Reproductive Issues in Multiple Sclerosis: Parental MS and Child Outcomes (The Research Perspective)

  • Neda Razaz
  • K. S. Joseph
  • Ruth Ann Marrie
  • Helen Tremlett
Chapter

Abstract

Approximately 10% of children live in households where a parent has a chronic illness and many children are exposed to a parent coping with a potentially disabling chronic condition, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). The disease course of MS is largely unpredictable. The uncertainty over future disability constitutes a potential threat to a patient’s mental health and makes MS a particularly challenging illness. Furthermore, due to an array of potential health effects, including physical and cognitive disability, and the caregiving tasks MS imposes on the family members, the disease may compromise parenting and cause considerable stress and anxiety on patients and their families. Indeed, childhood anxiety is a common factor identified in the sparse literature examining children of parents with MS. Few studies have shown that children with an MS parent are at risk for adjustment disorders, particularly internalizing difficulties, which could cause depressive disorders later in life. Nevertheless, not all such experiences result in negative impacts: studies have associated parental chronic illness, such as MS, with positive outcomes such as pro-social behavior and higher personal competence.

References

  1. 1.
    Irwin LG, Siddiqi A, Hertzman C. Early child development: a powerful equalizer: final report. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2007.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hertzman C, Power C, Matthews S, Manor O. Child development as a determinant of health across the life course. Curr Pediatr. 2004;14:438–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Irwin L, Johnson J, Dahinten S, Henderson A, Hertzman C. Examining how contexts shape children’s perspectives of health. Child Care Health Dev. 2007;33:353–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hertzman C. Population health and human development. In: Daniel P, Hertzman C, editors. Developmental health and the wealth of nations: social, biological, and educational dynamics New York. New York: Guilford Press; 1999. p. 21–40.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mash EJ, Barkely RA. Child psychopathology. 2nd ed. New York: The Guilford Press; 2003.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Barkmann C, Romer G, Watson M, Schulte-Markwort M. Parental physical illness as a risk for psychosocial maladjustment in children and adolescents: epidemiological findings from a national survey in Germany. Psychosomatics. 2007;48:476–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sieh DS, Visser-Meily JM, Meijer AM. Differential outcomes of adolescents with chronically ill and healthy parents. J Child Fam Stud. 2013;22:209–18.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sieh DS, Meijer AM, Oort FJ, Visser-Meily JM, Van der Leij DA. Problem behavior in children of chronically ill parents: a meta-analysis. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev. 2010;13:384–97.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Growing Up Strong: Supporting the Children of Parents with MS [online]. Available at: mssociety.ca/en/pdf/GrowingUpStrongLiteratureReview.pdf. Accessed 26 Jun 2015.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sieh DS, Visser-Meily JM, Oort FJ, Meijer AM. Risk factors for problem behavior in adolescents of parents with a chronic medical condition. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2012;21:459–71.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Murray TJ. The psychosocial aspects of multiple sclerosis. Neurol Clin. 1995;13:197–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Diareme S, Tsiantis J, Kolaitis G, et al. Emotional and behavioural difficulties in children of parents with multiple sclerosis: a controlled study in Greece. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2006;15:309–18.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Steck B, Amsler F, Grether A, et al. Mental health problems in children of somatically ill parents, e.g. multiple sclerosis. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2007;16:199–207.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Paliokosta E, Diareme S, Kolaitis G, et al. Breaking bad news: communication around parental multiple sclerosis with children. Fam Syst Health. 2009;27:64–76.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bogosian A, Moss-Morris R, Hadwin J. Psychosocial adjustment in children and adolescents with a parent with multiple sclerosis: a systematic review. Clin Rehabil. 2010;24:789–801.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kouzoupis AB, Paparrigopoulos T, Soldatos M, Papadimitriou GN. The family of the multiple sclerosis patient: a psychosocial perspective. Int Rev Psychiatry. 2010;22:83–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Crick NR, Zahn-Waxler C. The development of psychopathology in females and males: current progress and future challenges. Dev Psychopathol. 2003;15:719–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Turpin M, Leech C, Hackenberg L. Living with parental multiple sclerosis: children's experiences and clinical implications. Can J Occup Ther. 2008;75:149–56.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kikuchi JF. The reported quality of life of children and adolescents of parents with multiple sclerosis. Recent Adv Nurs. 1987;16:163–91.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Olgas M. The relationship between parents' health status and body image of their children. Nurs Res. 1974;23:319–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Razaz N, Nourian R, Marrie RA, Boyce WT, Tremlett H. Children's and adolescents adjustment to parental multiple sclerosis: a systematic review. BMC Neurol. 2014;14:107.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Peters LC, Esses LM. Family environment as perceived by children with a chronically ill parent. J Chronic Dis. 1985;38:301–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bogosian A, Moss-Morris R, Bishop FL, Hadwin J. How do adolescents adjust to their parent's multiple sclerosis? An interview study. Br J Health Psychol. 2011;16:430–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Deatrick JA, Brennan D, Cameron ME. Mothers with multiple sclerosis and their children: effects of fatigue and exacerbations on maternal support. Nurs Res. 1998;47:205–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yahav R, Vosburgh J, Miller A. Separation-individuation processes of adolescent children of parents with multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2007;13:87–94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pakenham KI, Cox S. The nature of caregiving in children of a parent with multiple sclerosis from multiple sources and the associations between caregiving activities and youth adjustment overtime. Psychol Health. 2012;27:324–46.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pakenham KI, Bursnall S. Relations between social support, appraisal and coping and both positive and negative outcomes for children of a parent with multiple sclerosis and comparisons with children of healthy parents. Clin Rehabil. 2006;20:709–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Yahav R, Vosburgh J, Miller A. Emotional responses of children and adolescents to parents with multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2005;11:464–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Crist P. Contingent interaction during work and play tasks for mothers with multiple sclerosis and their daughters. Am J Occup Ther. 1993;47:121–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    De Judicibus MA, McCabe MP. The impact of parental multiple sclerosis on the adjustment of children and adolescents. Adolescence. 2004;39:551–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Blackford KA. A child's growing up with a parent who has multiple sclerosis: theories and experiences. Disabil Soc. 1999;14:673–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Pakenham KI. The positive impact of multiple sclerosis (MS) on careers: associations between carer benefit finding and positive and negative adjustment domains. Disabil Rehabil. 2005;27:985–97.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Warren S, Turpin K, Pohar S, Jones C, Warren K. Comorbidity and health-related quality of life in people with multiple sclerosis. Int J MS Care. 2009;11:6–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Steck B, Amsler F, Kappos L, Burgin D. Gender-specific differences in the process of coping in families with a parent affected by a chronic somatic disease (e.g. multiple sclerosis). Psychopathology. 2001;34:236–44.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ehrensperger MM, Grether A, Romer G, et al. Neuropsychological dysfunction, depression, physical disability, and coping processes in families with a parent affected by multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2008;14:1106–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Paliokosta E, Diareme S, Kolaitis G, et al. Breaking bad news: communication around parental multiple sclerosis with children. Fam Syst Health. 2009;27:64–76.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Nilsagard Y, Bostrom K. Informing the children when a parent is diagnosed as having multiple sclerosis. Int J MS Care. 2015;17:42–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Cross T, Rintell D. Children's perceptions of parental multiple sclerosis. Psychol Health Med. 1999;4:355–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Coles AR, Pakenham KI, Leech C. Evaluation of an intensive psychosocial intervention for children of parents with multiple sclerosis. Rehabil Psychol. 2007;52:133–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hadjimichael O, Vollmer T, Oleen-Burkey M. Fatigue characteristics in multiple sclerosis: the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) survey. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2008;6:100.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    White CP, King K. Is maternal fatigue mediating the relationship between maternal depression and child outcomes? J Child Fam Stud. 2011;20:844–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Razaz N, Tremlett H, Boyce WT, Guhn M, Joseph K, Marrie RA. Impact of parental multiple sclerosis on early childhood development: a retrospective cohort study. Mult Scler. 2015;21:1172–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Razaz N, Joseph KS, Boyce WT, et al. Children of chronically ill parents: Relationship between parental multiple sclerosis and childhood developmental health. Mult Scler J. 2015. In press.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Janus M, Brinkman S, Duku E, et al. The early development instrument: a population-based measure for communities. A book on development, properties, and use. Hamilton: Offord Centre for Child Studies; 2007.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Razaz N, Tremlett H, Boyce T, et al. Incidence of mood or anxiety disorders in children of parents with multiple sclerosis. Paediatric and perinatal epidemiology. 2016;30(4):356–66.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Razaz N, Tremlett H, Marrie RA, Joseph KS. Peripartum depression in parents with multiple sclerosis and psychiatric disorders in children. Mult Scler J. 2016. In press.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Falkov A. Parental psychiatric disorder: translating The Family Model into practice change. In: Reupert A, Maybery D, Nicholson J, Göpfert M, Seeman Frontmatter MV, editors. Parental psychiatric disorder: distressed parents and their families. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2015. p. 277–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Shonkoff JP, Garner AS, Siegel BS, et al. The lifelong effects of early childhood adversity and toxic stress. Pediatrics. 2012;129:e232–46.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Holden GW, Vittrup B, Rosen LH. Families, parenting, and discipline. In: Underwood MK, Rosen LH, editors. Social development relationships in infancy, childhood, and adolescence. New York: Guilford Publications; 2011. p. 127–52.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Evans GW, Li D, Whipple SS. Cumulative risk and child development. Psychol Bull. 2013;139:1342–96.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Rutter M. Stress, coping and development: some issues and some questions. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 1981;22:323–56.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Heim C, Binder EB. Current research trends in early life stress and depression: review of human studies on sensitive periods, gene–environment interactions, and epigenetics. Exp Neurol. 2012;233:102–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hertzman C, Boyce T. How experience gets under the skin to create gradients in developmental health. Annu Rev Public Health. 2010;31:347–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kim-Cohen J, Caspi A, Moffitt TE, Harrington H, Milne BJ, Poulton R. Prior juvenile diagnoses in adults with mental disorder: developmental follow-back of a prospective-longitudinal cohort. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003;60:709–17.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Wickramaratne P, Gameroff MJ, Pilowsky DJ, et al. Children of depressed mothers 1 year after remission of maternal depression: findings from the STAR* D-Child study. Am J Psychiatry. 2011;168:593–602.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Early childhood development: adverse experiences and developmental health. Ottawa: Royal Society of Canada-Canadian Academy of Health Sciences Expert Panel (with Ronald Barr, Thomas Boyce, Alison Fleming, Harriet MacMillan, Candice Odgers, Marla Sokolowski, & Nico Trocmé), 2012.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Harrison T, Stuifbergen A. Disability, social support, and concern for children: depression in mothers with multiple sclerosis. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2002;31:444–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Gulick EE. Postpartum functioning in mothers with multiple sclerosis. West J Nurs Res. 2007;29:589–602; discussion 603–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Neda Razaz
    • 1
    • 2
  • K. S. Joseph
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ruth Ann Marrie
    • 3
  • Helen Tremlett
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.School of Population and Public HealthFaculty of Medicine, University of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  2. 2.Department of Obstetrics and GynaecologyFaculty of Medicine, University of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  3. 3.Departments of Internal Medicine and Community Health SciencesUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada
  4. 4.Division of Neurology, Centre for Brain Health and Department of MedicineFaculty of Medicine, University of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  5. 5.Vancouver Coastal Health Research InstituteVancouverCanada

Personalised recommendations