Plasmodesmata (Vegetable Kingdom)

  • A. D. J. Meeuse
Part of the Protoplasmatologia book series (PROTOPLASMATOL., volume 2 / A / 1a,b,c)


In 1879 E. Tangl described minute structures which traverse the cell walls of the endosperm of Strychnos nux-vomica, Phoenix dactilifera and Areca oleracea (Tangl 1879, see Fig. 1). From his observations and some microchemical tests he concluded that these structures are “offene Communicationen” (open communications) or “Protoplasmafortsätze” (extensions or continuations of the protoplasm) connecting the protoplasts of adjacent cells through the cell walls and that they are, accordingly, tenuous strands of protoplasm. After the publication of Tangls article several other botanists claimed to have seen these structures long before him. Goroschankin, in a paper dated 1883, referred to a lecture delivered by him in 1879 during which he had shown a drawing of these protoplasmic connections. Dippel (1898) communicated that he had seen these structures as early as 1857 and had already depicted them in 1869 (see p. 181 and Fig. 111 of his text book). Zimmermann (1893) drew the attention to unpublished sketches, obviously showing these protoplasmic connections in endosperm. made by Hofmeister long before 1879. However, they did not realise the importance of their observations, whereas Tangl recognised the protoplasmic nature of the structures under discussion. Strasburger (1901) and Meyer (1920), in this question of priority, decided in favour of Tangl, and indeed, he deserves recognition as the true discoverer of these structures, although there can be very little doubt that the claims made by Dippel, who was an expert microscopist, and by Goroschankin to have seen them before Tangl, were well founded.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anonymous, 1941: Note on the Use of the Term “Plasmodesmata.” Bot. Rev. 7, 335.Google Scholar
  2. Bálint, S. 1910: Botanische mikroteehnische Notizen. Z. Mikrosk. 27, 243–247.Google Scholar
  3. Bannon, M. W., and B. E. Whalley. 1950: The Elongation of Fusiform Cambial Cells in Chamaecyparis. Canad. J. Res. C 28. 341–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baranetzki, J., 1886: Epaississement des parois des éléments parenchymateux. Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., 7me sér., 4, 135–301.Google Scholar
  5. Bennett, C. W., 1940a: The Relation of Viruses to Plant Tissues. Bot. Rev. 6, 427–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bennett, C. W. 1940b: Acquisition and Transmission of Virus by Dodder (Cuscuta subinclusa). Phytopath. 30, 2.Google Scholar
  7. Bennett, C. W. 1944: Studies of Dodder Transmission of Plant Viruses. Phytopath. 34, 905–932.Google Scholar
  8. Brodie, H. J., 1942: Protoplasmic Continuity in the Powdery Mildew, Erisyphe graminis DC. Can. J. Res. 20, 595–601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Buder, J. 1911: Studien an Laburnum Adami. II. Z. Abstammlehre 5, 209–284.Google Scholar
  10. Buller, A. H. R. 1933: The Translocation of Protoplasm through the Septate Mycelium of Certain Pyrenomycetes, Discomycetes and Hymenomycetes, in: Researches in Fungi 5, 75–167. London, New York, Toronto.Google Scholar
  11. Chamberlain, C. J., 1932: Methods in Plant Histology. 5th Ed. Chicago and London.Google Scholar
  12. Crafts, A. S., 1931: A Technic for Demonstrating Plasmodesmata. Stain Technol. 6, 127–128.Google Scholar
  13. Crafts, A. S., 1939 a: The Relation between Structure and Function of the Phloem. Amer. J. Bot. 26. 172–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Crafts, A. S., 1939 b: Protoplasmic Properties of Sieve-Tubes. Protoplasma 33, 389–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Crafts, A. S. 1939 c: Movement of Viruses, Auxins and Chemical Indicators in Plants. Bot. Rev. 5, 471–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Crafts, A. S. 1951: Movement of Assimilates, Viruses, Growth Regulators, anil Chemical Indicators in Plants. Bot. Rev. 17, 203–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Curtis, O. F., 1935: The Translocation of Solutes in Plants. New York and London.Google Scholar
  18. Dippel, L., 1898: Das Mikroskop und seine Anwendung. Part II. Braunschweig.Google Scholar
  19. Drake, C. J., N. J. Martin, and H. D. Tate, 1934: A Suggested Relationship between the Protoplasmic Bridges and Virus Diseases in Plants. Science 80, 146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Eames, A. J., and L. H. MacDaniels, 1947: An Introduction to Plant Anatomy. 2nd Ed. New York and London.Google Scholar
  21. Esau, K., 1938: Some Anatomical Aspects of Plant Virus Disease Problems. Bot. Rev. 4, 548–589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Esau, K., 1939: Development and Structure of the Phloem Tissue. Bot. Rev. 5, 373–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Esau, K., 1948: Some Anatomical Aspects of Plant Virus Disease Problems. II. Bot. Rev. 14, 413–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Esau, K., 1950: Development and Structure of the Phloem Tissue. II. Bot. Rev. 16, 67–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Frey-Wyssling, A., 1948: Submicroscopic Morphology of Protoplasm and its Derivations. New York.Google Scholar
  26. Gardiner, W., 1882 a: On the Continuity of Protoplasm in the Motile Organs of Leaves. Proc. roy. Soc., Lond. 34, 272–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gardiner, W., 1882 b: Note on Open Communications between Cells in the Pulvinus of Mimosa pudica. Quart. J. microsc. Sci. 22. 365–366.Google Scholar
  28. Gardiner, W., 1883 a: On the Continuity of the Protoplasm through the Walls of Vegetable Cells. Arb. Bot. Inst. Würzburg 3, 52–87.Google Scholar
  29. Gardiner, W., 1883 b: The Continuity of the Protoplasm through the Walls of Vegetable Cells. Phil. Trans. roy. Soc., Lond., Part III, 174, 817–863.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gardiner, W., 1883c: Some Recent Researches on the Continuity of Protoplasm through the Walls of Vegetable Cells. Quart. J. microsc. Sci. 23, 302–319.Google Scholar
  31. Gardiner, W., 1897: The Histology of the Cell Wall. with Special Reference to the Mode of Connection of Cells. Proc. roy. Soc. Lond. 62, 100–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gardiner, W., 1898: Methods for the Demonstration of “Connecting Threads” in the Cell Wall. Proc. Cambridge Phil. Soc. 9, 504–508.Google Scholar
  33. Gardiner, W., 1900: The Genesis and Development of the Walls and Connecting Threads of the Plant. Proc. roy. Soc, Lond. 66, 186–188.Google Scholar
  34. Gardiner, W., 1907: On the Mode of Formation of the Initial Cell Wall, the Genesis and Neo-genesis of the Connecting Threads, and the Methods of Connection of Living Tissues. Proc. Cambridge Phil. Soc. 14, 209–210.Google Scholar
  35. Gardiner, W., and A. W. Hill, 1901: The Histology of the Cell Wall, with Special Reference to the Mode of Connection of Cells. I. The Distribution and Character of “Connecting Threads” in the Tissues of Pinus sylvestris and Other Allied Species. Phil. Trans. roy. Soc. Lond. B 194, 83–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Genkelj, P. A., and E. Z. Okina, 1948: C. r. Acad. Sci. U. S. S. R. 62, 409–412.Google Scholar
  37. Gicklhorn, J., 1947: Botanische Beobachtungen mit neuen einfachen Lehrversuchen. Öst. Bot. Z. 94, 136–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Goroschankin. J., 1883: Zur Kenntnis der Corpuscula bei den Gymnospermen. Bot. Ztg. 41, 825–831.Google Scholar
  39. Günther, O., 1927: Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Entwicklung des Getreide-Endo-sperms und seines Verhaltens bei der Keimung. Bot. Arch. 18, 209–319.Google Scholar
  40. Haberlandt, G., 1924: Physiologische Pflanzenanatomie. 6th Ed. Leipzig.Google Scholar
  41. Haberlandt, G., 1928: Physiological Plant Anatomy (English Translation). London.Google Scholar
  42. Hecht. K., 1912: Studien über den Vorgang der Plasmolyse. Colins Beitr. Biol. Pflanzen 11. 137–192.Google Scholar
  43. Hill. A. W., 1901: The Histology of the Sieve-Tubes of Pinus. Ann. Bot. 15, 575–611.Google Scholar
  44. Hill. A. W., 1903: Notes on the Histology of the Sieve-Tubes of Certain Angiosperms. Ann. Bot. 17, 265–267.Google Scholar
  45. Hill. A. W., 1908: The Histology of the Sieve-Tubes of Angiosperms. Ann. Bot. 22, 245–290.Google Scholar
  46. Hillhouse, W., 1883: Beobachtungen über den interzellularen Zusammenhang von Protoplasten. Bot. Cbl. 14, 89–94, 121-124.Google Scholar
  47. Hume, M., 1913: On the Presence of Connecting Threads in Graft Hybrids. New Phytol. 12, 216–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Jacob, K. T., 1944-1946: The Structure of the Pulvinus of Mimosa pudica L. in Relation to the Mechanism of the Movement. Trans. Bose Res. Inst. 16, 11–14.Google Scholar
  49. Johansen, D. A., 1940: Plant Microtechnique. New York and London.Google Scholar
  50. Jost, L., 1901: Über einige Eigentümlichkeiten des Cambiums der Bäume. Bot. Ztg. 59, 1–24.Google Scholar
  51. Jungers, V., 1930: Recherches sur les plasmodesmes chez les végétaux. La Cellule 40, 7–82.Google Scholar
  52. Jungers, V., 1933: Recherches sur les plasmodesmes chez les végétaux. II. Les synapses des algues rouges. La Cellule 42, 7–28.Google Scholar
  53. Kerr, T., and I. W. Bailey, 1934: The Cambium and its Derivative Tissues. X. Structure, Optical Properties and Chemical Composition of the So-Called Middle Lamella. J. Arn. Arb. 15, 327–349.Google Scholar
  54. Kienitz-Gerloff, F., 1891: Die Protoplasmaverbindungen zwischen benachbarten Gewebselementen in der Pflanze. Bot. Ztg. 49, 1–10. 17-26, 32-46, 48-60, 64-74.Google Scholar
  55. Kienitz-Gerloff, F., 1902: Neue Studien über Plasmodesmen. Ber. dtsch. bot. Ges. 20, 93–117.Google Scholar
  56. Kohl, F. G., 1891: Protoplasmaverbindungen bei den Algen. Ber. dtsch. bot. Ges. 9, 9–17.Google Scholar
  57. Kohl, F. G., 1897: Die Protoplasmaverbindungen der Spaltöffnungsschließzellen und der Moosblattzellen. Bot. Cbl. 72, 257–265.Google Scholar
  58. Kohl, F. G., 1900: Dimorphismus der Plasmaverbindungen. Ber. dtsch. bot. Ges. 18, 364–372.Google Scholar
  59. Kohl, F. G., 1902: Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Plasmaverbindungen in den Pflanzen. Beih. Bot. Zbl. 12, 343–350.Google Scholar
  60. Krabbe, G., 1886: Das gleitende Wachstum bei der Gewebebildung der Gefäßpflanzen. Berlin.Google Scholar
  61. Kuhla, F., 1900: Die Plasmaverbindungen bei Viscum album. Bot. Ztg. 58, 29–58.Google Scholar
  62. Küster, E., 1933: Die Plasmodesmen von Codium. Protoplasma 19, 335–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Küster, E., 1951: Die Pflanzenzelle. 2. Aufl. Jena.Google Scholar
  64. Livingston, L. G., 1933: The Nature and Distribution of Plasmodesmata in the Tobacco Plant. Amer. J. Bot. 32, 75–87.Google Scholar
  65. Livingston, L. G., and I. W. Bailey, 1946: The Demonstration of Unaltered Plasmodesmata in the Cambium of Pinus Strobus and Ray Cells of Sequoia sempervirens. (Abstr.) Amer. J. Bot. 33, 824.Google Scholar
  66. Lundegårdh, H., 1922: Zelle und Zytoplasma. in: Linsbauer, Handbuch der Pflanzenanatomie. I. Abt., 1. Teil: Zytologie. Berlin.Google Scholar
  67. Mangenot, G., 1924: Sur les communications protoplasmatiques dans l’appareil sporogène de quelques Floridées. Rev. Algol. 4, 376.Google Scholar
  68. Mangenot, G., 1926: Communications intercellulaires et synapses. Note d’histologie végétale. Bull. Histol. appl. etc. 3, 142–160.Google Scholar
  69. Meeuse, A. D. J., 1940: On the Nature of Plasmodesmata (Sammelreferat). Protoplasma 35. 143–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Meeuse, A. 1941: Plasmodesmata. Bot. Rev. 7, 249–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Meeuse, A. 1942: A Study of Intercellular Relationships Among Vegetable Cells, with Special Reference to “Sliding Growth” and to Cell Shape. Rec. Trav. Bot. Néerl. 38, 18–140.Google Scholar
  72. Meeuse, B. J. D., 1938: Some Observations on Special Structures in the Cell Walls of Plants. Proc. Kon. Akad. Wet. Amsterdam 41, 965–975.Google Scholar
  73. Meeuse, B. J. D., 1941: Einige Bemerkungen zu R. Schaedes Mitteilung: Über den Feinbau von Parenchymmembranen. Ber. dtsch. bot. Ges. 59, 122–124.Google Scholar
  74. Mericle, L. W., and W. G. Whaley. 1953: Cell Wall Structure in Apical Meristems. Bot. Gaz. 114, 382–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Meyer, A., 1896 a: Das Irrtümliche der Angaben über das Vorkommen dicker Plasmaverbindungen zwischen den Parenchymzellen einiger Filicineen und Angiospermen. Ber. dtsch. bot. Ges. 14, 154–158.Google Scholar
  76. Meyer, A., 1896 b: Das Vorkommen von Plasmaverbindungen bei den Pilzen. Ber. dtsch. bot. Ges. 14. 280–281.Google Scholar
  77. Meyer, A., 1896 c: Die Plasmaverbindungen und die Membran von Volvox globator, aureus und tertius. mit Rücksicht auf die tierischen Zellen. Bot. Ztg. 54. 187–217.Google Scholar
  78. Meyer, A., 1897: Über die Methoden zum Nachweis der Plasmaverbindungen. Ber. dtsch. bot. Ges. 15, 166–177.Google Scholar
  79. Meyer, A., 1914: Notiz über die Bedeutung der Plasmaverbindungen für die Pfropfbastarde. Ber. dtsch. bot. Ges. 32, 447–453.Google Scholar
  80. Meyer, A., 1920: Morphologische und physiologische Analyse der Zelle. I. (519-543. Plasmabrücken). Jena.Google Scholar
  81. Miehe, A. 1901: Über die Wanderungen des pflanzlichen Zellkernes. Flora 88, 105–142.Google Scholar
  82. Moore, Sp. Le M., 1886: Studies in Vegetable Biology. J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 21, 595–621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Mühldorf, A., 1933: Über die Plasmodesmen in den Endospermzellen der Umbelli-ferenfrüchte. Bul. Fac. Stiinte, Cernăuti 7, 196–234.Google Scholar
  84. Mühldorf, A., 1937: Das plasmatische Wesen der pflanzlichen Zellbrücken. Beih. Bot. Cbl. 56 (A), 171–364.Google Scholar
  85. Mühlethaler, K., 1950: Electron Microscopy of Developing Cell Walls. Biochem. Biophys. Acta 5, 1–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Münch, E., 1930: Die Stoffbewegungen in der Pflanze. Jena.Google Scholar
  87. O’Kelly, J. C., and P. H. Carr, 1954: An Electron Micrographic Study of the Cell Walls of Elongating Cotton Fibers, Root Hairs, and Pollen Tubes. Amer. J. Bot. 41, 261–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Okina, E. Z., 1948: C. r. Acad. Sci. U. S. S. R. 62, 705–708.Google Scholar
  89. Pfeiffer-Wellheim, F. 1924: Über ein Silberimprägnierungsverfahren zur Darstellung der Plasmodesmen in einigen Endospermgeweben und bei Moosblätt-chen. Z. Mikr. 41, 325–334.Google Scholar
  90. Piskerik, A., 1914: Die Plasmaverbindungen bei Moosen. Öst. Bot. Z. 64, 107–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Poirault, G., 1893: Recherches anatomiques sur les cryptogames vasculaires. Ann. Sci. Nat., 7me sér., Bot., 18, 113–256.Google Scholar
  92. Priestley, J. H. 1931: The Physiology of Cambial Activity. IL The Concept of Sliding Growth. New Phytol. 29, 96–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Quisumrtng, E., 1925: Continuity of Protoplasm in Endosperm Cells of Diospyros. Bot. Gaz. 80, 439–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Roelofsen, P. A., and A. L. Houwink, 1951: Cell Wall Structure of Staminal Hairs of Tradescantia virginica and its Relation with Growth. Protoplasma 40, 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Russow, E., 1883: Über die Perforation der Zellwand und den Zusammenhang der Protoplasmakörper benachbarter Zellen. (S.ber. Naturf. Ges. Dorpat 6, 562).Google Scholar
  96. Salmon, J., 1946-1947: Différenciation des tubes criblés chez les Angiospermes: Recherches cytologiques. Rev. Cytol. Cytophysiol. Vég. 9. 53–168.Google Scholar
  97. Samish, R. M., 1954: Dormancy in Woody Plants. Ann. Rev. P1. Physiol. 5.183–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Schaarschmidt, J., 1884: Kommunikation von Protoplasten und das Vorkommen interzellulären Protoplasmas. Z. Mikr. 1, 301–302.Google Scholar
  99. Schumacher, W., 1930: Untersuchungen über die Lokalisation der Stoffwanderung in den Leitbündeln der höheren Pflanzen. Jb. wiss. Bot. 73, 770–823.Google Scholar
  100. Schumacher, W., 1942: Über plasmodesmenartige Strukturen in Epidermisaußenwänden. Jb. wiss. Bot. 90, 530–545.Google Scholar
  101. Schumacher, W., and W. Halbguth, 1939: Über den Anschlufi einiger höherer Parasiten an die Siebröhren der Wirtspflanzen. Ein Beitrag zum Plasmodesmenproblem. Jb. wiss. Bot. 87. 324–355.Google Scholar
  102. Schweidler J. H., 1910: Über traumatogene Zellsaft-und Kernüberschritte bei Mori-candia arvensis DC. Jb. wiss. Bot. 48, 549–590.Google Scholar
  103. Scott, F. M., 1946: Cystoliths and Plasrnodesmata in Beloperone, Ficus and Boehmeria. Bot. Gaz. 107. 372–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Scott, F. M., 1949: Plasmodesmata in Xylem Vessels. Bot. Gaz. 110. 492–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Scott, F. M., M. S. Schroeder, and F. M. Turrell, 1948: Development, Cell Shape, Suberization of Internal Surface, and Abscission in the Leaf of the Valencia Orange, Citrus sinensis. Bot. Gaz. 109, 381–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Sharp, L. W., 1926: An Introduction to Cytology. New York.Google Scholar
  107. Sheffield, F. M. L., 1936: The Role of Plasmodesmata in the Translocation of Virus. Ann. Appl. Biol. 23. 506–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Sinnott, E. W., and R. Bloch, 1939: Changes in Intercellular Relationships during the Growth and Differentiation of Living Plant Tissues. Amer. J. Bot. 26. 625–633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Smith, K.M., 1951: Recent Advances in the Study of Plant Viruses. 2nd Ed. London.Google Scholar
  110. Stomps, Th. J., 1919: Gigas-Mutation. Z. Abstammlehre 21, 77–79.Google Scholar
  111. Stopes, M. C., and K. Fujii, 1906: The Nutritive Relations of the Surrounding-Tissues to the Archegonia in Gymnosperms. Beih. Bot. Cbl. 20, 1–24.Google Scholar
  112. Strasburger, E., 1882: Über den Bau und das Wachstum der Zellhäute. Jena.Google Scholar
  113. Strasburger, E., 1901: Über Plasmaverbindungen pflanzlicher Zellen. Jb. wiss. Bot. 36, 493–601.Google Scholar
  114. Strasburger, E., 1923: Das botanische Praktikum. 7th Ed. (bearbeitet von M. Koernicke). Jena.Google Scholar
  115. Studnička, F. R., 1929: Die Organisation der lebendigen Masse, in: W. Möllen-DORF, Handbuch der mikroskopischen Anatomie des Menschen. Bd. I, 1. Teil B. 468-469. Berlin.Google Scholar
  116. Sykes, M., 1908: Anatomy and Histology of Macrocystis pyrifera and Laminaria saccharina. Ann. Bot. 22, 291–325.Google Scholar
  117. Tangl, E., 1879: Über offene Communicationen zwischen den Zellen des Endosperms einiger Samen. Jb. wiss. Bot. 12, 170–190.Google Scholar
  118. Tangl, E., 1884: Zur Lehre von der Continuität des Protoplasmas im Pflanzengewebe. S.ber. Akad. Wiss. Wien 90 (Abt. I), 10–38.Google Scholar
  119. Tangl, E., 1885: Studien über das Endosperm einiger Gramineen. S.ber. Akad. Wiss. Wien 92 (Abt. I), 72–100.Google Scholar
  120. Terletzki, P., 1884: Anatomie der Vegetationsorgane von Struthiopteris germanica und Pteris aquilina. Jb. wiss. Bot. 15, 452–501.Google Scholar
  121. Thoday (Sykes), M. G. 1911: On the Histological Relation between Cuscuta and its Host. Ann. Bot. 25, 655–682.Google Scholar
  122. Tischler, G., 1921/1922: Allgemeine Pilanzenkaryologie, in: K. Linsbauer, Handbuch der Pflanzenanatomie, Allgemeiner Teil, Cytologie, Bd. II, 176-179. Berlin.Google Scholar
  123. Tröndle. A., 1913: Eine neue Methode zur Darstellung der Plasmodesmen. Verh. Schweiz. Naturf. Ges. 44, 215–217.Google Scholar
  124. Tunmann, O., und L. Rosenthaler, 1931: Pflanzenmikrochemie. Berlin.Google Scholar
  125. Tupper-Carey, R., and J. H. Priestley, 1924: The Cell Wall in the Radicle of Vicia Faba and the Shape of Meristematic Cells. New Phytol. 23, 156–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Wardrop. A. B., 1954: The Mechanism of Surface Growth Involved in the Differentiation of Fibres and Tracheids. Austral. J. Bot. 2, 165–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Wardrop. A. B. and H. E. Dadswell, 1952: The Nature of Reaction Wood. III. Cell Division and Cell Wall Formation in Conifer Stems. Austral. J. Sci. Res. B 5, 385–398.Google Scholar
  128. West, C., and A. E. Lechmere, 1915: On Chromatin Extrusion in Pollen Mother Cells of Lilium candidum, Linn. Ann. Bot. 29, 285–291.Google Scholar
  129. Wieler, A., 1943: Ein Beitrag zur Plasmodesmenfrage. Bot. Arch. (Leipzig) 44. 34–51.Google Scholar
  130. Wulff, Th. 1905: Plasmodesmenstudien. Ark. Bot. 5. 1–20.Google Scholar
  131. Wulff, Th. 1906: Plasmodesmenstudien. Öst. Bot. Z. 56, 1–8, 60-69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Zimmermann, A., 1893: Beiträge zur Morphologie und Physiologie der Pflanzenzelle. I. Tübingen.Google Scholar
  133. — und H. Schneider, 1922: Die botanische Mikrotechnik. Jena.Google Scholar
  134. Henkel, P. A., 1950: The Adaptive Significance of Dormancy in Plants. (Abstr.) Internat. Bot. Congr. Stockholm 1950.Google Scholar
  135. Huber, B., und R. W. Kolbe, 1948: Elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungen an Siebröhren. Svensk. Bot. Tidskr. 42, 362–371.Google Scholar
  136. Huber, B., E. Kinder, E. Obermüller, und H. Ziegenspeck, 1956: Spaltöffnungs-Dünnst-schnitte im Elektronenmikroskop. Protoplasma 46, 380–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Lambertz, P., 1954: Über das Vorkommen von Plasmodesmen in den Epidermis-außenwänden. Planta 44, 147–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Laubert, R., 1897: Untersuchungen von pflanzlichen Zellmembranen auf eine Durchlöcherung mittels Protoplasma einschließlich einiger strittiger Fälle über den Nachweis von Protoplasmaverbindungen. Dissert. Göttingen.Google Scholar
  139. Scott, F. M., and M. Lewis, 1953: Pits, Intercellular Spaces, and Internal “Suberi-sation” in the Apical Meristems of Ricinus communis and other plants. Bot. Gaz. 114, 253–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Scott, F. M., K. C. Hammer, E. Baker, and E. Bowler 1956: Electron Microscope Studies of Cell Wall Growth in the Onion Root. Airier. J. Bot. 43, 313–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Strugger, S., 1956: Die Uranylacetat-Kontrastrierung für die elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchung von Pflanzenzellen. Naturw. 43, 357–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Strugger, S., 1957a: Der elektronenmikroskopische Nachweis von Plasmodesmen mit Hilfe-der Uranylimprägnierung an Wurzelmeristemen. Protoplasma 48, 231–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Struggeb, S., 1957 b: Elektronenmikroskopische Beobachtungen an den Plasmodesmen des Urmeristems der Wurzelspitze von Allium cepa; ein Beitrag zur Kritik der Fixation und zur Beurteilung elektronenmikroskopischer Größenangaben. Protoplasma 48, 365–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Toriyama, H., 1953: Observational and Experimental Studies of Sensitive Plants. I. The Structure of Parenchymatous Cells of Pulvinus. Cytologia 18, 283–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Toriyama, H. 1954a: II. On the Changes in Motor Cells of Diurnal and Noctural Condition. Cytologia 19, 29–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Toriyama, H. 1954b: III. On the Epidermal System of the Pulvinus and Leaflet. Cytologia 19, 286–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Toriyama, H. 1955a: IV. Some Findings on the Structure of the Epidermal System and the Cortex of the Petiole. Cytologia 20, 237–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Toriyama, H. 1955b: V. The Development of the Tannin Vacuole in the Motor Cell of the Pulvinus. Bot. Mag. Tokyo 68, 805–806.Google Scholar
  149. Toriyama, H. 1955c: VI. The Migration of Potassium in the Primary Pulvinus. Cytologia 20, 367–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Weis, A., 1926: Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Plasmahaut. Planta 1, 145–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Ziegenspeck, H., 1953: Anlage und Teilung der Tüpfel des sich stark streckenden Grundgewebes im Lichte der Dichroskopie. Phyton (Ann. Rei. Bot.) 4, 300–310.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag in Vienna 1957

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. D. J. Meeuse
    • 1
  1. 1.PretoriaSüdafrika

Personalised recommendations