Impairment of motor function after frontal lobe resection with preservation of the primary motor cortex
We investigated the clinical course and characteristics of the motor deficits in patients who underwent surgical resection of the frontal lobe for tumorous lesions. Only patients who met the following criteria were included in the present study: 1) postoperative MRI revealed that resection of the frontal lobe involved the area closely adjacent to the primary motor cortex, but 2) the D wave of the corticospinal MEP did not decrease in amplitude below 50% of the original level during surgery. The extent of resection was classified into 4 groups. In Group A (6 cases), resection was limited within the area above the superior frontal sulcus and posterior to a line vertical to the line connecting the anterior and posterior commissures at the anterior commissure (AC vertical line). Resection was extended anterior to the AC vertical line in Group B (4 cases) or below the superior frontal sulcus in Group C (5 cases). In Group D (3 cases), resection was extended to both of these two boundaries. Severe motor paresis and/or apraxia of the upper and lower extremities were noted in all patients of Group D immediately after surgery. A complete recovery in the lower extremity was observed in these patients, while disturbance in the fine movements of the upper extremity remained for more than 1 year after the surgery. Disturbance in the fine movements and/or apraxia of the upper extremity were observed immediately after surgery in 2 of the Group A patients (33%), 2 of the Group B patients (50%) and 3 of the Group C patients (60%). However, a rapid recovery occurred in these patients, and only a subtle or mild disturbance remained for more than 1 year after the surgery in one of the Group B and one of the Group C patients. Permanent and severe motor deficit is rarely induced when resection of the frontal lobe is limited to only the SMA proper (corresponding roughly to Group A), the SMA proper and pre-SMA (corresponding roughly to Group B), or the SMA proper and premotor cortex (corresponding roughly to Group C), insofar as the primary motor cortex is preserved. Disturbance in fine movements of the upper extremity is frequently induced for the long term when wide areas of the SMA proper, pre-SMA as well as premotor cortex are resected altogether (corresponding roughly to Group D).
KeywordFine movement functional recovery premotor cortex primary motor cortex supplementary motor cortex
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