Advertisement

Akutes Abdomen pp 103-119 | Cite as

Endoskopische Untersuchungsmethoden beim akuten Abdomen

  • Heinz Bacher
  • Azab El Shabrawi
  • Herwig Cerwenka

Zusammenfassung

Die endoskopische Untersuchung spielt in der Abklärung des akuten Abdomens eine wichtige Rolle als Bindeglied zwischen Diagnose und Therapie. Akute Blutungen im oberen und unteren Gastrointestinaltrakt sind klassische Indikationen zur Notfallendoskopie, in vielen Fällen ist dabei auch eine erfolgreiche Hämostase möglich. Ein eingeklemmter Papillenstein erfordert ein dringliches endoskopisches Vorgehen mit Papillotomie und Steinextraktion. Außerdem sind akute endoskopische Eingriffe auch zur Fremdkörperentfernung, zur Dekompression und zur Beseitigung von Stenosen mittels Stents (bridge-to-surgery oder palliativ) von großer Bedeutung.

Literatur

  1. Adler DG, Baron TH (2002) Endoscopic palliation of colorectal cancer. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 16: 1015–1029CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ali M, Ul Haq T, Salam B et al (2013) Treatment of nonvariceal gastrointestinal hemorrhage by transcatheter embolization. Radiol Res Pract 2013: 60432–8Google Scholar
  3. Appenrodt B, Sauerbruch T (2007) Antibiotic therapy and prophylaxis in liver cirrhosis and infection. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 132: 623–626CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bacher H, Mischinger HJ, Werkgartner G et al (1997) Local nitroglycerin for treatment of anal fissures: an alternative to lateral sphincterotomy? Dis Colon Rectum 40: 840–845CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Barnert J, Messmann H (2008) Management of lower gastrointestinal tract bleeding. Best practice & research. Clin Gastroenterol 22: 295–312Google Scholar
  6. Bertolini D, De Saussure P, Chilcott M et al (2007) Severe delayed complication after percutaneous endoscopic colostomy for chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction: a case report and review of the literature. World J Gastroenterol 13: 2255–2257CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Biecker E (2013) Portal hypertension and gastrointestinal bleeding: diagnosis, prevention and management. World J Gastroenterol 19: 5035–5050CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Blatchford O, Murray WR, Blatchford M (2000) A risk score to predict need for treatment for upper-gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Lancet 356: 1318–1321CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bokhari M, Vernava AM, Ure T, Longo WE (1996) Diverticular hemorrhage in the elderly - is it well tolerated? Dis Colon Rectum 39: 191–195CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bryant RV, Kuo P, Williamson K et al (2013) Performance of the Glasgow-Blatchford score in predicting clinical outcomes and intervention in hospitalized patients with upper GI bleeding. Gastrointest Endosc 78(4): 576–583CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Camilleri M, Parkman HP, Shafi MA et al; American College of Gastroenterology (2013) Clinical guideline: management of gastroparesis. Am J Gastroenterol 108: 18-37; quiz 38Google Scholar
  12. Chiu PW, Lam CY, Lee SW et al (2003) Effect of scheduled second therapeutic endoscopy on peptic ulcer rebleeding: a prospective randomised trial. Gut 52: 1403–1407CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Committee ASOP, Ikenberry SO, Jue TL et al (2011) Management of ingested foreign bodies and food impactions. Gastrointest Endosc 73: 1085–1091CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. De Franchis R (2005) Evolving consensus in portal hypertension. Report of the Baveno IV consensus workshop on methodology of diagnosis and therapy in portal hypertension. J Hepatol 43: 167–176CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. De Giorgio R, Knowles CH (2009) Acute colonic pseudo-obstruction. Br J Surg 96: 229–239CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Deans GT, Krukowski ZH, Irwin ST (1994) Malignant obstruction of the left colon. Br J surgery 81: 1270–1276CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Einwachter H, Hellerhoff P, Neu B et al (2006) Percutaneous endoscopic colostomy in a patient with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction and massive dilation of the colon. Endoscopy 38: 54–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Farner R, Lichliter W, Kuhn J, Fisher T (1999) Total colectomy versus limited colonic resection for acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Am J Surg 178: 587–591CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Farrell JJ, Friedman LS (2005) Review article: the management of lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 21: 1281–1298CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Fernandez-Esparrach G, Bordas JM, Giraldez MD et al (2010) Severe complications limit long-term clinical success of self-expanding metal stents in patients with obstructive colorectal cancer. Am J Gastroenterol 105: 1087–1093CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Finan PJ, Campbell S, Verma R et al (2007) The management of malignant large bowel obstruction: ACPGBI position statement. Colorectal Dis 9(Suppl 4): 1–17CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Forrest JA, Finlayson ND, Shearman DJ (1974) Endoscopy in gastrointestinal bleeding. Lancet 2: 394–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Forshaw MJ, Sankararajah D, Stewart M, Parker MC (2006) Self-expanding metallic stents in the treatment of benign colorectal disease: indications and outcomes. Colorectal Dis 8: 102–111CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Frossard JL, Spahr L, Queneau PE et al (2002) Erythromycin intravenous bolus infusion in acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding: a randomized, controlled, double-blind trial. Gastroenterology 123: 17–23CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Garcia-Pagan JC, Feu F, Bosch J, Rodes J (1991) Propranolol compared with propranolol plus isosorbide-5-mononitrate for portal hypertension in cirrhosis. A randomized controlled study. Ann Intern Med 114: 869–873CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Green BT, Rockey DC, Portwood G et al (2005) Urgent colonoscopy for evaluation and management of acute lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Gastroenterol 100: 2395–2402CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Hartog CS, Welte T, Schlattmann P, Reinhart K (2013) Fluid replacement with hydroxyethyl starch in critical care - a reassessment. Dtsch Ärztebl Int 110: 443–450PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Hauser H, Pfeifer J, Uranus S, Klimpfinger M (1994) Perforation of the cecum by a toothpick. Case report and review of the literature. Langenbecks Arch Chir 379: 229–232CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Hoedema RE, Luchtefeld MA (2005) The management of lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Dis Colon Rectum 48: 2010–2024CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Jain A, Vargas HD (2012) Advances and challenges in the management of acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (ogilvie syndrome). Clin Colon Rectal Surg 25: 37–45CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Jensen DM, Machicado GA (1988) Diagnosis and treatment of severe hematochezia. The role of urgent colonoscopy after purge. Gastroenterology 95: 1569–1574CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Jensen DM, Machicado GA, Jutabha R, Kovacs TO (2000) Urgent colonoscopy for the diagnosis and treatment of severe diverticular hemorrhage. N Engl J Med 342: 78–82CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Jimenez-Perez J, Casellas J, Garcia-Cano J et al (2011) Colonic stenting as a bridge to surgery in malignant large-bowel obstruction: a report from two large multinational registries. Am J Gastroenterol 106: 2174–2180CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Laine L, Jensen DM (2012) Management of patients with ulcer bleeding. Am J Gastroenterol 107: 345-360; quiz 361CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Laine L, Peterson WL (1994) Bleeding peptic ulcer. N Engl J Med 331: 717–727CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Lammert F, Neubrand MW, Bittner R et al; Deutsche Gesellschaft für Verdauungs-und Stoffwechselkrankheiten (DVGS); Deutsche Gesellschaft für Viszeralschirurgie (DGVC) (2008) Short version of the updated S3Google Scholar
  37. (level 3) guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of gallstones of the German Society for Digestive and Metabolic Diseases and the German Society for the Surgery of the Alimentary Tract. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 133(7): 311–316Google Scholar
  38. Li KW, Zhang XW, Ding J et al (2009) A prospective study of the efficacy of endoscopic biliary stenting on common bile duct stones. J Dig Dis 10: 328–331CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Lin S, Rockey DC (2005) Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 34: 679–698CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Longstreth GF (1997) Epidemiology and outcome of patients hospitalized with acute lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage: a population-based study. Am J Gastroenterol 92: 419–424PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Lynch CR, Jones RG, Hilden K et al (2006) Percutaneous endoscopic cecostomy in adults: a case series. Gastrointest Endosc 64: 279–282CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Mcguire HH Jr (1994) Bleeding colonic diverticula. A reappraisal of natural history and management. Ann Surg 220: 653–656CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. Nugent KP, Daniels P, Stewart B et al (1999) Quality of life in stoma patients. Dis Colon Rectum 42: 1569–1574CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Ohyama T, Sakurai Y, Ito M et al (2000) Analysis of urgent colonoscopy for lower gastrointestinal tract bleeding. Digestion 61: 189–192CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Pardi DS, Loftus EV Jr, Tremaine WJ et al (1999) Acute major gastrointestinal hemorrhage in inflammatory bowel disease. Gastrointest Endosc 49: 153–157CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Pennazio M (2005) Diagnosis of small-bowel diseases in the era of capsule endoscopy. Expert Rev Med Devices 2: 587–598CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Peura DA, Lanza FL, Gostout CJ, Foutch PG (1997) The American College of Gastroenterology Bleeding Registry: preliminary findings. Am J Gastroenterol 92: 924–928PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Pommergaard HC, Vilmann P, Jakobsen HL, Achiam MP (2009) A clinical evaluation of endoscopically placed self-expanding metallic stents in patients with acute large bowel obstruction. Scandinavian J Sur 98(3): 143–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Poza Cordon J, Froilan Torres C, Burgos Garcia A et al (2012) Endoscopic management of esophageal varices. World J Gastrointest Endosc 4: 312–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Prakash C, Zuckerman GR (2003) Acute small bowel bleeding: a distinct entity with significantly different economic implications compared with GI bleeding from other locations. Gastrointest Endosc 58: 330–335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Renzulli P, Maurer CA, Netzer P et al (2002) Subtotal colectomy with primary ileorectostomy is effective for unlocalized, diverticular hemorrhage. Langenbecks Arch Surg 387: 67–71CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Rockall TA, Logan RF, Devlin HB, Northfield TC (1996) Selection of patients for early discharge or outpatient care after acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. National Audit of Acute Upper Gastrointestinal Haemorrhage. Lancet 347: 1138–1140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Saida Y, Enomoto T, Takabayashi K et al (2011) Outcome of 141 cases of selfexpandable metallic stent placements for malignant and benign colorectal strictures in a single center. Surg Endosc 25: 1748–1752CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Sato R, Watari J, Tanabe H et al (2008) Transnasal ultrathin endoscopy for placement of a long intestinal tube in patients with intestinal obstruction. Gastrointest Endosc 67: 953–957CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Saunders MD (2007) Acute colonic pseudo-obstruction. Best practice & research. Clin Gastroenterol 21: 671–687Google Scholar
  56. Schepke M, Kleber G, Nurnberg D et al; German Study Group for the Primary Prophylaxis of Variceal B (2004) Ligation versus propranolol for the primary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding in cirrhosis. Hepatology 40: 65–72Google Scholar
  57. Sebastian S, Johnston S, Geoghegan T et al (2004) Pooled analysis of the efficacy and safety of self-expanding metal stenting in malignant colorectal obstruction. American J Gastroenterol 99: 2051–2057CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Small AJ, Young-Fadok TM, Baron TH (2008) Expandable metal stent placement for benign colorectal obstruction: outcomes for 23 cases. Surg Endosc 22: 454–462CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Smothers L, Hynan L, Fleming J et al (2003) Emergency surgery for colon carcinoma. Dis Colon Rectum 46: 24–30CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Stanley AJ, Ashley D, Dalton HR et al (2009) Outpatient management of patients with low-risk upper-gastrointestinal haemorrhage: multicentre validation and prospective evaluation. Lancet 373: 42–47CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Sung JJ, Chung SC, Ling TK et al (1995) Antibacterial treatment of gastric ulcers associated with Helicobacter pylori. N Engl J Med 332: 139–142CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Tahir F, Riaz H, Riaz T et al (2013) The new oral anti-coagulants and the phase 3 clinical trials - a systematic review of the literature. Thromb J 11: 1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Tan KK, Wong D, Sim R (2008) Superselective embolization for lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage: an institutional review over 7 years. World J Surg 32: 2707–2715CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Teriaky A, Gregor J, Chande N (2012) Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement for end-stage palliation of malignant gastrointestinal obstructions. Saudi J Gastroenterol 18: 95–98CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. Van Gossum A (2001) Obscure digestive bleeding. Best practice & research. Clin Gastroenterol 15: 155–174Google Scholar
  66. Van Hooft JE, Fockens, Marinelli AW et al; Dutch Colorectal Stent G (2008) Early closure of a multicenter randomized clinical trial of endoscopic stenting versus surgery for stage IV left-sided colorectal cancer. Endoscopy 40: 184–191CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Van Hooft JE, Bemelman WA, Oldenburg B et al; Collaborative Dutch Stent-in Study G (2011) Colonic stenting versus emergency surgery for acute left-sided malignant colonic obstruction: a multicentre randomised trial. Lancet Oncol 12: 344–352Google Scholar
  68. Zingg U, Vorburger S, Metzger U (2000) Perforation of Meckel's diverticulum by a toothpick. Chirurg 71: 841–843CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Zuckerman GR, Prakash C (1999) Acute lower intestinal bleeding. Part II: etiology, therapy, and outcomes. Gastrointest Endosc 49: 228–238CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Heinz Bacher
    • 1
  • Azab El Shabrawi
    • 2
  • Herwig Cerwenka
    • 3
  1. 1.Klinische Abteilung für AllgemeinchirurgieMedizinische Universität GrazGraz
  2. 2.Universitätsklinik für ChirurgieLKH-Universitätsklinikum GrazGraz
  3. 3.Chirurgische UniversitätsklinikMedizinische Universität GrazGraz

Personalised recommendations