Stress and the Immune System

Chapter

Abstract

In this chapter, we provide an overview of how stress affects immune functioning and examine evidence in the literature regarding various intrapersonal and interpersonal factors that may exacerbate or buffer the health effects of stress and its related immune manifestations. We first review some basic information concerning the immune system to provide the reader with necessary background. We then present the primary pathways by which stress impacts the immune system, including the sympathetic nervous system, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and vagal withdrawal. Next, we discuss how the immune response varies and even goes awry, depending on the nature of the stress (acute versus chronic). Additionally, we discuss how the immune response varies depending upon the individual within whom the stress is occurring; specifically, we focus on various intrapersonal and interpersonal factors associated with immune functioning. Intrapersonal factors reviewed include rumination, emotion regulation, alexithymia, psychological stress, optimism, and positive affect. Interpersonal factors reviewed include close relationship and family processes such as negative and positive behaviors, ambivalence towards a relationship partner, social rejection and social isolation, and early life adversity. To conclude, we highlight some substantive and methodological considerations relevant to future research on the effects of stress on immunity.

Keywords

Positive Affect Emotion Regulation Strategy Parasympathetic Nervous System Dispositional Optimism Social Rejection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Andreasson AN, Szulkin R, Undén A-L, von Essen J, Nilsson L-G, Lekander M (2013) Inflammation and positive affect are associated with subjective health in women of the general population. J Health Psychol 18(3):311–320PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Antoni MH, Lutgendorf SK, Cole SW, Dhabhar FS, Sephton SE, McDonald PG, Stefanek M, Sood AK (2006) The influence of bio-behavioural factors on tumour biology: pathways and mechanisms. Nat Rev Cancer 6(3):240–248PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Appleton AA, Buka SL, Loucks EB, Gilman SE, Kubzansky LD (2013) Divergent associations of adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies with inflammation. Health Psychol 32(7):748–756PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aschbacher K, Epel E, Wolkowitz O, Prather A, Puterman E, Dhabhar F (2012) Maintenance of a positive outlook during acute stress protects against pro-inflammatory reactivity and future depressive symptoms. Brain Behav Immun 26(2):346–352PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barton GM (2008) A calculated response: control of inflammation by the innate immune system. J Clin Invest 118(2):413PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Black PH (2002) Stress and the inflammatory response: a review of neurogenic inflammation. Brain Behav Immun 16(6):622–653PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Borovikova LV, Ivanova S, Zhang M, Yang H, Botchkina GI, Watkins LR, Wang H, Abumrad N, Eaton JW, Tracey KJ (2000) Vagus nerve stimulation attenuates the systemic inflammatory response to endotoxin. Nature 405(6785):458–462PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brosschot JF, Gerin W, Thayer JF (2006) The perseverative cognition hypothesis: a review of worry, prolonged stress-related physiological activation, and health. J Psychosom Res 60(2):113–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brown GW, Harris T (1978) Social origins of depression: a study of psychiatric disorder in women. Free Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. Bruni R, Serino F, Galluzzo S, Coppolino G, Cacciapaglia F, Vadacca M, Nilo S, Terminio N, Afeltra A (2006) Alexithymia and neuroendocrine-immune response in patients with autoimmune diseases. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1069(1):208–211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brydon L, Walker C, Wawrzyniak AJ, Chart H, Steptoe A (2009) Dispositional optimism and stress-induced changes in immunity and negative mood. Brain Behav Immun 23(6):810–816PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cacioppo JT (1998) Somatic responses to psychological stress: the reactivity hypothesis. In: Sabourin M, Craik F, Robert M (eds) Advances in psychological science, vol 2. Psychology Press, New York, pp 87–112Google Scholar
  13. Carpenter LL, Gawuga CE, Tyrka AR, Lee JK, Anderson GM, Price LH (2010) Association between plasma IL-6 response to acute stress and early-life adversity in healthy adults. Neuropsychopharmacology 35(13):2617–2623PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cohen S, Kamarck T, Mermelstein R (1983) A global measure of perceived stress. J Health Soc Behav 24(4):385–396PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cohen S, Tyrrell DA, Smith AP (1993) Negative life events, perceived stress, negative affect, and susceptibility to the common cold. J Pers Soc Psychol 64(1):131–140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cohen S, Frank E, Doyle WJ, Skoner DP, Rabin BS, Gwaltney JM Jr (1998) Types of stressors that increase susceptibility to the common cold in healthy adults. Health Psychol 17(3):214–223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cohen F, Kearney KA, Zegans LS, Kemeny ME, Neuhaus JM, Stites DP (1999) Differential immune system changes with acute and persistent stress for optimists vs pessimists. Brain Behav Immun 13(2):155–174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cohen S, Miller GE, Rabin BS (2001) Psychological stress and antibody response to immunization: a critical review of the human literature. Psychosom Med 63(1):7–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cohen S, Janicki-Deverts D, Miller GE (2007) Psychological stress and disease. JAMA 298(14):1685–1687PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cole SW, Hawkley LC, Arevalo JM, Cacioppo JT (2011) Transcript origin analysis identifies antigen-presenting cells as primary targets of socially regulated gene expression in leukocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci 108(7):3080–3085PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Corcos M, Guilbaud O, Paterniti S, Curt F, Hjalmarsson L, Moussa M, Chambry J, Loas G, Chaouat G, Jeammet P (2004) Correlation between serum levels of interleukin-4 and alexithymia scores in healthy female subjects: preliminary findings. Psychoneuroendocrinology 29(5):686–691PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Danese A, Pariante CM, Caspi A, Taylor A, Poulton R (2007) Childhood maltreatment predicts adult inflammation in a life-course study. Proc Natl Acad Sci 104(4):1319–1324PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Danese A, Moffitt TE, Pariante CM, Ambler A, Poulton R, Caspi A (2008) Elevated inflammation levels in depressed adults with a history of childhood maltreatment. Arch Gen Psychiatry 65(4):409–415PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Danesh J, Wheeler JG, Hirschfield GM, Eda S, Eiriksdottir G, Rumley A, Lowe GD, Pepys MB, Gudnason V (2004) C-reactive protein and other circulating markers of inflammation in the prediction of coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med 350(14):1387–1397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dantzer R, O’Connor JC, Freund GG, Johnson RW, Kelley KW (2008) From inflammation to sickness and depression: when the immune system subjugates the brain. Nat Rev Neurosci 9(1):46–56PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dewaraja R, Tanigawa T, Araki S, Nakata A, Kawamura N, Ago Y, Sasaki Y (1997) Decreased cytotoxic lymphocyte counts in alexithymia. Psychother Psychosom 66(2):83–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dhabhar FS, McEwen BS (1997) Acute stress enhances while chronic stress suppresses cell-mediated immunity in vivo: a potential role for leukocyte trafficking. Brain Behav Immun 11(4):286–306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dhabhar FS, McEwen BS (2007) Bidirectional effects of stress on immune function: possible explanations for salubrious as well as harmful effects. In: Ader R (ed) Psychoneuroimmunology, vol 2, 4th edn. Elsevier, New York, pp 723–760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dhabhar FS, Malarkey WB, Neri E, McEwen BS (2012) Stress-induced redistribution of immune cells—from barracks to boulevards to battlefields: a tale of three hormones–Curt Richter Award Winner. Psychoneuroendocrinology 37(9):1345–1368PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ditzen B, Neumann ID, Bodenmann G, von Dawans B, Turner RA, Ehlert U, Heinrichs M (2007) Effects of different kinds of couple interaction on cortisol and heart rate responses to stress in women. Psychoneuroendocrinology 32(5):565–574PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Doyle WJ, Gentile DA, Cohen S (2006) Emotional style, nasal cytokines, and illness expression after experimental rhinovirus exposure. Brain Behav Immun 20(2):175–181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dyck DG, Short R, Vitaliano PP (1999) Predictors of burden and infectious illness in schizophrenia caregivers. Psychosom Med 61(4):411–419PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Elenkov IJ (2008) Neurohormonal-cytokine interactions: implications for inflammation, common human diseases and well-being. Neurochem Int 52(1):40–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Elenkov IJ, Wilder RL, Chrousos GP, Vizi ES (2000) The sympathetic nerve—an integrative interface between two supersystems: the brain and the immune system. Pharmacol Rev 52(4):595–638PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Ershler WB, Keller ET (2000) Age-associated increased interleukin-6 gene expression, late-life diseases, and frailty. Annu Rev Med 51(1):245–270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ganea D, Delgado M (2001) Inhibitory neuropeptide receptors on macrophages. Microbes Infect 3(2):141–147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gianaros PJ, Marsland AL, Kuan DC-H, Schirda BL, Jennings JR, Sheu LK, Hariri AR, Gross JJ, Manuck SB (2014) An inflammatory pathway links atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk to neural activity evoked by the cognitive regulation of emotion. Biol Psychiatry 75:738–745PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Glaser R, Kiecolt-Glaser JK (2005) Stress-induced immune dysfunction: implications for health. Nat Rev Immunol 5(3):243–251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Glaser R, Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Malarkey WB, Sheridan JF (1998) The influence of psychological stress on the immune response to vaccines. Ann N Y Acad Sci 840(1):649–655PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Glaser R, Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Marucha PT, MacCallum RC, Laskowski BF, Malarkey WB (1999) Stress-related changes in proinflammatory cytokine production in wounds. Arch Gen Psychiatry 56(5):450–456PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gouin J-P, Carter CS, Pournajafi-Nazarloo H, Glaser R, Malarkey WB, Loving TJ, Stowell JJ, Kiecolt-Glaser JK (2010) Marital behavior, oxytocin, vasopressin, and wound healing. Psychoneuroendocrinology 35(7):1082–1090PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Graham JE, Glaser R, Loving TJ, Malarkey WB, Stowell JR, Kiecolt-Glaser JK (2009) Cognitive word use during marital conflict and increases in proinflammatory cytokines. Health Psychol 28(5):621–630PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gross JJ (1998) Antecedent-and response-focused emotion regulation: divergent consequences for experience, expression, and physiology. J Pers Soc Psychol 74(1):224–237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gross JJ, John OP (2003) Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. J Pers Soc Psychol 85(2):348PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Guilbaud O, Corcos M, Hjalmarsson L, Loas G, Jeammet P (2003) Is there a psychoneuroimmunological pathway between alexithymia and immunity? Immune and physiological correlates of alexithymia. Biomed Pharmacother 57(7):292–295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Guilbaud O, Curt F, Perrin C, Chaouat G, Berthoz S, Dugré-Le Bigre C, Wallier J, Strebler M, Touitou C, Jeammet P (2009) Decreased immune response in alexithymic women: a cross-sectional study. Biomed Pharmacother 63(4):297–304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hackett RA, Hamer M, Endrighi R, Brydon L, Steptoe A (2012) Loneliness and stress-related inflammatory and neuroendocrine responses in older men and women. Psychoneuroendocrinology 37(11):1801–1809PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Haensel A, Mills PJ, Nelesen RA, Ziegler MG, Dimsdale JE (2008) The relationship between heart rate variability and inflammatory markers in cardiovascular diseases. Psychoneuroendocrinology 33(10):1305–1312PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hänsel A, Hong S, Cámara RJ, Von Kaenel R (2010) Inflammation as a psychophysiological biomarker in chronic psychosocial stress. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 35(1):115–121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hansson GK (2005) Inflammation, atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med 352(16):1685–1695PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Holt-Lunstad J, Smith TB, Layton JB (2010) Social relationships and mortality risk: a meta-analytic review. PLoS Med 7(7):1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hotamisligil GS (2006) Inflammation and metabolic disorders. Nature 444(7121):860–867PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hoyt MA, Stanton AL, Bower JE, Thomas KS, Litwin MS, Breen EC, Irwin MR (2013) Inflammatory biomarkers and emotional approach coping in men with prostate cancer. Brain Behav Immun 32:173–179PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ikeda A, Schwartz J, Peters JL, Fang S, Spiro A, Sparrow D, Vokonas P, Kubzansky LD (2011) Optimism in relation to inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in older men: the VA Normative Aging Study. Psychosom Med 73(8):664–671PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Irwin MR (2008) Human psychoneuroimmunology: 20 years of discovery. Brain Behav Immun 22(2):129–139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Irwin MR, Cole SW (2011) Reciprocal regulation of the neural and innate immune systems. Nat Rev Immunol 11(9):625–632PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Janszky I, Ericson M, Lekander M, Blom M, Buhlin K, Georgiades A, Ahnve S (2004) Inflammatory markers and heart rate variability in women with coronary heart disease. J Intern Med 256(5):421–428PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Jaremka LM, Fagundes CP, Peng J, Bennett JM, Glaser R, Malarkey WB, Kiecolt-Glaser JK (2013a) Loneliness promotes inflammation during acute stress. Psychol Sci 24(7):1089–1097PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Jaremka LM, Glaser R, Malarkey WB, Kiecolt-Glaser JK (2013b) Marital distress prospectively predicts poorer cellular immune function. Psychoneuroendocrinology 38(11):2713–2719PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Jaremka LM, Lindgren ME, Kiecolt-Glaser JK (2013c) Synergistic relationships among stress, depression, and troubled relationships: insights from psychoneuroimmunology. Depress Anxiety 30(4):288–296PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kemeny ME, Schedlowski M (2007) Understanding the interaction between psychosocial stress and immune-related diseases: a stepwise progression. Brain Behav Immun 21(8):1009–1018PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Fisher LD, Ogrocki P, Stout JC, Speicher CE, Glaser R (1987) Marital quality, marital disruption, and immune function. Psychosom Med 49(1):13–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Kennedy S, Malkoff S, Fisher L, Speicher CE, Glaser R (1988) Marital discord and immunity in males. Psychosom Med 50(3):213–229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Malarkey WB, Chee MA, Newton T, Cacioppo JT, Mao HY, Glaser R (1993) Negative behavior during marital conflict is associated with immunological down-regulation. Psychosom Med 55(5):395–409PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Glaser R, Gravenstein S, Malarkey WB, Sheridan J (1996a) Chronic stress alters the immune response to influenza virus vaccine in older adults. Proc Natl Acad Sci 93(7):3043–3047PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Newton T, Cacioppo JT, MacCallum RC, Glaser R, Malarkey WB (1996b) Marital conflict and endocrine function: are men really more physiologically affected than women? J Consult Clin Psychol 64(2):324–332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Glaser R, Cacioppo JT, MacCallum RC, Snydersmith M, Kim C, Malarkey WB (1997) Marital conflict in older adults: endocrinological and immunological correlates. Psychosom Med 59(4):339–349PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Glaser R, Cacioppo JT, Malarkey WB (1998) Marital stress: immunologic, neuroendocrine, and autonomic correlates. Ann N Y Acad Sci 840:656–663PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kiecolt-Glaser JK, McGuire L, Robles TF, Glaser R (2002) Psychoneuroimmunology: psychological influences on immune function and health. J Consult Clin Psychol 70(3):537PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Loving TJ, Stowell JR, Malarkey WB, Lemeshow S, Dickinson SL, Glaser R (2005) Hostile marital interactions, proinflammatory cytokine production, and wound healing. Arch Gen Psychiatry 62(12):1377–1384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lazarus RS, Folkman S (1984) Stress, appraisal, and coping. Springer Publishing Company LLC., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  72. Maier SF, Watkins LR (1998) Cytokines for psychologists: implications of bidirectional immune-to-brain communication for understanding behavior, mood, and cognition. Psychol Rev 105(1):83–107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Malarkey WB, Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Pearl D, Glaser R (1994) Hostile behavior during marital conflict alters pituitary and adrenal hormones. Psychosom Med 56(1):41–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Mandarelli G, Tarsitani L, Ippoliti F, Covotta F, Zerella MP, Mirigliani A, Biondi M (2011) The relationship between alexithymia and circulating cytokine levels in subjects undergoing upper endoscopy. Neuroimmunomodulation 18(1):37–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Master SL, Amodio DM, Stanton AL, Yee CM, Hilmert CJ, Taylor SE (2009) Neurobiological correlates of coping through emotional approach. Brain Behav Immun 23(1):27–35PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Matsunaga M, Sato S, Isowa T, Tsuboi H, Konagaya T, Kaneko H, Ohira H (2009) Profiling of serum proteins influenced by warm partner contact in healthy couples. Neuro Endocrinol Lett 30(2):227–236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Mayne TJ, O’leary A, McCrady B, Contrada R, Labouvie E (1997) The differential effects of acute marital distress on emotional, physiological and immune functions in maritally distressed men and women. Psychol Health 12(2):277–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. McDade TW (2012) Early environments and the ecology of inflammation. Proc Natl Acad Sci 109:17281–17288PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. McDade TW, Hoke M, Borja JB, Adair LS, Kuzawa C (2013) Do environments in infancy moderate the association between stress and inflammation in adulthood? Initial evidence from a birth cohort in the Philippines. Brain Behav Immun 31:23–30PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. McIntosh, Roger C, Ironson, Gail, Antoni, Michael, Kumar, Mahendra, Fletcher, Mary Ann, Schneiderman, Neil (2014) Alexithymia is linked to neurocognitive, psychological, neuroendocrine, and immune dysfunction in persons living with HIV. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 36:165–175Google Scholar
  81. Medzhitov R (2007) Recognition of microorganisms and activation of the immune response. Nature 449(7164):819–826PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Miller AH, Maletic V, Raison CL (2009a) Inflammation and its discontents: the role of cytokines in the pathophysiology of major depression. Biol Psychiatry 65(9):732–741PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Miller G, Chen E, Cole SW (2009b) Health psychology: developing biologically plausible models linking the social world and physical health. Annu Rev Psychol 60:501–524PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Monroe SM (2008) Modern approaches to conceptualizing and measuring human life stress. Annu Rev Clin Psychol 4(4):33–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Murphy ML, Slavich GM, Rohleder N, Miller GE (2013) Targeted rejection triggers differential pro-and anti-inflammatory gene expression in adolescents as a function of social status. Clin Psychol Sci 1(1):30–40PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Nabipour I, Vahdat K, Jafari SM, Pazoki R, Sanjdideh Z (2006) The association of metabolic syndrome and Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus type 1: the Persian Gulf Healthy Heart Study. Cardiovasc Diabetol 5(25):1–6Google Scholar
  87. Nance DM, Sanders VM (2007) Autonomic innervation and regulation of the immune system (1987–2007). Brain Behav Immun 21(6):736–745PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Pace T, Mletzko T, Alagbe O, Musselman D, Nemeroff C, Miller A, Heim C (2006) Increased stress-induced inflammatory responses in male patients with major depression and increased early life stress. Am J Psychiatry 163(9):1630–1633PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Parkin DM (2006) The global health burden of infection-associated cancers in the year 2002. Int J Cancer 118(12):3030–3044PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Pavlov VA, Tracey KJ (2005) The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Brain Behav Immun 19(6):493–499PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Pedrosa Gil F, Nickel M, Ridout N, Schwarz MJ, Schoechlin C, Schmidmaier R (2007) Alexithymia and interleukin variations in somatoform disorder. Neuroimmunomodulation 14(5):235–242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Prather AA, Marsland AL, Muldoon MF, Manuck SB (2007) Positive affective style covaries with stimulated IL-6 and IL-10 production in a middle-aged community sample. Brain Behav Immun 21(8):1033–1037PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Pressman, Sarah D, & Black, Lora L. (2012). Positive emotions and immunity. In S.C. Segerstrom (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Psychoneuroimmunology. Oxford Press, New York, pp 92–104Google Scholar
  94. Pressman SD, Cohen S, Miller GE, Barkin A, Rabin BS, Treanor JJ (2005) Loneliness, social network size, and immune response to influenza vaccination in college freshmen. Health Psychol 24(3):297–306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Raison C, Miller A (2013) The evolutionary significance of depression in Pathogen Host Defense (PATHOS-D). Mol Psychiatry 18(1):15–37PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Raison CL, Capuron L, Miller AH (2006) Cytokines sing the blues: inflammation and the pathogenesis of depression. Trends Immunol 27(1):24–31PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Raison CL, Lowry CA, Rook GA (2010) Inflammation, sanitation, and consternation: loss of contact with coevolved, tolerogenic microorganisms and the pathophysiology and treatment of major depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 67(12):1211–1224PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Reed RG, Butler EA, Kenny DA (2013) Dyadic models for the study of health. Soc Personal Psychol Compass 7(4):228–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Robles TF, Kiecolt-Glaser JK (2003) The physiology of marriage: pathways to health. Physiol Behav 79(3):409–416PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Robles TF, Glaser R, Kiecolt-Glaser JK (2005) Out of balance a new look at chronic stress, depression, and immunity. Curr Dir Psychol Sci 14(2):111–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Robles TF, Slatcher RB, Trombello JM, McGinn MM (2014) Marital quality and health: a meta-analytic review. Psychol Bull 140(1):140–187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Rohrbaugh MJ, Mehl MR, Shoham V, Reilly ES, Ewy GA (2008) Prognostic significance of spouse we talk in couples coping with heart failure. J Consult Clin Psychol 76(5):781PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Rook GA, Lowry CA, Raison CL (2013) Microbial ‘Old Friends’, immunoregulation and stress resilience. Evol Med Public Health 2013(1):46–64PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Rook GA, Raison CL, Lowry CA (2014) Microbial “Old Friends”, immunoregulation and socio-economic status. Clin Exp Immunol 177:1–12PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Roy B, Diez-Roux AV, Seeman T, Ranjit N, Shea S, Cushman M (2010) Association of optimism and pessimism with inflammation and hemostasis in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Psychosom Med 72(2):134–140PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Sanders VM, Kavelaars A (2007) Adrenergic regulation of immunity. In: Ader R (ed) Psychoneuroimmunology, vol 1, 4th edn. Elsevier/Academic, New York, pp 63–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Scheier MF, Carver CS (1985) Optimism, coping, and health: assessment and implications of generalized outcome expectancies. Health Psychol 4(3):219–247PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Segerstrom SC (2001) Optimism, goal conflict, and stressor-related immune change. J Behav Med 24(5):441–467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Segerstrom SC (2005) Optimism and immunity: do positive thoughts always lead to positive effects? Brain Behav Immun 19(3):195–200PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Segerstrom SC (2006) How does optimism suppress immunity? Evaluation of three affective pathways. Health Psychol 25(5):653–657PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Segerstrom SC, Miller GE (2004) Psychological stress and the human immune system: a meta-analytic study of 30 years of inquiry. Psychol Bull 130(4):601–630PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Segerstrom SC, Castañeda JO, Spencer TE (2003) Optimism effects on cellular immunity: testing the affective and persistence models. Personal Individ Differ 35(7):1615–1624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Slavich GM, Irwin MR (2014) From stress to inflammation and major depressive disorder: a social signal transduction theory of depression. Psychol Bull 140:774–815PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Slavich GM, O’Donovan A, Epel ES, Kemeny ME (2010) Black sheep get the blues: a psychobiological model of social rejection and depression. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 35(1):39–45PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Slopen N, Kubzansky LD, McLaughlin KA, Koenen KC (2013) Childhood adversity and inflammatory processes in youth: a prospective study. Psychoneuroendocrinology 38(2):188–200PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Stanton AL, Danoff-Burg S, Cameron CL, Ellis AP (1994) Coping through emotional approach: problems of conceptualizaton and confounding. J Pers Soc Psychol 66(2):350–362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Steptoe A, Hamer M, Chida Y (2007) The effects of acute psychological stress on circulating inflammatory factors in humans: a review and meta-analysis. Brain Behav Immun 21(7):901–912PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Steptoe A, O’Donnell K, Badrick E, Kumari M, Marmot M (2008) Neuroendocrine and inflammatory factors associated with positive affect in healthy men and women: the Whitehall II Study. Am J Epidemiol 167(1):96–102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Sternberg EM (2006) Neural regulation of innate immunity: a coordinated nonspecific host response to pathogens. Nat Rev Immunol 6(4):318–328PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Sturmberg JP, Martin CM (2013) Handbook of systems and complexity in health. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Thayer J, Fischer J (2009) Heart rate variability, overnight urinary norepinephrine and C-reactive protein: evidence for the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in healthy human adults. J Intern Med 265(4):439–447PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Thomsen DK, Mehlsen MY, Hokland M, Viidik A, Olesen F, Avlund K, Munk K, Zachariae R (2004) Negative thoughts and health: associations among rumination, immunity, and health care utilization in a young and elderly sample. Psychosom Med 66(3):363–371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Todarello O, Casamassima A, Marinaccio M, La Pesa M, Caradonna L, Valentino L, Marinaccio L (1994) Alexithymia, immunity and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: a pilot study. Psychother Psychosom 61(3–4):199–204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Todarello O, Casamassima A, Daniele S, Marinaccio M, Fanciullo F, Valentino L, Tedesco N, Wiesel S, Marinaccio L (1997) Alexithymia, immunity and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: replication. Psychother Psychosom 66(4):208–213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Tracey KJ (2002) The inflammatory reflex. Nature 420:853–859PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Tracey KJ (2009) Reflex control of immunity. Nat Rev Immunol 9(6):418–428PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Uchino BN, Holt-Lunstad J, Uno D, Flinders JB (2001) Heterogeneity in the social networks of young and older adults: prediction of mental health and cardiovascular reactivity during acute stress. J Behav Med 24(4):361–382PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Uchino BN, Bosch JA, Smith TW, Carlisle M, Birmingham W, Bowen KS, Light KC, Heaney J, O’Hartaigh B (2013) Relationships and cardiovascular risk: perceived spousal ambivalence in specific relationship contexts and its links to inflammation. Health Psychol 32(10):1067–1075PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Uchino BN, Smith TW, Berg CA (2014) Spousal relationship quality and cardiovascular risk: dyadic perceptions of relationship ambivalence are associated with coronary-artery calcification. Psychol Sci 25(4):1037–1042PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Webster JI, Tonelli L, Sternberg EM (2002) Neuroendocrine regulation of immunity. Annu Rev Immunol 20(1):125–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Whisman MA, Sbarra DA (2012) Marital adjustment and interleukin-6 (IL-6). J Fam Psychol 26(2):290–295PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Zalli A, Carvalho LA, Lin J, Hamer M, Erusalimsky JD, Blackburn EH, Steptoe A (2014) Shorter telomeres with high telomerase activity are associated with raised allostatic load and impoverished psychosocial resources. Proc Natl Acad Sci 111(12):4519–4524PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Zoccola PM, Figueroa WS, Rabideau EM, Woody A, Benencia F (2014) Differential effects of poststressor rumination and distraction on cortisol and C-reactive protein. Health Psychol 33:1606–1609PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Family Studies and Human DevelopmentNorton School of Family and Consumer Sciences, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of KentuckyLexingtonUSA
  3. 3.Department of Psychiatry, College of MedicineUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA

Personalised recommendations