Definitions and Subdivisions of Space Bioastronautical Aspect

  • Hubertus Strughold
Conference paper


Whenever matters of astronautics are discussed, the word space is used in a great variety of ways, such as outer space, deep space, free space, interplanetary space, cosmic space, and so on. But space is an immensely vast area even within our solar system and its environmental conditions are by no means uniform. We need an exact definition of what is meant by these terms, where above the earth’s surface space begins, and what subdivisions of space may be conceivable and practical. In brief, we now need a kind of “geography of space,”—what we might call spatiography. This field refers, of course, only to the empty space itself. The description of the environmental conditions on the celestial bodies is called planetography of which geography (Earth), areography (Mars), and selenography (Moon) are special cases. Both spatiography and planetography are subdivisions of an all embracing cosmography. In the following we shall confine our discussion to the space of the solar system based essentially on space medical considerations or on bioastronautics. A spatiography of this kind may also be useful for other aspects of astronautics such as space technology and space law.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1959

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hubertus Strughold
    • 1
  1. 1.Air University, School of Aviation MedicineU.S.A.F., Randolph Air Force BaseUSA

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