Entamoeba histolytica in Southeast Asia

  • Rohela MahmudEmail author
  • Jamaiah Ibrahim
  • Norhayati Moktar
  • Tengku-Shahrul Anuar


Amoebae may be free-living or parasitic. Parasitic amoebae belong to many genera. Entamoeba histolytica belongs to the genus Entamoeba, and it is an important human pathogen. E. histolytica is prevalent worldwide. It causes intestinal and extraintestinal amoebiasis. It is much more common in the tropics including Southeast Asia wherever sanitation is poor. Amoebiasis is a major health problem in Southeast Asia. It is the third leading parasitic cause of mortality after malaria and schistosomiasis in the developing countries. Food and water contaminated by human faeces containing E. histolytica cysts are the main sources of infection. The main reservoir of the infection is the human cyst carriers. Transmission is via faecal–oral, mechanical vectors and sexual contact. The life cycle of E. histolytica is completed in a single host, human. Trophozoites can invade all tissues of human including the intestinal mucosa and liver, which is most commonly affected, followed by the lung, skin and brain. The parasite produces virulent factors which are responsible for invasion and destruction of the human tissue. The typical manifestation of intestinal amoebiasis is dysentery. Amoebic liver abscess is the most common extraintestinal complication of amoebiasis. Diagnosis consists of stool examination, serodiagnosis, molecular diagnosis and imaging methods. Treatment consists of the use of amoebicides, and no vaccine is yet available against amoebiasis in humans. Control and prevention include personal hygiene, proper sanitation, drinking safe water and treatment of cases.


Stool Sample Liver Abscess Intestinal Parasite Stool Specimen Entamoeba Histolytica 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    K.J. Ryan, C.G. Ray, Sherris Medical Microbiology, 4th edn. (McGraw Hill, New York, 2004), pp. 733–8Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    WHO, Amoebiasis. W.H.O. Wkly. Epidemiol. Rec. 72, 97–100 (1997)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    A.E. Pinilla et al., History of the Entamoeba histolytica protozoan. Rev. Méd. Chile 136, 118–124 (2008)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    E. Brumpt, Étude sommaire de l’ “Entamoeba dispar” n.sp. Amibe à kystes quadrinucléés, Parasite de l’homme. Bull. Acad. Med. (Paris) 94, 943–952 (1925)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    L.S. Diamond, Axenic cultivation of Entamoeba histolytica. Science 134, 336–7 (1961)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    P.G. Sargeaunt et al., The differentiation of invasive and non-invasive Entamoeba histolytica by isoenzyme electrophoresis. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 72, 519–21 (1978)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    R.S. Desowitz et al., The incidence of intestinal parasites in various communities of Singapore Island. Singapore Med. J. 2, 91 (1961)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    L.B. Teh et al., Liver abscess – a clinical study. Ann. Acad. Med. Singapore 15, 176–181 (1986)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    S.R. Meek, Epidemiology of malaria in displaced Khmers on the Thai-Kampuchean border. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 19, 243–252 (1988)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    C. Urbani et al., Epidemiology and control of Mekongi schistosomiasis. Acta Trop. 82, 157–168 (2002)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    T.W. Gyorkos et al., Intestinal parasite infection in the Kampuchean refugee population 6 years after resettlement to Canada. J. Infect. Dis. 166, 413–417 (1992)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. Lurio et al., Intestinal parasites in Cambodians: comparison of diagnostic methods used in screening refugees with implications for treatment of population with high rates of infestation. J. Am. Board Fam. Pract. 4, 71–78 (1991)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    O.C. Nwanyanwu et al., Parasitic infections in Asian refugees in Forth Worth. Tex. Med. 85, 42–45 (1989)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    K.J. Lee et al., Status of intestinal parasites infection among primary school children in Kampong Cham, Cambodia. Korean J. Parasitol. 40, 153–155 (2002)PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    S.K. Park et al., Status of intestinal parasite infections among children in Bat Dambang, Cambodia. Korean J. Parasitol. 42, 201–203 (2004)PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    W. Candler et al., Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 21, 574–579 (1990)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    SCCPH, Results from the Population and Housing Census 2005. Steering Committee for Census of Population and Housing (SCCPH), Vientiane, Lao PDR, 2005Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    M. Giboda et al., Epidemiology of intestinal parasitosis in Laos (with anti-amoebic antibody levels). Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot. 84, 184–193 (1991)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    A. Montresor et al., Soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Myanmar and approximate costs for country wide control. Trop. Med. Int. Health 9, 1012–1015 (2004)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    B. Vannachone et al., An epidemiological survey on intestinal parasite infection in Khammouane Province, Lao PDR with special reference to Strongyloides infection. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 29, 717–722 (1998)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    W. Ngrenngarmlert et al., Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among Myanmar workers in Bangkok and Samut Sakhon. Asia J. Public Health 3, 53–58 (2012)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    X.D. Sun et al., A survey on the prevalence of amoebiasis in Western China near the China-Myanmar border. J. Pathogen Biol. (2012)
  23. 23.
    W. Maneeboonyang et al., Epidemiology of intestinal parasitic infections among Karen school children on the Western border of Thailand. J. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 28, 62–68 (2005)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    U. Chullaruk, Socio-economic status and parasitic disease. J. Trop. Med. Assoc. Thai. 1, 29–37 (1977)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    T. Harinasuta, P. Charoenlarp, Parasitic infections of the gastrointestinal tract in Thailand, a review, in ed. by J.M. Cross, Proceedings of the 7th Southeast Asian Regional Seminar on Tropical Medicine and Public Health Infectious Disease of the Gastrointestinal System in Southeast Asian and the Far East, Taipei, 1971, pp. 19–37Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    T. Bunnag et al., Seroepidemiology of amoebiasis in the villagers in Phichit Province and urban slum dwellers in Bangkok, Thailand. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 13, 541–546 (1982)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    C. Sirivichayakul et al., Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection among Thai people with mental handicaps. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 34, 259–263 (2003)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    C. Nithikathkul et al., Parasitic infections among Karen in Kanchanaburi Province, western Thailand. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 34(Suppl 2), 86–89 (2003)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    J. Waikagul et al., A cross-sectional study of intestinal parasitic infections among school children in Nan Province, Northern Thailand. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 33, 218–223 (2002)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    W. Saksirisampant et al., Intestinal parasitic infestations among children in an orphanage in Pathum Thani province. J. Med. Assoc. Thai. 86(Suppl 2), S263–270 (2003)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Z. Hamzah et al., Differential detection of E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii by a single-round PCR assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44, 3196–3200 (2006)PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    J.H. Cross, V. Basaca-Sevilla, Seroepidemiology of amoebiasis in the Philippines. Phil. J. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 9, 21–26 (1980)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    C. Auer, Health status of children living in a squatter area of Manila, Philippines with particular emphasis on intestinal parasitosis. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 21, 289–300 (1990)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    W.L. Rivera et al., Field study on the distribution of E. histolytica and E. dispar in the Northern Philippines as detected by the polymerase chain reaction. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 59, 916–921 (1998)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    E.T. Baldo et al., Infection status of intestinal parasites in children living in residential institutions in Metro Manila, the Philippines. Korean J. Parasitol. 42, 67–70 (2004)PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    W.L. Rivera et al., Prevalence and genetic diversity of E. histolytica in an institution for the mentally retarded in the Philippines. Parasitol. Res. 98, 106–110 (2006)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    W.P. Carney et al., Intestinal parasites and malaria in the Poso Valley, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 5, 368–373 (1974)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    S.S. Moesfirah et al., Amoebiasis intestinal pada karyawan RS UGM dan pengobatannya dengan metronidazol. Cermin Dunia Kedokteran, Nomor Khusus: 101–103 (1980)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    B. Soemardjo. Beberapa sudut daripada masalah amoebiasis di Indonesia. Tesis Jakarta, Penerbit Balai Pustaka, 1956Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    B. Nurlela et al., Radiological studies in the treatment of amoebic liver abscess with Flagyl. MKI 26, 796–807 (1976)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    S.N. Alisah Abidin, B. Rukmono. Evaluation of metronidazole and Ro7-0207 in liver, pleura and pulmonary amebiasis. MKI 30, 17–19 (1980)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    H. Adenan et al., Abses ameba hepar di RS. UGM Bagian Penyakit Dalaman, Yogyakarta: Insidensi serta segi kliniknya. Cermin Dunia Kedokteran, Nomor Khusus 99–101 (1980)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    R. Muljono et al., Kasus empiema toraks kanan yang disebabkan oleh E. histolytica, in Third National Parasitology Seminar, Bandung, 1983Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    M.D. Clarke et al., Serological study of amebiasis and toxoplasmosis in the Lindu Valley, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Trop. Geogr. Med. 27, 274–278 (1975)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    J.H. Cross et al., Parasitology survey and seroepidemiology of amoebiasis in South Kalimantan (Borneo), Indonesia. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 6, 52–60 (1975)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    J.H. Cross et al., The prevalence of E. histolytica and T. gondii antibodies in Central Java, Indonesia. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 6, 467–471 (1975)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    J.H. Cross et al., Parasitology survey in northern Sumatra. Indonesia 79, 123–131 (1976)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    E.E. Stafford et al., Intestinal and blood parasites in the Torro Valley, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 11, 468–472 (1980)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    E.E. Stafford et al., Human parasitoses in Bali, Indonesia. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 11, 318–323 (1980)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    A. Mangali et al., Intestinal parasitic infections in Campalagian district, south Sulawesi, Indonesia. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 24, 313–320 (1993)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Suriptiastuti, Some epidemiological aspects of intestinal parasites in women workers before going abroad. Trop. Biomed. 23, 103–108 (2006)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    P. Drechsel et al., Wastewater Irrigation and Health-Assessing and Mitigating Risk in Low-Income Countries (Earthscan, London, 2010)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    T. Lai, Perspectives of peri-urban vegetable production in Hanoi. International Potato Center (CIP), Lima, Peru, 2002Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    H.I. Shuval et al., Wastewater irrigation in developing countries: health effects and technical solutions. World Bank Technical Paper Number 51. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, 1986Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    WHO, Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater – Volume 4: Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture Geneva (World Health Organization, Switzerland, 2006)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    P.D. Phud et al., Practice of using human excreta as fertilizer and implications for health in Nghe An Province, Vietnam. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 37, 222–229 (2006)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    T.T. Do et al., Epidemiology and aetiology of diarrhoeal diseases in adults engaged in wastewater-fed agriculture and aquaculture in Hanoi, Vietnam. Trop. Med. Int. Health 12(Suppl), 23–33 (2007)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    P. Pham Duc et al., Risk factors for E. histolytica infection in an agriculture in Hanam province, Vietnam. Parasit. Vectors 4, 102 (2011)PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    J. Blessmann et al., Real-time PCR for detection and differentiation of E. histolytica and E. dispar in faecal samples. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40, 4413–4417 (2002)PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    J. Blessmann et al., Epidemiology of amebiasis in a region of high incidence of amebic liver abscess in central Vietnam. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 66, 578–583 (2002)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    J. Blessmann et al., Longitudinal study of intestinal E. histolytica infections in asymptomatic adult carriers. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41, 4745–4750 (2003)PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    M.I. Noor Hayati et al., Prevalens parasit usus pada kanak-kanak yang mengalamai diarea di Hospital Besar, Kuala Lumpur. Jurnal Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia 3, 28–37 (1981)Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    I. Hamimah et al., The prevalence of intestinal parasites among children at general Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Med. J. Malaysia 37, 373–377 (1982)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    J.M. Bolton, Medical services to the aborigines in West Malaysia. Br. Med. J. 2, 818–823 (1968)PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    B. Sinniah et al., Determining the prevalence of intestinal parasites in three Orang Asli (Aborigines) communities in Perak, Malaysia. Trop. Biomed. 29, 200–206 (2012)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    A. Nor Aza et al., Parasitic infections in human communities living on the fringes of the Crocker Range Park Sabah, Malaysia. ASEAN Review of Biodiversity and Environmental Conservation (ARBEC), January–March 2003Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    H.H. Mahsol et al., Gastrointestinal protozoan parasites amongst school children in Inanam Sabah. Borneo Science 23, 39–45 (2008)Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    T. Shahrul Anuar et al., Prevalence and risk factors associated with Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii infection among three Orang Asli ethnic groups in Malaysia. PLoS One 7, e48165 (2012)PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    M.I. Noor Hayati et al., Infeksi parasit usus pada masyarakat Orang Asli di Pos Piah, Sungai Siput (U) Perak, in Pascasidang Simposium Sains Kesihatan Ke 2, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 24–25 Apr 1998, Puri PujanggaGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    M.Y. Noor Azian et al., Prevalence of intestinal protozoa in an aborigine community in Pahang, Malaysia. Trop. Biomed. 24, 55–62 (2007)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Y. Hartini, A.G. Mohamed Kamel, E. histolytica/E. dispar among aborigines at Pos Lenjang, Pahang. Jurnal Sains Kesihatan Malaysia 7, 59–64 (2009)Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    I. Jamaiah, M. Rohela, Prevalence of intestinal parasites among members of the public in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 36, 68–71 (2005)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    T.S. Anuar et al., Molecular epidemiology of amoebiasis in Malaysia: highlighting the different risk factors of E. histolytica and E. dispar infections among Orang Asli communities. Int. J. Parasitol. 42, 1165–1175 (2012)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    R. Ngui et al., Differentiating E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in rural communities in Malaysia. Parasit. Vectors 5, 187 (2012)PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    M.Y. Noor Azian et al., Use of molecular tools to distinguish E. histolytica and E. dispar infection among the aborigines in Cameron Highlands. Trop. Biomed. 23, 31–36 (2006)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    M. Chellappa, N. Rangabashyam, Amoebic liver abscess in a review and study in 167 cases. Med. J. Malaysia 31, 192–196 (1977)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    M. Balasengaram, Management of hepatic abscess. Curr. Probl. Surg. 18, 282–340 (1981)Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    K.L. Goh et al., Liver abscess in the tropics: experience in the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. Postgrad. Med. J. 63, 551–554 (1987)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    M.N. Manukaran et al., Amoebiasis with multiple colonic perforation and ruptured liver abscess – a case report. Med. J. Malaysia 38, 71–73 (1983)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    I. Jamaiah, K.C. Shekar, Amoebiasis: a 10 year retrospective study at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. Med. J. Malaysia 54, 296–302 (1999)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    F. Farhana et al., A ten year (1999–2008) retrospective study of amoebiasis in University Malaya Medical centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Trop. Biomed. 26, 262–266 (2009)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    L.S. Diamond, Techniques of axenic cultivation of Entamoeba histolytica Schaudinn, 1903 and E. histolytica-like Amebae. J. Parasitol. 54(5), 1047–1056 (1968)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    C.K.J. Paniker, Textbook of Medical Parasitology, 6th edn. (Medical Publishers, New Delhi, 2007), p. 19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    S.H. Parija, Textbook of Medical Parasitology, 3rd edn. (All India Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi, 2006), p. 30Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    S.L. Stanley Jr., Amoebiasis. Lancet 361, 1025–1034 (2003)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    A. Gonzalez-Ruiz et al., Value of microscopy in the diagnosis of dysentery associated with invasive E. histolytica. J. Clin. Pathol. 47, 236–239 (1994)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    R. Fotedar et al., PCR detection of E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii in stool samples from Sydney, Australia. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45, 1035–1037 (2007)PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    D.J. Krogstad et al., Amoebiasis: epidemiologic studies in the United States, 1971–1974. Ann. Intern. Med. 88, 89–97 (1978)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    W.D. Strachan et al., Immunological differentiation of pathogenic and non-pathogenic isolates of E. histolytica. Lancet 1, 561–563 (1988)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    K. Ohnishi, M. Murata, Present characteristics of symptomatic amoebiasis due to E. histolytica in the east-southeast area of Tokyo. Epidemiol. Infect. 119, 363–367 (1997)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    A. Caballero-Salcedo et al., Seroepidemiology of amebiasis in Mexico. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 50, 412–419 (1994)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    G. Zengzhu et al., Analysis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and PCR of human liver abscess aspirates from patients in China for E. histolytica. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37, 3034–3036 (1999)PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    P.R. Hira et al., Invasive amoebiasis: challenges in diagnosis in a non-endemic country (Kuwait). Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 65, 341–345 (2001)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    M.D. Abd-Alla et al., Serum IgM antibody response to the galactose-inhibitable adherence lectin of E. histolytica. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 59, 431–434 (1998)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    R. Haque et al., Diagnosis of amoebic liver abscess and intestinal infection with the TechLab E. histolytica II antigen detection and antibody tests. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38, 3235–3239 (2000)PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    R. Haque et al., Diagnosis of pathogenic E. histolytica infection using a stool ELISA based on monoclonal antibodies to the galactose specific adhesion. J. Infect. Dis. 167, 247–249 (1993)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    S. Roy et al., Real-time PCR assay for diagnosis of E. histolytica infection. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43, 2168–2172 (2005)PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    L.G. Visser et al., Diagnostic methods for differentiation of E. histolytica and E. dispar in carriers: performance and clinical implications in a non-endemic setting. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 296, 397–403 (2006)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    S. Gatti et al., Amebic infections due to E. histolytica/E.dispar complex: a study of the incidence in a remote rural area of Ecuador. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 67, 123–127 (2002)Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    S.J. Furrows et al., Comparison of PCR and antigen detection methods for diagnosis of E. histolytica infection. J. Clin. Pathol. 57, 264–266 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    D. Mirelman et al., Comparison of use on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based kits and PCR amplification of rRNA genes for simultaneous detection of E. histolytica and E. dispar. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35, 2405–2407 (1997)PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    M. Tanyuksel, W.A. Petri Jr., Laboratory diagnosis of amoebiasis. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 16, 713–729 (2003)PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    S. Bhattacharya et al., Circular DNA of E. histolytica encodes ribosomal RNA. J. Protozool. 36, 455–458 (1989)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    S.L. Stanley Jr. et al., Cloning and expression of a membrane antigen of E. histolytica possessing multiple tandem repeats. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87, 4976–4978 (1990)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    M.A. Freitas et al., A single step duplex PCR to distinguish E. histolytica from E. dispar. Parasitology 128, 625–628 (2004)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    A. Evangelopoulos et al., A nested, multiplex PCR assay for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of E. histolytica and E. dispar in faeces. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 94, 233–240 (2000)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    C.C. Hung et al., Invasive amebiasis as an emerging parasitic disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in Taiwan. Arch. Intern. Med. 165, 409–419 (2005)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    I.K. Ali et al., E. moshkovskii infection in children, Bangladesh. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9, 580–584 (2003)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    D. Klein, Quantification using real-time PCR technology: applications and limitations. Trend Mol. Med. 8, 257–260 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    T. Notomi et al., Loop-mediated isothermal amplification of DNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 28, e63 (2000)PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    S.Y. Liang et al., Development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for detection of E. histolytica. J. Clin. Microbiol. 47, 1892–1895 (2009)PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rohela Mahmud
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jamaiah Ibrahim
    • 1
  • Norhayati Moktar
    • 2
  • Tengku-Shahrul Anuar
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Parasitology, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Parasitology and Medical Entomology, Faculty of MedicineUniversiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaKuala LumpurMalaysia

Personalised recommendations