Lesions of Basal Ganglia, Brain Stem and Cord

  • Reinhard L. Friede

Abstract

Marbled state of the basal ganglia was described first by Anton (1893) for a 9-year-old choreo-athetotic boy in whom abnormal whitish areas and interspaced irregular zones of gray matter were found in the posterior halves of both putamina. Microscopic examination showed scar tissue containing myelinated nerve fibers. Anton concluded that the lesions were residual to vascular softenings dating to the first year of life, and were the anatomical substrate of the chorea. Vogt and Vogt (1920, 1926) and their co-workers reported several cases of the disease, which they considered a congenital selective malformation of the striatum; they introduced the terms “état marbré” or “status marmoratus”. Their interpretation was not sustained in subsequent clinico-pathological studies in which the relation between marbled state and complicated birth or postnatal disease processes was documented (Norman, 1947; Malamud, 1950). Scholz (1924) had emphasized the correspondence between areas of abnormal myelin staining and zones of glial scarring.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams, J. H., Cameron, H. M.: Obstetrical paralysis due to ischaemia of the spinal cord. Arch. Dis. Child. 40: 93–96, 1965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexander, L.: The fundamental types of histopathological changes encountered in cases of athetonis and paralysis agitans. A. Research Nerv. Ment. Dis., Proc. (1940) 21: 334–493, 1942.Google Scholar
  3. Anton, G.: Ober die Beteiligung der basalen Gehirnganglien bei Bewegungsstörungen bei der Chorea. Wien. klin. Wschr. 6: 859–861, 1893.Google Scholar
  4. Bailey, L. J., Windle, W. F.: Neurological, psychological and neurohistological defects following asphyxia neonatorum in the guinea pig. Exp. Neurol. 1: 467–482, 1959.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Belloni, G. B.: Sulla istopatologia dello status marmoratus e delle placche fibromieliniche. Proc. 1st Int. Congr. Neuropath. 2: 235–241, 1952.Google Scholar
  6. Bielschowsky, M.: Ober den Status marmoratus des Striatums und atypische Markfasergeflechte der Hirnrinde. J. Psychol. Neurol. (Lpz.) 31: 121–151, 1924.Google Scholar
  7. Biemond, A.: Hypoplasia ponto-neocerebellaris with malformation of the dentate nucleus. Fol. Psych. Neurol. Neurochir. Neerl. 58: 2–7, 1955.Google Scholar
  8. Bignami, A., Ralston, H. J., III.: Myelination of fibrillary astroglial processes in long term Wallerian degeneration. The possible relationship to “status marmoratus”. Brain Res. 11: 710–713, 1868.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Borit, A., Herndon, R. M.: The fine structure of plaques fibromyeliniques in ulegyria and in status marmoratus. Acta Neuropath. 14: 304–311, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brun, R.: Zur Kenntnis der Bildungsfehler des Kleinhirns. Schweiz. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. 1: 61–123, 1917;Google Scholar
  11. Brun, R.: Zur Kenntnis der Bildungsfehler des Kleinhirns. Schweiz. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. 2: 48–105 1917;Google Scholar
  12. Brun, R.: Zur Kenntnis der Bildungsfehler des Kleinhirns. Schweiz. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. 3: 13–88, 1918.Google Scholar
  13. Carpenter, M. B.: Status marmoratus of the thalamus and striatum (associated with athetosis and dystonia). Neurology 5: 139–146, 1955.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Case, T. J.: Status marmoratus related to early encephalitis. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. 31: 817–823, 1934.Google Scholar
  15. Christensen, E., Stubbe Teglbiaerg, H. P.: Double athetosis with status marmoratus. Acta Psychiat. Neurol. 21: 177–194, 1946.Google Scholar
  16. Faro, M. D., Windle, W. F.: Transneuronal degeneration in brains of monkeys asphyxiated at birth. Exp. Neurol. 24: 38–53, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Friede, R. L.: Ponto-subicular lesions in perinatal anoxia. Arch. Path. 94: 343–354, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Hallervorden, J.: Ober eine Kohlenoxydvergiftung im Fetalleben mit Entwicklungsstörung der Hirnrinde. Allg. Z. Psychiat. 124: 289–298, 1949.Google Scholar
  19. Hicks, S. P., Cavanaugh, M. C., O’Brien, E. D.: Effects of anoxia on the developing cerebral cortex in the rat. Amer. J. Path. 40: 615–635, 1962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Jacob, H.: Dissociation glio-myélinique und Hämatoxylinaffinität von Gliafasern. Acta neuropath. (Berl.), Suppl. IV: 158–164, 1968.Google Scholar
  21. Jolly, G. F., Norman, R. M.: Co-existing intra- and extra-uterine pregnancy associated with cerebral malformation in the surviving twin. J. Obstet. Gynaec. 72: 125–130, 1965.Google Scholar
  22. Juba, A.: Ober eine frühinfantile Großhirnmißbildung (Polyporencephalie und Status marmoratus). Z. Neurol. Psychiat. 157: 622–635, 1937.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Koster, S.: Two cases of hypoplasia pontoneocerebellaris. Acta Psychiat. Neurol. 1: 47–83, 1926.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Krause, F.: Ober einen Bildungsfehler des Kleinhirnes und einige faseranatomische Beziehungen des Organs. Z. ges. Neurol. Psychiat. 119: 788–815, 1929.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Larroche, J. C.: Nécrose cérébrale massive chez le nouveau-né. Biol. Neonat. 13: 340–360, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Löwenberg, K., Malamud, W.: Status marmoratus. Etiology and manner of development. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. 29: 104–124, 1933.Google Scholar
  27. MacAdams, A. J.: Pulmonary hemorrhage in the newborn. Amer. J. Dis. Child. 113: 255–262, 1967.Google Scholar
  28. Malamud, N.: Status marmoratus. A form of cerebral palsy following either birth injury or inflammation of the central nervous system. J. Pediat. 37: 610–619, 1950.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Miller, J. R., Myers, R. E.: Neuropathology of systemic circulatory arrest in adult monkeys. Neurology 22: 888–904, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Myers, R. E.: Atrophic cortical sclerosis associated with status marmoratus in a perinatally damaged monkey. Neurology 19: 1177–1188, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Myers, R. E.: Brain damage induced by umbilical cord compression at different gestational ages in monkeys. Medical Primatology 1970. Proc. 2nd Conf. exp. Med. Surg. Primates, New York 1969, pp. 394–425. Basel: Karger 1971.Google Scholar
  32. Norman, R. M.: Etat marbré of corpus striatum following birth injury. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 10: 12–25, 1947.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Norman, R. M.: Etat marbré of the thalamus following birth injury. Brain 72: 83–89, 1949.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Norman, R. M.: Urich, H.: Cerebellar hypoplasia associated with systemic degeneration in early life. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 21: 159–166, 1958.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Pfeiffer, F.: Chorea Athetose bei der Little-Lähmung. Arch. Psychiat. 72: 728–754, 1925.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ranck, J. B., Windle, W. F.: Brain damage in the monkey, Macaca mulatta by asphyxia neonatorum. Exp. Brain Res. 1: 130–154, 1959.Google Scholar
  37. Rosales, R. K., Riggs, H. E.: Symmetrical thalamic degeneration in infants. J. Neuropath. exp. Neurol. 21: 372–376, 1962.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Scherer, H. J.: Beiträge zur pathologischen Anatomie des Kleinhirnes. III. Genuine Kleinhirnatrophien. Z. ges. Neurol. Psychiat. 145: 335–405, 1933.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Scholz, W.: Zur Kenntnis des Status marmoratus. Infantile partielle Striatumsklerose. Z. Neurol. Psychiat. 88: 355–383, 1924.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Scholz, W.: Wake, I., Peters, G.: Der Status marmoratus, ein Beispiel systemähnlicher Hirnveränderungen auf der Grundlage von Kreislaufstörungen. Z. Neurol. Psychiat. 163: 193–232, 1938.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Skullerud, K., Torvik, A., Skaare-Botner, L.: Progressive degeneration of the cerebral cortex in infancy. Acta Neuropath. 24: 153–160, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sylvester, P.: Marbling and perinatal anoxia. Acta Pediat. 49: 338–344, 1960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Vogt, C., Vogt, O.: Zur Lehre der Erkrankungen des striären Systems. J. Psychiat. Neurol. 25: 627–846, 1920.Google Scholar
  44. Vogt, C., Vogt, O.: Die nosologische Stellung des Status marmoratus des Striatum. Psychiat.-neurol. Wschr. 28: 85–87, 1926.Google Scholar
  45. Windle, W. F.: Neuropathology of certain forms of mental retardation. Science 140: 1186–1189, 1963.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Windle, W. F.: Becker, R. F., Weil, A.: Alterations in brain structure after asphyxiation at birth. An experimental study in the guinea pig. J. Neuropath. exp. Neurol. 3: 224–238, 1944.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Reinhard L. Friede
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Case Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA
  2. 2.University of ZurichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations