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Molecular Mechanisms of Hypoxia-Regulated Angiogenesis

  • Agnieszka ŁobodaEmail author
  • Alicja Józkowicz
  • Józef Dulak
Chapter

Abstract

Hypoxia is an important regulator of angiogenesis and it stimulates neovascularization from existing blood vessels. At the molecular level, it occurs mostly through transcriptional regulation of genes which contain a core consensus sequence called hypoxia response element (HRE) via hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) action. The discovery of HIFs hydroxylases as a family of dioxygenases that regulate HIFs dependently on the oxygen availability have significantly improved our understanding of the mechanisms of hypoxia signaling. Moreover, a broad number of factors have been shown to influence HIF stability and their effects could be mediated via several possible mechanisms including nitrosylation, deacetylation, or oxidation. The induction of HIF leads to the complex regulation of the pro- and antiangiogenic factors and extensive research will be essential for thorough understanding of the role of hypoxia in disease development and will help to identify new therapeutic targets for treatment of such hypoxia-dependent disorders.

Keywords

Hypoxia inducible factor HIF-1 HIF-2 HRE MicroRNA Oxidative stress Vascular endothelial growth factor IL-8 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors apologize for the inability to cite all of the important studies that have been performed in the field due to space limitations.

AL is supported by the Foundation for Polish Science—PARENT-BRIDGE Programme co-financed by the European Union within European Regional Development Fund (POMOST/2010-2/8) and she is the recipient of L'Oreal Poland for Women in Science Scholarship. The Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology of the Jagiellonian University is a beneficiary of the structural funds from the European Union and the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education (grants No: POIG.02.01.00-12 064/08, POIG 01.01.02-00-109/09, POIG.02.02.00-014/08 and 01.01.02-00-069/09).

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Agnieszka Łoboda
    • 1
    Email author
  • Alicja Józkowicz
    • 1
  • Józef Dulak
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Medical Biotechnology, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and BiotechnologyJagiellonian UniversityKrakówPoland

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