara, I., B.S. Siddiqui, S. Faizi, and S. Siddiqui: Diterpenoids from the Root Bark of Azadirachta indica. Z. Naturforsch. B. Chem. Sci., 44, 1279 (1989).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ara, I., B.S. Siddiqui, S. Faizi, and S. Siddiqui: Margosinone and Margosinolone, Two New Polyacetate Derivatives from Azadirachta indica. Fitoterapia, 60, 519 (1989).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ara, I., B.S. Siddiqui, S. Faizi, and S. Siddiqui: TWO new terpenoids from Root Bark of Azadirachta indica. J. Nat. Prod., 52, 1209 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ara, I., B.S. Siddiqui, S. Faizi, and S. Siddiqui: Structurally Novel Diterpenoid Constituents from the Stem Bark of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae). J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. I, 343 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ara, I., B.S. Siddiqui, S. Faizi, and S. Siddiqui: Isolation of Meliacin Cinnamates from the Root Bark of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae). Heterocycles, 29, 729 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ara, I., B.S. Siddiqui, and S. Faizi: New Diterpenoids from the Stem Bark of Azadirachta indica. J. Nat. Prod., 53, 816 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ara, I., B.S. Siddiqui, S. Faizi, and S. Siddiqui: Tricyclic Diterpenes from the Stem Bark of Azadirachta indica. Planta Medica, 56, 84 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ara, I., B.S. Siddiqui, S. Faizi, and S. Siddiqui: Tricyclic Diterpenoids from the Root Bark of Azadirachta indica. Phytochem., 29, 911 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ara, I., B.S. Siddiqui, S. Faizi, and S. Siddiqui: Isolation and Structure Elucidation of the Triterpene Azadirinin from the Roots of Azadirachta indica. Fitoterapia, 63, 118 (1992).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Awasthi, Y.C., and C.R. Mitra: Constituents of Melia indica leaves. Phytochem., 10, 2842 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bajpai, K.S., V. Chandrasekharan, S. Mukherjee, and A.N. Srivastava: Isolation of Pure Aldobiouronic Acids and Aldotriouronic Acids from Plant Gums and Mucilages. Indian J. Chem., 8, 48 (1970).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Balandrin, M.F., S.M. Lee, and J.A. Klocke: Biologically Active Volatile Organosulfur Compounds from Seeds of the Neem Tree, Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae). J. Agric. Food Chem., 36, 1048 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Baldwin, J.E.: Approach Vector Analysis — A Stereochemical Approach to Reactivity. J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., 738 (1976).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Banerji, R., G. Misra, and S.K. Nigam: On the Triterpenes of Azadirachta indica (Melia azadirachta) Fitoterapia, 48, 166 (1977).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Banerji, R., G. Misra, and S.K. Nigam: Identification of 24-Methylene Lophenol from Heartwood of Azadirachta indica. Phytochem., 26, 2644 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Banerji, B., and S.K. Nigam: Wood Constituents of Meliaceae: A Review. Fitoterapia, 55(1), 3 (1984).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Banik, B.K., S. Ghosh, and U.R. Ghatak: Stereoselective Synthesis of (+)-Nimbidiol. Indian J. Chem., 27B, 103 (1988).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Basak, S.P., and D.P. Chakraborty: Chemical Investigation of Azadirachta indica Leaf (M. azadirachta). J. Indian Chem. Soc., 45, 466 (1968).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bax, A., and G.A. Morris: An Improved Method for Heteronuclear Chemical Shift Correlation by Two-dimensional NMR. J. Magn. Reson., 42, 501 (1981).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bendall, M.R., D.M. Doddrell, and D.T. Pegg: Editing of 13C NMR Spectra. A Pulse Sequence for the Generation of Subspectra. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 103, 4603 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bhargava, K.P., M.B. Gupta, G.P. Gupta, and C.R. Mitra: Anti-inflammatory Activity of Saponins and Other Natural Products. Indian J. Med. Res., 58, 724 (1970).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bhowmick B.N., and B.K. Choudhary: Antifungal Activity of Leaf Extracts of Medicinal Plants on Alternaria alternata. Indian Botanical Reporter, 1, 164 (1982).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bhide, N.K., D.J. Mehta, and H.A. Lewis: Diuretic Action of Sodium nimbidinate. Ind. J. Med. Sci., 12, 141 (1958).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bilton, J.N., H.B. Broughton, S.V. Ley, Z. Lidert, E.D. Morgan, H.S. Rzepa, and R.N. Sheppard: Structural Reappraisal of the Limonoid Insect Antifeedant, Azadirachtin. J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., 968 (1985).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bilton, J.N., H.B. Broughton, P.S. Jones, S.V. Ley, Z. Lidert, E.D. Morgan, H.S. Rzepa, R.H. Sheppard, A.M.Z. Slawin, and D.J. Williams: An X-ray Crystallographic, Mass Spectroscopic and NMR Study of the Limonoid Insect Antifeedant, Azadirachtin and Related Derivatives. Tetrahedron, 43, 2805 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bilton, J.N., P.S. Jones, and S.V. Ley: Chemistry of Insect Antifeedants from Azadirachta indica (Part 1): Conversion from the Azadirachtin to the Azadirachtinin Skeleton. Tetrahedron Letters, 29, 1849 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Blaney, W.M., M.S.J. Simmonds, S.V. Ley, J.C. Anderson, S.C. Smith, and A. Wood: Effect of Azadirachtin-Derived Decalin (Perhydronaphthalene) and Dihydrofuranacetal (Furo[2, 3-b] Pyran) Fragments on the Feeding Behaviour of Spodoptera littoralis. Pest. Sci., 40, 169 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bokel, M., R. Cramer, H. Gutzeit, S. Reeb, and W. Kraus: Tetranortriterpenoids Related to Nimbin and Nimbolide from Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae). Tetrahedron, 46, 775 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Brasca, M.G., H.B. Broughton, D. Craig, S.V. Ley, A.A. Somovilla, and P.L. Toogood: Chemistry of Insect Antifeedants from Azadirachta indica (Part 2): Synthesis of Polyoxygenated Decalin with Limonoid Structural Homology. Tetrahedron Letters, 29, 1853 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Broughton, H.B., S.V. Ley, A.M.Z. Slawin, D.J. Williams, and E.D. Morgan: X-ray Crytallographic Structure Determination of Detigloyldihydroazadirachtin and Reassignment of the Structure of the Limonoid Insect Antifeedant, Azadirachtin. J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., 46 (1986).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Bruhn, A., M. Bokel, and W. Kraus: 4α, α-Dihydroxy-A-homoazadiron, ein neues Tetranorterpenoid aus Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae). Tetrahedron Letters, 25, 3691 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Buchanan, J.G.ST.C., and T.G. Halsall: Conversion of a Simple Meliacin (7α-Acetoxymeliaca-14,20,22-trien-3-one) into Azadirone and of Khayanthone into Khivorin. Chem. Commun., 1493 (1969).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Buchanan, J.G.ST.C., and T.G. Halsall: The Conversion of Turreanthin and Turreanthin A into Simple Meliacins by a Route Involving an Oxidative Rearrangement of Probable Biogenetic Importance. J. Chem. Soc. (C), 2280 (1970).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Butterworth, J.H., and E.D. Morgan: Isolation of a Substance that Suppresses Feeding in Locusts. J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., 23 (1968).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Butterworth, J.H., and E.D. Morgan: Locust Feeding Inhibition of the Seeds of the Neem Tree, Azadirachta indica. J. Insect Physiol. 17, 969 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Butterworth, J.H., E.D. Morgan, and G.R. Percy: Structure of Azadirachtin Functional groups. J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. I, (19), 2445 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Champagne, D.E., O. Koul, M.B. Isman, G.G.E. Scudder, and G.H.N. Towers: Biological Activity of Limonoids from the Rutales. Phytochem., 31, 377 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Chavan, S.R.S.: Chemistry of Alkanes Separated from Leaves of Azadirachta indica and Their Larvicidal/Insecticidal Activity against Mosquitoes. In: Natural Pesticides from the Neem Tree and other Tropical Plants (H. Schmutterer and K.R.S. Ascher, eds.), p. 59. Eschborn, FRG: GTZ. 1984. Proc. 2nd Int. Neem Conf. Rauischholz-hausen. 1983.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Chawla, A.S., M. Kumar, and I. Bansal: Chemical Constituents and Biological Activity of ‘Neem’ — A Review. Indian Drugs, 32, 57 (1995).Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Chen, S-H., R.F. Horvath, J. Jogler, M. J. Fisher, and S.J. Damishefsky: Application of the Ibuka-Yamamoto Reaction to a Problem in Stereochemical Communication — A Strategy for the Stereospecific Synthesis and Stabilization of the Triene Substructure of Rapamycin through Sulfone Substitution. J. Organ. Chem., 56, 5834 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Coates, W.M., and J.R. Corrigan: Pyridine Dichromate as an Oxidising Agent. Chem. and Ind., 1594 (1969).Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Connolly, J.D.: Chemistry of the Limonoids of the Meliaceae and the Cneoraceae. In: Chemistry and Chemical Taxonomy of the Rutales (P.G. Waterman and M.F. Grundon, eds.), p. 175. New York: Academic Press. 1983.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Conolly, J.D., K.L. Handa, and R. Mccrindle: Further Constituents of Nim Oil: The Constitution of Meldenin. Tetrahedron Letters, 437 (1968).Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Conolly, J.D., K.H. Overton, and J. Polonsky: The Chemistry and Biochemistry of the Limonoids and Quassinoids. In: Progress in Phytochemistry 2 (L. Reinhold and Y. Liwschitz, eds), p. 385. London: Interscience Publisher, J.Wiley & Sons. 1970.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Corey, E.J., and R.W. Hahl: Synthesis of Limonoid, Azadiradione. Tetrahedron Letters, 30, 3023 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Corey, E.J., and G. Schmidt: Useful Procedures for the Oxidation of Alcohols involving Pyridinium Dichromate in Aprotic Media. Tetrahedron Letters, 20, 399 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Corey, E.J., and R.A. Sneen: Stereoelectronic Control in Enolization-Ketonization Reactions. J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 78, 6269 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Corey, E.J., and J.W. Suggs: Pyridinium dichromate — An Efficient Reagent for Oxidation of Primary and Secondary Alcohols to Carbonyl Compounds. Tetrahedron Letters, 16, 2647 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Cornforth, R.H., J.W. Cornforth, and G. Popjak: Preparation of (R)-and (S)-Mevalonolactones. Tetrahedron, 18, 1351 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Deshpande, V.Y., K.N. Mendulkar, and N.L. Sadre: Male Antifertility Activity of A. indica in Mice, a Preliminary Report. J. Postgraduate Medicine, 26, 167 (1980).Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Dess, D.B., and J.C. Martin: A Useful 12-1-5 Triacetoxyperiodinane (the Dess-Martin Periodinane for the Selective Oxidation or Secondary Alcohols and a Variety of Related 12-1-5 Species. J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 113, 7277 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Devakumar, C., and B.K. Goswami: Nematicidal Principles from Neem. III. Isolation and Screening of Neem Meliacins. Pesticide Res. J., 4, 79 (1992).Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Devakumar, C., and S.K. Mukherjee: Chemistry of Neem Bitter Principles. I.A.R.I. Res. Bull., 40, 1 (1983).Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Devakumar, C., and S.K. Mukherjee: 4-Epinimbin, a New Meliacin from Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Indian J. Chem., 24B, 1105 (1985).Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Devakumar, C., and S.K. Mukherjee: Chemical and Spectral Studies on Nimbin Group of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Constituents. Pesticide Res. J., 4, 87 (1992).Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    D’incan, E., S. Sibille, and J. Perichon: Electrosynthesis of Ketones from Organic Halides and Anhydrides. Tetrahedron Letters, 27, 4175 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Dixit, V.P., R. Sinha, and R. Tank: Effect of Neem Seed Oil on the Blood Glucose Concentration of Normal and Alloxan Diabetic Rats. J. Ethnopharmacol., 17, 95 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Dreyer, D.L.: Biogenetic Relationships of Degraded Triterpenes in the Rutales. In: Isoprenoids in Plants: Biochemistry and function (W.D. Nes, G. Fuller and L.-S. Tsai, eds.), p. 247. New York: Marcel Dekker. 1984.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Ekanem, O.J.: Has Azadirachta indica (Dongoyaro) any Antimalarial Activity? Nigerian Medical Journal, 8, 8 (1978).Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Ekong, D.E.U.: Chemistry of the Meliacins (Limonoids): The Structure of Nimbolide, a New Meliacin from Azadirachta indica. J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., 808 (1967).Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Ekong, D.E.U., C.O. Facunle, A.K. Fasina, and J.I. Okogun: The Meliacins (Limonoids). Nimbolin A and B — Two New Meliacin Cinnamates from Azadirachta indica L. and Melia Azedarach. L. J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., 1166 (1969).Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Ekong, D.E.U., and S.A. Ibiyemi: Biosynthesis of Nimbolide from [2-14C,(4R)4-3H1] Mevalonic Acid Lactone in the Leaves of Azadirachta indica. Phytochem., 24, 2259 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Ekong, D.E.U., S.A. Ibiyemi, and E.O. Olagbemi: The Meliacins (Limonoids) — Biosynthesis of Nimbolide in the Leaves of Azadirachta indica. J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., 1117 (1971).Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Ekong, D.E.U., E.O. Olagbemi, and A.I. Spiff: Cycloeucalenol and 24-Methyle-necycloartanol in Wood Oils from the Family Meliaceae. Chem. and Ind., 1808 (1968).Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Ekundayo, O.: Biosynthesis of Nimbolide in Azadirachta indica A. Juss from (2-14C)-Mevalonate and (2-14C)-Acetate. Z. Pflanzenphysiol. Bd. 112, 139 (1983).Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Freeman, R., and G.A. Morris: Experimental Chemical Shift Correlation Maps in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., 684 (1978).Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Fujiwara, T., T. Takeda, Y. Ogihara, M. Schimuzu, T. Nomura, and Y. Tomita: Studies on the Structures of Polysaccharides from the Bark of Melia azadirachta. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 30, 4025 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Fujiwara, T., E. Sugishita, T. Takeda, Y. Ogihara, M. Schimuzu, T. Nomura, and Y. Tomita: Further Studies on the Structure of Polysaccharides from the Bark of Melia azadirachta. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 32, 1385 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Fujiwara, T., T. Takeda, Y. Ogihara, M. Schimuzu, T. Nomura, and Y. Tomita: Further Studies on the Structure of Polysaccharide from the Bark of Melia azadirachta. (III). Shoyakugaku Zasshi, 38, 334 (1984)Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Gaitande, B. B., and V.K. Sheth: Pharmacological Studies of Sodium nimbidinate. Ind. J. Med. Sci., 12, 156 (1958).Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Gagnaire, D., and M. Vincenden: Easy Identification of Hydroxybearing Carbon Atoms in 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy — A new Method for Signal Assignment in Carbohydrates. J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., 509 (1977).Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Gaikwad, B.R., T. Mayilvaganan, B.A. Vyas, and S.V. Bhat: Nimbocinol and 17-Epinimbocinol from the Nimbidin Fraction of Neem Oil. Phytochem., 29, 3963 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Gandhi, M., R. Lal, A. Sankaranarayanan, CK. Banerjee, and P.L. Sharma: Acute Toxicity Study of the Oil from Azadirachta indica Seed (Neem Oil). J. Ethnopharmacol., 23, 39 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Garg, H.S., and D.S. Bhakuni: An Isoprenylated Flavanone from Leaves of Azadirachta indica. Phytochem., 23, 2115 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Garg, H.S., and D.S. Bhakuni: Salannolide, a Meliacin from Azadirachta indica. Phytochem., 23, 2383 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Garg, H.S., and D.S. Bhakuni: 2′,3′-Dehydrosalannol, a Tetranortriterpenoid from Azadirachta indica (The Neem Tree). Phytochem., 24, 866 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Glinsukon, T., R. Somjaree, P. Piyachaturawat, and Y. Thebtaranonth: Acute Toxicity of Nimbolide and Nimbic Acid in Mice, Rats, and Hamsters. Toxicol. Letters, 30, 159 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Govindachari, T.R.: Chemical and Biological Investigation on Azadirachta indica (The Neem Tree). Current Sci., 63, 117 (1992).Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Govindachari, T.R., G. Gopalakrishnan, and G. Suresh: Isolation of Various Azadirachtins from Neem Oil by Preparative High Performance Liquid Chromatography. J. Liq. Chromatogr. And Related Technol., 19, 1729 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Govindachari, T.R. and G. Gopalakrishnan: 13,14-Desepoxyazadirachtin A — A New Tetranortriterpenoid from Azadirachta indica. Phytochem., 45(2), 397 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Govindachari, T.R., G. Gopalakrishnan, R. Raghunathan, and S.S. Rajan: Crystallisation of Azadirachtin A. Current Sci., 66, 295 (1994).Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Govindachari, T.R., G. Sandhya, and S.P. Ganeshraj: Simple Method for the Isolation of Azadirachtin by Preparative High Performance Liquid Chromatography. J. Chromatogr., 513, 389 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Govindachari, T.R., G. Sandhya, and S.P. Ganeshraj: Isolation of Novel Azadir-achtins H and I by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Chromatographia, 31, 303 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Govindachari, T.R., G. Sandhya, and S.P. Ganeshraj: Azadirachtins H and I: Two New Tetranortriterpenoids from Azadirachta indica. J. Nat. Prod., 55, 596 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Govindachari, T.R., G. Sandhya, and S.P. Ganeshraj: Structure of Azadirachtin K, a New Tetranortriterpenoid from Azadirachta indica. Indian J. Chem., 31B, 295 (1992).Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Griffith, W.P., and S.V. Ley: TRAP — Tetra-n-propylammonium Perruthenate, a Mild and Convenient Oxidant for Alcohols. Aldrichim Acta, 23, 13 (1990).Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Griffith, W.P., S.V. Ley, O.P. Whitcombe, and A.D. White: Preparation and Use of Tetra-n-butylammonium Per-ruthenate (TBAP Reagent) and Tetra-n-propylammonium Per-ruthenate (TPAP Reagent) as New Catalytic Oxidants for Alcohols. J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., 1625 (1987).Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Grossman, R.B., and S.V. Ley: Chemistry of Insect Antifeedants from Azadirachta indica (Part 16): Synthesis of Several Derivatives of Azadirachtin containing Fluorescent or Immunologenic Reporter Groups. Tetrahedron, 50(29), 8871 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Grossman, R.B., and S.V. Ley: Chemistry of Insect Antifeedants from Azadirachta indica (Part 17): Synthesis of Model Compounds of Azadirachtin. Unusual Effects of Remote Substituents on the Course of Oxidative Ring Contraction Reaction. Tetrahedron, 50(39), 11553 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Harris, M., R. Henderson, R. Mccrindle, K.H. Overton, and D.W. Turner: Tetranortriterpenoids — VIII. The Constitution and Stereochemistry of Nimbin. Tetrahedron, 24, 1517 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Henderson, R., R. Mccrindle, A. Melera, and K.H. Overton: Tetranortriterpenoids — IX. The Constitution and Stereochemistry of Salannin. Tetrahedron, 24, 1525 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Haung, H.P., and E.D. Morgan: Analysis of Azadirachtin by Super Critical Fluid Chromatography. J. Chromatogr., 519, 137 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Hiyama, T., K. Nishide, and K. K. Kobayashi: A New Synthesis of N-Benzoyl-L-Acosamine. Tetrahedron Letters, 25, 569 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Isman, M.B., R. Koul, A. Luczynshi, and Z. Kaminski: Insecticidal and Antifeedant Bioactivities of Neem Oils and Their Relationship to Azadirachtin Content. J. Agric. Food Chem., 38, 1406 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Iwata, M., and H. Ohrai: A Simple Regioselective Partial Hydrolysis of Di-O-isopropylidene Monosaccharides with Copper (II) ion. Bull. Chem. Soc. (Japan), 54, 2837 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Iwu, M.M., O. Obidoa, and M. Anazodo: Biochemical Mechanism of the Antimalarial Activity of Azadirachta indica Leaf Extract. Pharmac. Res. Commun., 18, 81 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Jacobson, M.: The Neem Tree — Natural Resistance par Excellence. Amer. Chem. Soc. Symp. Series No. 296, 221 (1986).Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Jones, I.W., A.A. Denholm, S.V. Ley, H. Lovell, A. Wood, and R.E. Sinden: Sexual Development of Malaria Parasites is inhibited in vitro by Neem Extract, Azadirachtin and its Semi-synthetic Analogues. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 120, 267 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Jones, P.S., S.V. Ley, E.D. Morgan, and D. Santafianos: The Chemistry of the Neem Tree. In: Focus on Phytochemical Pesticides Vol. 1 The Neem Tree (M. Jacobson, ed.), p. 19. Boca Raton, FL (USA): CRC Press. 1989.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Kabaleeswaran, V., S.S. Rajan, T.R. Govindachari, and G. Gopalakrishnan: Crystal and Molecular Structure of Azadirachtin-A. Current Sci., 66(5), 362 (1994).Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Kessler, H., C. Griesinger, J. Zarbock, and H.R. Loosli: Assignment of Carbonyl Carbons and Sequence Analysis in Peptides by Heteronuclear Shift Correlation via Small Coupling Constants with Broad band Decoupling in t1 (COLOC). J. Magn. Reson., 57, 331 (1984).Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Khalid, S.A., H. Duddeck, and M. Gozalea-Sierra: Isolation and Characterisation of an Antimalarial Agent of the Neem Tree Azadirachta indica. J. Nat. Prod., 52, 922 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Kigodi, P.G.K., G. Blasko, Y. Thebtaranonth, J.M. Pezzuto, and G.A. Cordell: Spectroscopic and Biological Investigations of Nimbolide and 28-Deoxonimbolide from Azadirachta indica. J. Nat. Prod., 52, 1246 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Klenk, A., M. Bokel, and W. Kraus: 3-Tigloylazadirachtol, an Insect Growth Regulating Constituent of Azadirachta indica. J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., 523 (1986).Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Koga, Y., I. Yoshida, A. Kimura, M. Yoshino, F. Yamashita, and D. Sinniah: Inhibition of Mitochondrial functions by Margosa Oil: Possible Implications in the Pathogenesis of Reye’s Syndrome. Pediatric Res., 22, 184 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Kolb, H.C., and S.V. Ley: Chemistry of Insect Antifeedants from Azadirachta indica (Part 10): Synthesis of a Highly Functionalised Decalin Fragment of Azadirachtin. Tetrahedron Letters, 32, 6187 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Koot, Win-Jan, and S.V. Ley: Chemistry of Insect Antifeedants from Azadirachta indica (Part 18): Demethylation and Methylation of the C-8 Position of the Decalin Portion of Azadirachtin. Tetrahedron, 51, 2077 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Koul, O.: Feeding Deterrent Induced by Plant Limonoids in the Larvae of Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). Z. Angew. Entomol., 95, 166 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Koul., O. and M.B. Isman: Toxicity of the Limonoid allelochemical cedrelone to noctuid larvae. Entomol. Exp. Appl., 64, 281 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Koul., O., M.B. Isman, and C.M. Ketkar: Properties and Uses of Neem, Azadirachta indica. Can. J. Bot., 68, 1 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Kraus, W.: Biologically Active Compounds from Meliaceae. Stud. Organ. Chem. 17, 331 (1984).Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Kraus, W.: Constituents of Neem and Related Species. A revised Structure of Azadirachtin. Stud. Organ. Chem., 26, 237 (1986).Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Kraus, W.: Constituents of Neem and Related Species. A Revised Structure of Azadirachtin. In: New Trends in Natural Product Chemistry (Atta-Ur-Rahman and P.W. Le Quesne, eds.). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsvier Science Publishers B.V. 1986.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Kraus, W.: Biologically Active Ingredients. In: The Neem Tree (H. Schmutterer, ed.), p. 35. New York: VCH Publishers Inc. 1995.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Kraus, W., S. Baumann, M. Bokel, R. Cramer, W. Grimminger, R. Hendle-Meier, E. Keil, U. Keller, A. Klenk, M.P.H. Klingele, and M. Schwinger: Insect Feeding and Development Controlling Constituents of Meliaceae. Proc. Ist Princess Chulabhorn Sci. Cong. Intern. Congr. on Nat. Products. Bangkok. II, 554 (1987).Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Kraus, W., S. Baumann, M. Bokel, U. Keller, A. Klenk, M. Klingele, H. Pohnl, and M. Schwinger: Control of Insect Feeding and Development by Constituents of Melia Azedarach and Azadirachta indica. In: Natural Pesticides from the Neem Tree and Other Tropical Plants (H. Schmutterer, and K.R.S. Ascher, eds), p. 111. Eschborn, FRG: GTZ. 1987.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Kraus, W., and M. Bokel: Neue Tetranotriterpenoide aus Melia azedarach Linn. (Meliaceae). Chem. Ber., 114, 267 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Kraus, W., M. Bokel, A. Bruhn, R. Cramer, I. Klaiber, A. Klenk, G. Nagi, H. Pohnl, H. Sadio, and B. Vogler: Structure Determination by NMR of Azadirachtin and Related Compounds from Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae). Tetrahedron, 43, 2817 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Kraus, W., M. Bokel, R. Cramer, A. Klenk, and H.D. Pohnl: Constituents of Neem and Related Species. A Revised Structure of Azadirachtin. Third Int. Conf. on Chemistry and Biotechnology of Biologically Active Natural Products, Sofia, Bulgaria, p. 446 (1985).Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Kraus, W., M. Bokel, A. Klenk, and H.D. Pohnl: The Structure of Azadirachtin and 22,23-Dihydro-23 β-methoxyazadirachtin. Tetrahedron Letters, 26, 6435 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Kraus, W., M. Bokel, M. Schwinger, B. Vogler, R. Soellner, D. Wendisch, R. Steffens, and U. Wachendorff: The Chemistry of Azadirachtin and Other Insecticidal Constituents of Meliaceae. In: Phytochemistry and Agriculture (T. IN Van Beek, H. Breteler, eds.), p. 18-39. Oxford University Press. 1993.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Kraus, W., M. Bokel, R. Soellner, B. Vogler, D. Wendisch, and Y. Zhou-Halwart: Deoxatriquinane Derivatives as Intermediates in the Biosynthesis of Azadirachtin. 9th Annual Meeting of the Int. Soc. of Chemical Ecology (Kyoto, Japan), p. 55, 1992; 18th IUPAC Annual Symp. on the Chemistry of Natural Products, Strasbourg, France, p. 351 (1992).Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Kraus, W., and R. Cramer: 17-Epiazadiradion und 17-Hydroxyazadiradion Zwei Neue Inhaltsstoffe aus Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Tetrahedron Letters, 2395 (1978).Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Kraus, W., and R. Cramer: Neue Tetranortriterpenoide mit Insektenfrashemmender Wirkung aus Neem Oil. Liebigs Ann. Chem., 181 (1981).Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Kraus, W., and R. Cramer: Pentanortriterpenoide aus Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae). Chem. Ber., 114, 2375 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Kraus, W., R. Cramer, and G. Sawitzki: Tetranortriterpenoids from the Seeds of Azadirachta indica. Phytochem., 20, 117 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Kraus, W., H. Gutzeit, and M. Bokel: 1,3-Diacetyl-11-19-deoxa-11-oxomelia-carpin, a Possible Precursor of Azadirachtin, from Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae). Tetrahedron Letters, 30, 1797 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Kraus, W., A. Klenk, M. Bokel, and B. Vogler: Tetranortriterpenoid-Lactams with Insect Feeding Deterrent Effect from Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae). Liebigs Ann. Chem., 337 (1987).Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Kubo, I., A. Matsumoto, and T. Matsumoto: New Insect Ecdysis Inhibitory Limonoid Deacetyl Azadirachtinol Isolated from Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) Oil. Tetrahedron, 42, 489 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Kubo, I., T. Matsumoto, A. Matsumoto, and J.N. Shoolery: Structure of Deacetylazadirachtinol, Application of 2D 1H-1H and 1H-13C Shift Correlation Spectroscopy. Tetrahedron Letters, 25, 4729 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Kumar, Ch. S.S.R., M. Srinivas, and S. Yukkundi: Limonoids from the Seeds of Azadirachta indica. Phytochem., 43(2), 451 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Lakshmi, S.U., and T.N. Pattabiraman: Studies on Plant Gums: Part I. Identification of Nitrogenous Compounds in Neem (Azadirachta indica) Gum and Isolation of D-Glucosamin. Indian J. Biochem., 4, 183 (1967).Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Lavie, D., and M.K. Jain: Tetranortriterpenoids from Melia azadirachta L. J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., D, 278 (1967).Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Lavie, D., M.K. Jain, and S.R. Shpan-Gabrielith: A Locust Phagorepellent from two Melia species. Chem. Commun., 910 (1967).Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Lavie, D., M.K. Jain, and I. Kirson: Terpenoids. Part VI. The Complete Structure of Melianone. J. Chem. Soc (C), 1347 (1967).Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Lavie, D., and E.C. Lavy: Studies on Epoxides IV. Rearrangements in Triterpenoids. Tetrahedron Letters, 2097 (1968).Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Lavie, D., and E.C. Lavy: A Compound Linking Melianes with Meliacins. Tetrahedron Letters, 3525 (1969).Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Lavie, D., and E.C. Lavy: Oxidative Reactions of Biogenetic Interest. Tetrahedron Letters, 1315 (1970).Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Lavie, D., and E.C. Lavy: Meliane-Meliacin Relationship. Tetrahedron, 27, 3941 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Lavie, D., E.C. Lavy, and M.K. Jain: Limonoids of Biogenetic Interest from Melia Azadirachta L. Tetrahedron, 27, 3927 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Lee, S.M., and J.A. Klocke: Combined Florisil, Droplet Counter Current and High Performance Liquid Chromatographies for Preparative Isolation and Purification of Azadirachtin from Neem (Azadirachta indica) Seeds. J. Liq. Chromatogr., 10, 1151 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Lee, S.M., J.A. Klocke, M.A. Barnby, R.B. Yamasaki, and M.F. Baladrin: Insecticidal Constituents of Azadirachta indica and Melia Azadirach (Meliaceae). In: Naturally Occurring Pest Bioregulators (P.A. Hedin, ed.), ACS Symposium Series No. 449, p. 293. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society, 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 155.
    Lee, S.M., J.L. Olsen, M.P. Schweizer, and J.A. Klocke: 7-Deacetyl-17β-hydro-xyazadiradione, a New Limonoid Insect Growth Inhibitor from Azadirachta indica. Phytochem., 27, 2773 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Ley, S.V.: Synthesis of Insect Antifeedants. In: Pesticide Science ans Biotechnology (R. Greenhalgh and T.R. Roberts, eds.). 1987.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Ley, S.V.: Insect Antifeedants. In: Pesticide Chemistry (H. Frehse, ed.) p. 97. New York: VCH. 1990. Proceedings of the Seventh International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry, Hamburg, 1990.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Ley, S.V., J.C. Anderson, W.M. Blaney, P.S. Jones, Z. Lidert, E.D. Morgan, N.G. Robinson, D. Santafianos, M.S.J. Simmonds, and P.L. Toogood: Insect Antifeedants from Azadirachta indica (Part 5): Chemical Modification and Structure-Activity Relationships of Azadirachtin and Some Related Limonoids. Tetrahedron, 45, 5175 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Ley, S.V., J.C. Anderson, W.M. Blaney, Z. Lidert, E.D. Morgan, N.G. Robinson, and M.S.J. Simmonds: Chemistry of Insect Antifeedants from Azadirachta indica (Part 3): Reaction on the C-22,23 Enolether Double Bond of Azadirachtin and Conversion to 22,23-Dihydro-23β-methoxyazadirachtin. Tetrahedron Letters, 29, 5433 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Ley, S.V., J.C. Anderson, W.M. Blaney, E.D. Morgan, R.N. Sheppard, M.S.J. Simmonds, A.M.Z. Slawin, S.C. Smith, D.J. Williams, and A. Wood: Chemistry of Insect Antifeedants from Azadirachta indica (Part 11): Characterisation and Structure-Activity Relationships of Some Novel Rearranged Azadirachtins. Tetrahedron, 47, 9231 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Ley, S.V., A.A. Denholm, and A. Wood: Chemistry of Azadirachtin. Nat. Prod. Rep., 109 (1993).Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Ley, S.V., K. Doherty, G. Massiot, and J.-M. Nuzillard: “Connectivist” Approach to Organic Structure Determination Lsd-Program Assisted Nmr Analysis of the Insect Antifeedant Azadirachtin. Tetrahedron, 50, 12267 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Ley, S. V., P. J. Lovell, A.M.Z. Slavin, S.C. Smith, D.J. Williams, and A. Wood: Chemistry of Insect Antifeedants from Azadirachta indica (Part 15). Tetrahedron, 49, 1675 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Ley, S.V., P.J. Lovell, S.C. Smith, and A. Wood: Chemistry of Insect Antifeedants from Azadirachta indica (Part 9): Oxidative Reactions of Azadirachtin Derivatives leading to C(8)-C(14) Bond Cleavage. Tetrahedron Letters, 32, 6183 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Ley, S.V., H. Lovell, and D.J. Williams: Chemistry of Insect Antifeedants from Azadirachta indica, Part 14: Absolute Configuration of Azadirachtin. J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., 1304 (1992).Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Ley, S.V., D. Santafianos, WM. Blaney, and M.S.J. Simmonds: Synthesis of a Hydroxydihydrofuranacetal Related to Azadirachtin — A Potent Insect Antifeedant. Tetrahedron Letters, 28, 221 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Ley, S.V., A.A. Somovilla, H.B. Broughton, D. Craig, A.M.Z. Slawin, P.L. Toogood, and D.J. Williams: Chemistry of Insect Antifeedants from Azadirachta indica (Part 4): Synthesis towards the Limonoid Azadirachtin: Preparation of a Functionalised Decalin Fragment. Tetrahedron, 45, 2143 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Lyons, C.W., and D.R. Taylor: Terpenoids. Part VI. The Complete Structure of Melianone. J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., 517 (1975).Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Luscombe, D.K., and S.A. Taha: Pharmacological Studies on the Leaves of Azadirachta indica. J. Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 26, Suppl., 111 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Madhusudanan, K.P., R. Chaturvedi, H.S. Garg, and D.S. Bhakuni: Negative Ion Mass Spectra of Tetranortriterpenoids Isolated from Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss). Indian J. Chem., 23B, 1082 (1984).Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Majumdar, P.L., D.C. Maiti, W. Kraus, and M. Bokel: Nimbidiol, a Modified Diterpenoid of the Root-bark of Azadirachta indica. Phytochem., 26, 3021 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Mancuso, A.J., and D. Swern: Activated Dimethyl Sulfoxide — Useful Reagents for Synthesis. Synthesis, 165 (1981).Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Meinwald, J., and E. Frauenglass: A Baeyer — Villiger Oxidation of Bicyclic Ketones. J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 82, 5235 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Mitra, C.R.: On the Constitution of Nimbin. J. Sci. Indust. Res., 16B, 477 (1957).Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Mitra, C.R., H.S. Garg, and G.N. Pandey: Constituents of Melia indica II. Nimbidic Acid and Nimbidinin. Tetrahedron Letters, 2761 (1970).Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Mitra, C.R., H.S. Garg, and G.N. Pandey: Identification of Nimbidic Acid and Nimbidinin from Azadirachta indica. Phytochem., 10, 857 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Morgan, E.D. In: Natural Pesticides from the Neem Tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) (H. Schmutterer, K.R.S. Ascher, and H. Rembold, eds.), Proceedings of the First International Neem Conference, p. 43. Eschborn, Germany: German Agency for Technical Cooperation. 1982.Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Morgan, E.D., and M.D. Thornton: Azadirachtin in the Fruit of Melia azadirach. Phytochemistry, 12, 391 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Mubarak, A.M., and C.P. Kulatilleke: Sulphur Constituents of Neem Seed Volatiles: A Revision. Phytochem., 29, 3351 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Mori, K., and H. Watanabe: IUPAC 7th International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry, Hamburg, Book of Abstracts, Vol. I, p. 1251 (1990).Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Mukherjee, S., and H.C. Srivastava: Structure of Neem Gum. J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 77, 422 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Murty, K.S., D.N. Rao, D.K. Rao, and L.B.G. Murty: A preliminary Study on Hypoglycaemic and Antihyperglycaemic Effects of Azadirachta indica. Ind. J. Pharmacol., 10, 247 (1978).Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Nakanishi, K.: Structure of Insect Antifeedant Azadirachtin. Recent Adv. Phytochem., 9, 283 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Nanduri, Srinivas, and K.P. Banstola: Neeflone, a New Tetranortriterpenoid from the Flowers of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae). Indian J. Chem., Sect. B, 34B(11), 1019 (1995).Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Narayanan, C.R., and K.N. Iyer: Isolation and Characterisation of Deacetylnimbin. Indian J. Chem., 5, 460 (1967).Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Narayanan, C.R., R.V. Pachapurkar, S.K. Pradhan, and V.R. Shah: Structure of Nimbin. Chem. and Ind., 22nd Feb, 322 (1964).Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Narayanan, C.R., R.V. Pachapurkar, S.K. Pradhan, V.R. Shah, and N.S. Narasimhan: Structure of Nimbin. Indian J. Chem., 2, 108 (1964).Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    Narayanan, C.R., R.V. Pachapurkar, and B.M. Sawant: Nimbinin — A New Tetranortriterpenoid. Tetrahedron Letters, 3563 (1967).Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Narayanan, C.R., R.V. Pachapurkar, B.M. Sawant, and M.S. Wadia: Vepinin, A New Constituent of Neem Oil. Indian J. Chem., 7, 187 (1969).Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Nath, B.: Chemical Examination of the Heartwood of Melia azadirachta. J. Sci. Indust. Res, 14B, 634 (1955).Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    National Research Council: Neem — A Tree for Solving Global Problems. Washington, DC: National Academic Press. 1992.Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Nayak, B.R., and T.N. Pattabiraman: Studies on Plant Gums. Part III: Isolation and Characterisation of a Glycopeptide from Neem (Azadirachta indica) Gum after Pronase Digestion. Indian J. Biochem. Biophys., 15, 449 (1978).Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Obaseki, O., and H.A. Jegede-Fagunsin: The Antimalarial Activity of Azadirachta indica. Fitoterapia, 57, 247 (1986).Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Obih, P.O., and J.M. Makinde: Effect of Azadirachta indica on Plasmodium berghei in Mice. African J. Medicine and Medical Sciences, 14, 51 (1985).Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Ochi, M., T. Kotsuki, T. Tada, and T. Tokoroyama: Limonoids from Melia azedarach Linn. Var. Japonica makino III. The Structure of Ochinal and Ochinin acetate. Chem. Letters. 331 (1978).Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    Okpako, D.T.: Prostaglandin Synthatase Inhibitory Effect of Azadirachta indica. J. West African Sci. Assoc., 22, 45 (1977).Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Okpanyi, S.N., and G.C. Ezeukwu: Anti-inflammatory and Antipyretic Activities of Azadirachta indica. Planta Medica, 41, 34 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Pachapurkar, R.V., and P.M. Kornule: Tetranortriterpenoids from the Leaves of Azadirachta indica. Acta Ciencia Indica, 9c, 55 (1983).Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    Pachapurkar, R.V., P.M. Kornule, and C.R. Narayanan: A New Hexacyclic Tetranortriterpenoid. Chem. Letters, 4, 357 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Pant, N., H.S. Garg, K.P. Madhusudanan, and D.S. Bhakuni: Sulfurous Compounds from Azadirachta indica Leaves. Fitoterapia, 57, 302 (1986).Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    Pfileger, D., B. Muckensturm, P.C. Robert, M.T. Simonis, and J.C. Klenlen: Synthesis of the Furo-pyran Moiety of Azadirachtin. Tetrahedron Letters, 28, 1519 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Pillai, N.R., D. Sugantla, C. Seshadri, and G. Santhakumari: Anti-gastric Ulcer Activity of Nimbidin. Indian J. Med. Res. 68, 1969 (1978).Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    Pillai, N.R., and G. Santhakumari: Anti-arthritic and Anti-inflammatory Actions of Nimbidin. Planta Medica, 43, 59 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Pillai, N.R., and G. Santhakumari: Hypoglycaemic Activity of Melia azadirachta Linn. (Neem). Indian J. Med. Res., 74, 931 (1981).Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    Pillai, N.R., and G. Santhakumari: Effect of Nimbidin on Acute and Chronic Gastro-duodenal Ulcer Models in Experimental Animals. Planta Medica, 50, 143 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Pillai, N.R., and G. Santhakumari: Toxicity Studies on Nimbidin, a Potential Antiulcer Drug. Planta Medica, 50, 146 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Podder, G., and S.B. Mohato: Azadirachtanin, A New Limonoid from the Leaves of Azadirachta indica. Heterocycles, 23, 2321 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Polonsky, J., Z. Baskevitch, H.E. Gottlieb, E.W. Hagaman, and E. Wenkert: Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectral Analysis of Quassinoid Bitter Principles. J. Organ. Chem., 40, 2499 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Prakash, A.O., R.K. Tewari, and R. Mathur: Non-hormonal Post-coital Contraceptive Action of Neem Oil in Rats. J. Pharmacol., 23, 53 (1988).Google Scholar
  208. 208.
    Ragasa, C.Y., Z.D. Nacpil, G.M. Natividad, M. Tada, J.C. Coll, and J.A. Rideout: Tetranortriterpenoids from Azadirachta indica. Phytochem., 46(3), 555 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Rajab, M.S., M.D. Bentley, and R.C. Fort Jr.: Biomimetic Formation of a Nimbin Class Limonoid. J. Nat. Prod., 51, 1291 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Ramesh, K., and M.A. Padhya: Isolation of Nimbin from Azadirachta indica Leaves and Its Callus Culture. Indian Drugs, 25, 526 (1988).Google Scholar
  211. 211.
    Ramji, N., K. Venkatakrishnan, and K.M. Madyastha: 11-Epi-azadirachtin H from Azadirachta indica. Phytochem., 42(2), 561 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Rani, K., and A. Akhila, Biosynthetic Relationship between Nimocinol and Nimocinolide in Azadirachta indica. Nat. Prod. Letters, 4, 179 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Rao, B.S., Nazma, and J.M. Rao: Anti-fungal Activity of Gedunin. Current Sci., 46, 714 (1977).Google Scholar
  214. 214.
    Rao, K.N., and B.S. Parmar: A Compendium of Chemical Constituents of Neem. Neem Newsletter, 1, 39 (1984).Google Scholar
  215. 215.
    Rao, D.V.K., K. Singh, P. Chopra, P.C. Chabra, and G. Ramanujalu: In vitro Antibacterial Activity of Neem Oil. Indian J. Med. Res., 84, 314 (1986).Google Scholar
  216. 216.
    Rao, A.R., S. Sukumar, T.V. Paramasivam, S. Kamalakshi, A.R. Parashuraman, and M. Shanta: Study of Antiviral Activity of Tender Leaves of Margosa Tree (Melia azadirachta) on Vaccinia and Variola Virus — A Preliminary Report. Indian J. Med. Res., 57, 495 (1969).Google Scholar
  217. 217.
    Rembold, H.: Isomeric Azadirachtins and their Mode of Action. In: Focus on Phytochemical Pesticides. Vol 1, The Neem Tree (M. Jacobson, ed.), p. 47. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. 1988.Google Scholar
  218. 218.
    Rembold, H.: The Azadirachtins — Their Potential for Insect Control. In: Economic and Medicinal Plant Research, Vol. 3, p. 57 (1989).Google Scholar
  219. 219.
    Rembold, H.: Azadirachtins: Their Structure and Mode of Action. In: Insecticides of Plant Origin (J.T. Arnason, B.J.R. Philogene and P. Morand, eds.), p. 150. ACS Sym. Ser. 387. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society. 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Rembold, H.: Secondary Plant Products in Insect Growth Control, with Special Reference to Azadirachtins. Adv. Invertebr. Reprod. 3, 481 (1984).Google Scholar
  221. 221.
    Rembold, H.: Biochemistry of Neem. World Neem Conf., Bangalore, India, p. 53, 1993.Google Scholar
  222. 222.
    Rembold, H., H. Forster, and C. Czoppelt: Structure and Biological Activity of Azadirachtins A and B. In: Natural Pesticides from the Neem Tree and Other Tropical Plants (H. Schmutterer and K.R.S. Ascher, eds), p. 149. 1987; Proc. 3rd Neem Conf., Nairobi, Kenya, 1986.Google Scholar
  223. 223.
    Rembold, H., H. Forster, and J. Sonnenbichler: Structure of Azadirachtin B. Z. Naturforsch., 42C, 4 (1987).Google Scholar
  224. 224.
    Riar, S.S., C. Devakumar, G. Ilavazhagan, J. Bardhan, A.K. Kain, P. Thomas, R. Singh, and B. Singh: Volatile Fraction of Neem Oil as a Spermicide. Contraception, 42, 479 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Rochanakij, S., Y. Thebtaranonth, and C. Tenjai: Nimbolide, a Constituent of Azadirachta indica inhibits Plasmodium falciparum in Culture. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. and Public Health, 16, 66 (1985).Google Scholar
  226. 226.
    Rojanapo, W., S. Suwanno, R. Somjaree, T. Glinsukon, and Y. Thebtaranonth: Mutagenic and Antibacterial Activity Testing in Nimbolide and Nimbic Acid. J. Sci. Soc. Thailand, 11, 177 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Rojatkar, S.R., V.S. Bhat, M.M. Kulkarni, V.S. Joshi, and B.A. Nagasampagi: Tetranortriterpenoids from Azadirachta indica. Phytochem., 28, 203 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Rojatkar, S.R., and B.A. Nagasampagi: 1-Tigloyl-3-acetyl-11hydroxy-4β-methyl-meliacarpin from Azadirachta indica. Phytochemistry, 32, 213 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Rojatkar, S.R., and B.A. Nagasampagi: 11α-Hydroxy-12-norazadirachtin from Azadirachta indica. Nat. Prod. Letters, 5(1), 69 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Rojatkar, S.R., and B.A. Nagasampagi: 3α-Acetoxy-1α-hydroxyazadirachtol, a New Constituent from Azadirachta indica. Indian J. Chem., Sect. B, 34B(11), 1016 (1995).Google Scholar
  231. 231.
    Rojatkar, S.R., D.D. Sawaikar, and B.A. Nagasampagi: New Tetra and Penta-nortriterpenoids from Azadirachta indica A. Juss. World Neem Conference, India, 203 (1993).Google Scholar
  232. 232.
    Rukmini, C: Chemical and Nutritional Evaluation of Neem Oil. Food Chem., 26, 119 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Sankaram, A.V.B., M. Marthandamurthy, K. Bhaskariah, M. Subramanyam, N. Sultana, H.C. Sharma, and K. Leischner: 16th International Symposium on the Chemistry of Natural Products, IUPAC, Japan, Kyoto, 1988, Abs. No. 1539, p. 41.Google Scholar
  234. 234.
    Sankaram, A.V.B., M. Marthandamurthy, K. Bhaskariah, M. Subramanyam, N. Sultana, H.C. Sharma, K. Leuschner, G. Ramaprasad, S. Sitaramaiah, C. Rukmini, and P.U. Rao: Chemistry, Biological Activity and Utilisation Aspects of Some Promising Neem Extractives. In: Natural Pesticides from the Neem Tree and Other Tropical Plants (H. Schmutterer and K.R.S. Ascher eds.), p. 127–148. Eschborn, FRG: GTZ. 1987.Google Scholar
  235. 235.
    Santhakumari, G., and J. Stephen: Antimiototic Effect of Nimbidin — A First Report. Experientia, 37, 91(1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Sanyal, M. and P.C. Dutta: Nimbin Biosynthesis and the Age of Cultured Callus from Neem Bark. Indian Drugs, 19, 61 (1981).Google Scholar
  237. 237.
    Sanyal, M., S. Tikadar, and P.C. Dutta: Nimbin and β-Sitosterol in Cotyledon and Cultured Tissues of Azadirachta indica. Indian Drugs, 20, 479 (1983).Google Scholar
  238. 238.
    Sarkar, M.S., and P.C. Datta: Age Factor in Biosynthesis of Nimbin and β-Sitosterol in the Bark and Callus of Azadirachta indica. Indian Drugs, 24(1), 62 (1986).Google Scholar
  239. 239.
    Sarkar, M.S., A. Mukherji, and P.C. Datta: Glycine on in vitro Biosynthesis of Nimbin and β-Sitosterol in Tissues of Azadirachta indica. Current Sci., 57, 40 (1988).Google Scholar
  240. 240.
    Sato, T., J. Otera, and H. Nozaki: Activation and Synthetic Applications of Thiostannanes. Thioalkoxylation of Acetais. Tetrahedron, 45, 1209 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Sato, Y., M. Sodeoka and M. Shibasaki: Catalytic Asymmetric C-C Bond Formation: Asymmetric Synthesis of cis-Decalin Derivatives by Palladium-catalysed Cyclisation of Prochiral Alkenyl Iodides. J. Organ. Chem., 54, 4738 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Sato, Y., M. Sodeoka and M. Shibasaki: On the Role of Silver Salts in Asymmetric Heck-type Reaction — A Greatly Improved Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of cis-Decalin Derivatives. Chem. Letters, 1953 (1990).Google Scholar
  243. 243.
    Sato, Y., S. Watanabe, and H. Shibasaki: Further Studies on a Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of Decalin Derivatives. Tetrahedron Letters, 33, 2589 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Schneider, B.H., and K. Ermel: Quantitative Determination of Azadirachtin from Neem Seeds using High Performance Liquid Chromatography. In: Natural Pesticides from the Neem Tree and Other Tropical Plants (H. Schmutterer and K.R.S. Ascher eds.), p. 161–170. Eschborn, FRG: GTZ. 1987; Proc. 3rd Int. Neem Conf., Nairobi, Kenya, 1986.Google Scholar
  245. 245.
    Schroeder, D.R., and K. Nakanishi: A Simplified Isolation Procedure for Azadirachtin. J. Nat. Prod., 50, 241 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Seebach, D.: Angew Chem., Int. Ed. Engl., 18, 239 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Sengupta, P., S.N. Chaudhuri, and H.N. Khastigir: Terpenoids and Related Compounds I. Constituents of the Trunk Bark of Melia azadirachta Linn. and the Structure of the Ketophenol, Nimbiol. Tetrahedron, 10, 45 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Sengupta, P., S.K. Sengupta, and H.N. Kastigir: Terpenoids and Related Compounds II. Investigations on Structure of Nimbin. Tetrahedron, 11, 67 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Sharpless, K.B., M.A. Umbreit, M.T. Nieh, and T.C. Flood: Lower Valent Tungsten Halides — A New Class of Reagents for Deoxygenation of Organic Molecules. J Amer. Chem. Soc., 94, 6538 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Shukla, R., S. Singh, C.R. Bhandari: Preliminary Clinical Trials on Antidiabetic Actions of Azadirachta indica. Medicine and Surgery 13, 11 (1973).Google Scholar
  251. 251.
    Siddiqui, S.: A Note on the Isolation of Three New Bitter Principles from the Nim Oil. Current Sci., 11, 278 (1942).Google Scholar
  252. 252.
    Siddiqui, S., I. Ara, S. Faizi, T. Mahmood, and B.S. Siddiqui: Phenolic Tricyclic Diterpenoids from the Bark of AAzadirachta indica. Phytochem., 27, 3903 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Siddiqui, S., S. Faizi, T. Mahmood, and B.S. Siddiqui: Isolation of a New Tetranortriterpenoid from Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae). Heterocycles, 24, 1319 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Siddiqui, S., S. Faizi, T. Mahmood, and B.S. Siddiqui: TWO New Insect Growth Regulator Meliacins from Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae). J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. 1, 1021 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Siddiqui, S., S. Faizi, T. Mahmood, and B.S. Siddiqui: Margosinolide and Isomargosinolide, Two New Tetranortriterpenoids from Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae). Tetrahedron, 42, 4849 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Siddiqui, S., S. Faizi, and B.S. Siddiqui: Studies on the Chemical Constituents of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae). 1. Isolation and Structure of a New Tetranortriterpenoid, Nimolicinol. Heterocycles, 22, 295 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Siddiqui, S., S. Faizi, and B.S. Siddiqui: Studies on the Chemical Constituents of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae). VII. Z. Naturforsch., 42B, 922 (1986).Google Scholar
  258. 258.
    Siddiqui, S., S. Faizi, B.S. Siddiqui, and Ghiasuddin: Constituents of Azadiachta indica: Isolation and Structure Elucidation of a New Antibacterial Tetranortriterpenoid, Mahmoodin, and a New Protolimonoid, Naheedin. J. Nat. Prod., 55, 303 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Siddiqui, S., S. Fuchs, J. Lucke, and W. Voelter: Structure of a New Natural Product from Melia azadirachta Linn.: 17-Hydroxyazadiradione. Tetrahedron Letters, 611 (1978).Google Scholar
  260. 260.
    Siddiqui, B.S., Ghiasuddin, S. Faizi, and S. Siddiqui: Triterpenoids from the Fresh Fruit Coats of Azadirachta indica. Phytochemistry, 31, 4275 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Siddiqui, S., Ghiasuddin, B.S. Siddiqui, and S. Faizi: Tetranortriterpenoids and Steroidal Glycosides from the Seeds of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Pak. J. Sci. Indust. Res., 32, 435 (1989).Google Scholar
  262. 262.
    Siddiqui, S., Ghiasuddin, B.S. Siddiqui, and S. Faizi: Triterpenoids from Kernel of Azadirachta indica. Proc. Pak. Acad. Sci., 27, 333 (1990).Google Scholar
  263. 263.
    Siddiqui, S., T. Mahmood, B.S. Siddiqui, and S. Faizi: Studies on the Norterpenoidal Constituents of Azadirachta indica. Pak. J. Sci. Indust. Res., 28, 1 (1985).Google Scholar
  264. 264.
    Siddiqui, S., T. Mahmood, B.S. Siddiqui, and S. Faizi: Isolation of a Triterpenoid from Azadirachta indica. Phytochem., 25, 2183 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Siddiqui, S., T. Mahmood, B.S. Siddiqui, and S. Faizi: TWO New Tetranortriterpe-noids from Azadirachta indica. J. Nat. Prod., 49, 1068 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    Siddiqui, S., T. Mahmood, S. Faizi, and B.S. Siddiqui: Studies in the Chemical Constituents of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae) X. Isolation and Structure Elucidation of Isonimolicinolide, the First 17-Acetoxy tetranortriterpenoid and nimolicinoic acid, the First Hexanortriterpenoid with an Apoeuphane (Apotirucallane) Skeleton. J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. 1, 1429 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    Siddiqui, S., T. Mahmood, B.S. Siddiqui, and S. Faizi: Isonimolide and Isonimbolide, Two New Tetranortriterpenoids from the Twigs of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae). Heterocycles, 26(7), 1827 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Siddiqui, S., T. Mahmood, B.S. Siddiqui, and S. Faizi: Non-terpenoidal Constituents from Azadirachta indica. Planta Med., 54, 457 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Siddiqui, S. and C.R. Mitra: Utilisation of Nim Oil and its Bitter Constituents (Nimbidin series) in the Pharmaceutical Industry. J. Sci. Indust. Res. 4, 5 (1945).Google Scholar
  270. 270.
    Siddiqui, S., B.S. Siddiqui, S. Faizi, and T. Mahmood: Isolation of a Tetranortriterpenoid from Azadirachta indica. Phytochem., 23, 2899 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Siddiqui, S., B.S. Siddiqui, and S. Faizi: Studies in the Chemical Constituents of Azadirachta indica 2. Isolation and Structure Elucidation of the New Terpenoid, Azadirachtol. Planta Medica, 51, 478 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Siddiqui, S., B.S. Siddiqui, S. Faizi, and T. Mahmood: Isoazadirolide, a New Tetranortritepenoid from Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae). Heterocycles, 24, 3163 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Siddiqui, S., B.S. Siddiqui, S. Faizi and T. Mahmood: Studies on the Chemical Constituents of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae). VI. J. Chem. Soc. Pakistan, 8, 341 (1986).Google Scholar
  274. 274.
    Siddiqui, S., B.S. Siddiqui, S. Faizi, and T. Mahmood: Tetracyclic Triterpenoids and their Derivatives from Azadirachta indica. J. Nat. Prod., 51, 30 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    Siddiqui, S., B.S. Siddiqui, T. Mahmood, and S. Faizi: Tetranortriterpenoids from Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae). Heterocycles, 29, 87 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Siddiqui, S., B.S. Siddiqui, Ghiasuddin, and S. Faizi: New Meliacin Analogues from Epoxyazadiradione. Pak. J. Sci. Indust. Res., 33, 359 (1990).Google Scholar
  277. 277.
    Siddiqui, S., B.S. Siddiqui, Ghiasuddin, and S. Faizi: Terpenoids from Fruit Coating of Azadirachta indica. Phytochem., 30, 1615 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Siddiqui, S., B.S. Siddiqui, Ghiasuddin, and S. Faizi: Tetracyclic Triterpenoids of the Fruit coats of Azadirachta indica. J. Nat. Prod., 54, 408 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    Siddiqui, S., T.N. Waheed, S. Fuchs, J. Lucke, and W. Voelter: The Structure of a New Compound Isolated from the Fruit Pulp of Melia azadirachta Linn. Z. Naturforsch., 30b, 961 (1975).Google Scholar
  280. 280.
    Simmonds, M.S.J., W.M. Blaney, S.V. Ley, J.C. Anderson, and P.L. Toogood: Azadirachtin Structural Requirements for Reducing Growth and Increasing Mortality in Lepidopterous Larvae. Entomol. Exp. Appl., 55, 169 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. 281.
    Singh, P.P., A.Y. Junnarkar, G.S. Reddi, K.V. Singh: Azadirachta indica — Neuro-psychopharmacological and Antimicrobial Studies. Fitoterapia, 58, 235 (1987).Google Scholar
  282. 282.
    Sinha, K.C., S.S. Riar, J. Bardhan, P. Thomas, A.K. Jain, and R.K. Jain: Anti-implantation Effect of Neem Oil. Indian J. Med. Res., 80, 708 (1984).Google Scholar
  283. 283.
    Sinha, K.C., S.S. Riar, R.S. Tiwary, A.K. Dhawan, J. Bardhan, P. Thomas, A.K. Kain, and R.K. Jain: Neem Oil as a Veginal Contraceptive. Indian J. Med. Res., 79, 131 (1984).Google Scholar
  284. 284.
    Sinniah, D., and G. Baskaran: Margosa Oil Poisoning as a cause of Reye’s Syndrome. The Lancet I, 487 (1981).Google Scholar
  285. 285.
    Sinniah, D., G. Baskaran, P.N. Yoeh, and A. Retnasabapathy: Treatment of Experimentally induced Margosa Oil Poisoning in Mice. Int. Res. Commun. System, 9, 114 (1981).Google Scholar
  286. 286.
    Sinniah, D., P.H. Scwartz, R.A. Mitchell, and E.L. Arcinue: Investigation of an Animal Model of a Reye-like Syndrome caused by Margosa Oil. Pediatric Res., 19, 1346 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. 287.
    Srivastava, S.D.: Limonoids from the Seeds of Melia Azedarach. J Nat. Prod., 49, 56 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. 288.
    Srivastava, S.D., and S.K. Srivastava: New Constitutents of Melia composita. Fitoterapia, 67(2), 113 (1996).Google Scholar
  289. 289.
    Still, W.C., M. Khan, and A. Mitra: Rapid Chromatographic Technique for Preparative Separation with Moderate Resolution. J. Organ. Chem., 43, 2923 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. 290.
    Stokes, J.B., and R.E. Redfern: Effect of Sunlight on Azadirachtin’s Antifeedant Potency. J. Environ. Sci. and Health, A 17, 57 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. 291.
    Subramanian, S.S., and A.G.R. Nair: Melicitrin, a New Myricetin Glycoside from the Flowers of Melia azadirachta. Indian J. Chem., 10, 452 (1972).Google Scholar
  292. 292.
    Sundarasivarao, B., J. Nazma, and Madhusudhanarao: Antifungal Activity of Gedunin. Current Sci., 46, 714 (1977).Google Scholar
  293. 293.
    Suresh, G., N.S. Narasimhan, and N. Palani: Structure of Nimonol from Fresh Whole Green Leaves of Azadirachta indical. Phytochem., 45(4), 807 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. 294.
    Taylor, D.A.H.: Biogenesis, Distribution, and Systematic Significance of Limonoids in the Meliaceae, Cneoraceae and Allied Taxa. In: Chemistry and Chemical Taxonomy of Rutales. Annual Proceedings of Phytochemical Society of Europe No. 22 (PG Waterman and MF Grundon, eds.), p. 353, New York: Academic Press. 1983.Google Scholar
  295. 295.
    Taylor, D.A.H.: The Chemistry of the Limonoids from Meliaceae. In: Progress in the Chemistry of Natural Products 45 (W. Herz, H. Griesebach, G.W. Kirby, eds), p. 1. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag, 1984.Google Scholar
  296. 296.
    Taylor, D.A.H.: The Chemistry of the Limonoids from Meliaceae. Fortschr. Chem. Organ. Naturstoffe, 45, 1 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. 297.
    Taylor, D.A.H.: Azadirachtin: A Study in the Methodology of Structure Determination. Tetrahedron, 43, 2779 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. 298.
    Tella, A.: The Effects of Azadirachta indica in Acute Plasmodium berghei Malaria. Nigerian Med. J., 7, 258 (1977).Google Scholar
  299. 299.
    Thakur, R.S., S.D. Singh, and A. Goswami: Azadirachta indica A. Juss: A Review. Current Res. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 3, 135 (1981).Google Scholar
  300. 300.
    Thiem, J., H. Karl, and J. Schwenter: Synthesis of α-Linked 2′-Deoxy-2′-iododisaccharide. Synthesis, 696 (1978).Google Scholar
  301. 301.
    Tidwell, T.T.: Oxidation of Alcohols by Activated Dimethyl sulfoxide and Related Reactions — An Update. Synthesis, 857 (1990).Google Scholar
  302. 302.
    Thompson, E.B., and C.C. Anderson: Cardiovascular Effects of Azadirachta indica Extract. J. Pharm. Sci., 67, 1476 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. 303.
    Tewari, R.K., R. Mathur, and A.O. Prakash: Post-coital Antifertility Effect of Neem Oil in Female Albino Rats. International Res. Commun. System Med. Sci., 14, 1005 (1986).Google Scholar
  304. 304.
    Turner, C.J., M.S. Tempesta, R.B. Taylor, M.G. Zagorski, LS. Termini, D.R. Schroeder, and K. Nakanishi: A NMR Spectroscopic Study of Azadirachtin and its Trimethyl Ether. Tetrahedron, 43, 2789 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. 305.
    Udeinya, I.J.: Anti-Malarial Activity of Nigerian Neem Leaves. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 87, 471 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. 306.
    Uebel, E.C., I.D. Warthen, and M. Jacobson: Preparative Reversed-phase Liquid Chromatographic Isolation of Azadirachtin from Neem Kernels. J. Liq. Chromatogr., 2, 875 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. 307.
    Uwaifo, A.O.: The Mutagenicities of Seven Coumarin Derivatives and a Furan Derivative (Nimbolide) Isolated from Three Medicinal Plants. J. Toxicol. Hlth., 13, 521 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. 308.
    Van Der Nat, J.M., L.A. ‘Thart, W.ü. Van Der Sluis, and R.P. Labadie: Two Functionally Different Immunomodulators from an Aqueous Bark Extract of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae). Pharm. Weekblad Sci. Edition, 9, 224 (1987).Google Scholar
  309. 309.
    Van Der Nat, J.M., L.A. ‘T Hart, W.ü. Van Der Sluis, H. Van Dijk, A.J.J. Van Der Berg, K.T.D. De Silva, and R.P. Labadie: Characterisation of Anti-complement Compounds from Azadirachta indica. Ethnopharmacol., 19, 15 (1989).Google Scholar
  310. 310.
    Van Der Nat, J.M., J.P.A.M. Klerx, H. Van Dijk, K.T.D. De Silva, and R.P. Labadie: Immunomodulatory Activity of an Aqueous Extract of Azadirachta indica Stem Bark. J Ethnopharmacol., 19, 125 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  311. 311.
    Van Der Nat, J.M., W.G. Van Der Sluis, L.A. ‘T Hart, H. Van Dijk, K.T.D. De Silva, and R.P. Labadie: Activity-guided Isolation and Identification of Azadirachta indica Bark Extract Constituents which Specifically Inhibit Chemiluminescence Production by Activated Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes. Planta Medica, 57, 65 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. 312.
    Van Der Nat, J.M., W.G. Van Der Sluis, K.T.D. De Silva, and R.P. Labadie: Ethnopharmacognostical Survey of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae). J. Ethnopharmacol., 35, 1 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. 313.
    Warthen, J.D.: Azadirachta indica: A Source of Feeding Inhibitors and Growth Regulators. Agric. Rev. Manuals ARM-NE-4, p. 21, U.S.A.: USDA, Beltsville, MD. 1979.Google Scholar
  314. 314.
    Warthen, J.D., J.B. Stokes, M. Jacobson, and M.F. Kozempel: Estimation of Azadirachtin Content in Neem Extract and Formulations. J. Liq. Chromatogr., 7, 591 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. 315.
    Yamasaki, R.B., and J.A. Klocke: Structure-Bioactivity Relationships of Azadirachtin, a Potent Insect Control Agent. J. Agric. Food Chem., 35, 467 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. 316.
    Yamasaki, R.B., J.A. Klocke, S.M. Lee, G.A. Stone, and M.V. Darlington: Isolation and Purification of Azadirachtin from Neem (Azadirachta indica) Seeds Using Flash Chromatography and High Performance Liquid Chromatography. J. Chromatogr., 356, 220 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  317. 317.
    Yamasaki, R.B., J.A. Klocke, S.M. Lee, G.A. Stone, and M.V. Darlington: Isolation and Purification of Azadirachtin from Neem (Azadirachta indica) Seeds using Flash Chromatography and HPLC. Chromatogr., 18, 467 (1986).Google Scholar
  318. 318.
    Yamasaki, R.B., T.G. Ritland, M.A. Barnby, and J.A. Klocke: Isolation and Purification of Salannin from Neem Seeds and Its Quantification in Neem and Chinaberry Seeds and Leaves. J. Chromatogr., 447, 277 (1988).Google Scholar
  319. 319.
    Zanno, P.R., E. Miura, K. Nakanishi, and D.L. Elder: Structure of the Insect Phagorepellent Azadirachtin. Applications of PRFT/CWD Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 97, 1975 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  320. 320.
    Ziffer, H., U. Weiss, and C.R. Narayanan: Absolute Stereochemistry of Nimbin. Complex Optical Rotatory Dispersion of Pyronimbic Acid. J. Organ. Chem., 31, 2691 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Akhila
    • 1
  • K. Rani
    • 1
  1. 1.Phytochemical Technology DivisionCentral Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic PlantsLucknowIndia

Personalised recommendations