Biology and Evolution of B Chromosomes

  • Andreas Houben
  • Ali Mohammad Banaei-Moghaddam
  • Sonja Klemme
Chapter

Abstract

B chromosomes are dispensable and often selfish elements of the genome which follow their own evolutionary pathway. B chromosomes are a major source of intraspecific variation in nuclear DNA amounts in numerous species and the distribution of Bs among different groups of angiosperms is not random. B chromosome inheritance is irregular and non-Mendelian, and therefore polymorphisms exist with respect to the number of Bs within populations or even within different cell lines of an individual carrying Bs. Drive mechanisms play a major role in the equilibrium of B frequency in populations. The most widely accepted view is that Bs are derived from the A chromosome complement. Some evidence also suggests that Bs can be spontaneously generated in response to the new genomic conditions after interspecific hybridization. The molecular processes that gave rise to Bs during evolution remain unclear. Here, we survey current knowledge on the DNA/chromatin composition, origin, and mitotic and meiotic drive mechanisms of B chromosomes and discuss effects and transcripts associated with Bs.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors have been supported by the DFG (HO 1779/14-1, HO 1779/10-1).

References

  1. Ahn SH, Cheung WL, Hsu JY, Diaz RL, Smith MM, Allis CD (2005) Sterile 20 kinase phosphorylates histone H2B at serine 10 during hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in S. cerevisiae. Cell 120:25–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Alfenito MR, Birchler JA (1993) Molecular characterization of a maize B chromosome centric sequence. Genetics 135:589–597PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Amos A, Dover G (1981) The distribution of repetitive DNAs between regular and supernumerary chromosomes in species of Glossina (Tsetse)—a two-step process in the origin of supernumeraries. Chromosoma 81:673–690PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bang JW, Choi HW (1990) Genetic analysis of esterase isozymes in rye (Secale cereale L.). Korean J Genet 12:87–94Google Scholar
  5. Barlow PW, Vosa CG (1969) Chromosomes of Puschkinia libanotica during mitosis. Chromosoma 27:436–447Google Scholar
  6. Bartos J, Paux E, Kofler R, Havrankova M, Kopecky D, Suchankova P, Safar J, Simkova H, Town CD, Lelley T et al (2008) A first survey of the rye (Secale cereale) genome composition through BAC end sequencing of the short arm of chromosome 1R. BMC Plant Biol 8:1–12Google Scholar
  7. Berdnikov VA, Gorel FL, Kosterin OE, Bogdanova VS (2003) Tertiary trisomics in the garden pea as a model of B chromosome evolution in plants. Heredity 91:577–583PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bird AW, Yu DY, Pray-Grant MG, Qiu QF, Harmon KE, Megee PC, Grant PA, Smith MM, Christman MF (2002) Acetylation of histone H4 by Esa1 is required for DNA double-strand break repair. Nature 419:411–415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Blunden R, Wilkes TJ, Forster JW, Jimenez MM, Sandery MJ, Karp A, Jones RN (1993) Identification of the E3900 family, a second family of rye chromosome-B specific repeated sequences. Genome 36:706–711PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bougourd SM, Jones RN (1997) B chromosomes: a physiological enigma. New Phytol 137:43–54Google Scholar
  11. Bouzinba-Segard H, Guais A, Francastel C (2006) Accumulation of small murine minor satellite transcripts leads to impaired centromeric architecture and function. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:8709–8714PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bugrov AG, Karamysheva TV, Perepelov EA, Elisaphenko EA, Rubtsov DN, Warchalowska-Sliwa E, Tatsuta H RNB (2007) DNA content of the B chromosomes in grasshopper Podisma kanoi Storozh. (Orthoptera, Acrididae). Chromosome Res 15:315–326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Burt A, Trivers R (2006) Genes in conflict: the biology of selfish genetic elements. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, London, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  14. Cabrero J, Teruel M, Carmona FD, Jimenez R, Camacho JP (2007) Histone H3 lysine 9 acetylation pattern suggests that X and B chromosomes are silenced during entire male meiosis in a grasshopper. Cytogenet Genome Res 119:135–142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Camacho JPM (2004) B chromosomes in the eukaryote genome. Cytogenet Cell Genet 106:147–410Google Scholar
  16. Camacho JPM (2005) B chromosomes. In: Gregory TR (ed) The evolution of the genome. Elsevier, Amsterdam New York, pp 223–285Google Scholar
  17. Camacho JPM, Sharbel TF, Beukeboom LW (2000) B-chromosome evolution. Philos Trans Roy Soc Lond B Bio 355:163–178Google Scholar
  18. Carchilan M, Delgado M, Ribeiro T, Costa-Nunes P, Caperta A, Morais-Cecilio L, Jones RN, Viegas W, Houben A (2007) Transcriptionally active heterochromatin in rye B chromosomes. Plant Cell 19:1738–1749PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Carchilan M, Kumke K, Mikolajewski S, Houben A (2009) Rye B chromosomes are weakly transcribed and might alter the transcriptional activity of A chromosome sequences. Chromosoma 118:607–616PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Carlson WR (1969) Factors affecting preferential fertilization in maize. Genetics 62:543–554PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Carlson WR (1978) B-chromosome of corn. Annu Rev Genet 12:5–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Carlson WR (2007) Locating a site on the maize B chromosome that controls preferential fertilization. Genome 50:578–587PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Carlson W (2009) The B chromosome of maize. In: Bennetzen JL, Hake S (eds) Maize handbook. Volume II: genetics and genomics. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 459–480Google Scholar
  24. Carlson WR, Roseman RR (1992) A new property of the maize B-chromosome. Genetics 131:211–223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Carter CR, Smith-White S (1972) Cytology of Brachycome lineariloba. 3. Accessory chromosomes. Chromosoma 39:361–379Google Scholar
  26. Catcheside DG (1950) The B-chromosomes of Parthenium argentatum. Genet Iber 2:1–10Google Scholar
  27. Cheng YM, Lin BY (2003) Cloning and characterization of maize B chromosome sequences derived from microdissection. Genetics 164:299–310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Cheng YM, Lin BY (2004) Molecular organization of large fragments in the maize B chromosome: Indication of a novel repeat. Genetics 166:1947–1961PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Chiavarino AM, Rosato M, Manzanero S, Jimenez G, Gonzalez-Sanchez M, Puertas MJ (2000) Chromosome nondisjunction and instabilities in tapetal cells are affected by B chromosomes in maize. Genetics 155:889–897PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Chilton MD, Mccarthy BJ (1973) DNA from maize with and without B chromosomes: a comparative study. Genetics 74:605–614PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Cohen S, Segal D (2009) Extrachromosomal circular DNA in eukaryotes: possible involvement in the plasticity of tandem repeats. Cytogenet Genome Res 124:327–338PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Cohen S, Houben A, Segal D (2008) Extrachromosomal circular DNA derived from tandemly repeated genomic sequences in plants. Plant J 53:1027–1034PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Comai L (2005) The advantages and disadvantages of being polyploid. Nat Rev Genet 6:836–846PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Craig JM (2005) Heterochromatin―many flavours, common themes. Bioessays 27:17–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Cuadrado A, Jouve N (1994) Highly repetitive sequences in B chromosomes of Secale cereale revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Genome 37:709–712PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Datson PM, Murray BG (2006) Ribosomal DNA locus evolution in Nemesia: transposition rather than structural rearrangement as the key mechanism? Chromosome Res 14:845–857PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. de Jesus CM, Galetti PM, Valentini SR, Moreira O (2003) Molecular characterization and chromosomal localization of two families of satellite DNA in Prochilodus lineatus (Pisces, Prochilodontidae), a species with B chromosomes. Genetica 118:25–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Delgado M, Moraiscecilio L, Neves N, Jones RN, Viegas W (1995) The influence of B-chromosomes on rDNA organization in rye interphase nuclei. Chromosome Res 3:487–491PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Delgado M, Caperta A, Ribeiro T, Viegas W, Jones RN, Morais-Cecilio L (2004) Different numbers of rye B chromosomes induce identical compaction changes in distinct A chromosome domains. Cytogenet Genome Res 106:320–324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Dhar MK, Friebe B, Koul AK, Gill BS (2002) Origin of an apparent B chromosome by mutation, chromosome fragmentation and specific DNA sequence amplification. Chromosoma 111:332–340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Donald TM, Houben A, Leach CR, Timmis JN (1997) Ribosomal RNA genes specific to the B chromosomes in Brachycome dichromosomatica are not transcribed in leaf tissue. Genome 40:674–681PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Dubcovsky J, Dvorak J (1995) Ribosomal RNA multigene loci: nomads of the Triticeae genomes. Genetics 140:1367–1377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Endo TR, Nasuda S, Jones N, Dou Q, Akahori A, Wakimoto M, Tanaka H, Niwa K, Tsujimoto H (2008) Dissection of rye B chromosomes, and nondisjunction properties of the dissected segments in a common wheat background. Genes Genet Syst 83:23–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Enkerli J, Bhatt G, Covert SF (1997) Nht1, a transposable element cloned from a dispensable chromosome in Nectria haematococca. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 10:742–749PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Evans GM (1960) Supernumerary chromosomes in wild populations of the snail Helix pomatia L. Heredity 15:129–138Google Scholar
  46. Evans GM, Davies EW (1985) The genetics of meiotic chromosome pairing in Lolium temulentum x Lolium perenne tetraploids. Theor Appl Genet 71:185–192Google Scholar
  47. Flavell RB, Rimpau J (1975) Ribosomal RNA genes and supernumerary B chromosomes of rye. Heredity 35:127–131Google Scholar
  48. Francki MG (2001) Identification of Bilby, a diverged centromeric Ty1-copia retrotransposon family from cereal rye (Secale cereale L.). Genome 44:266–274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Franks TK, Houben A, Leach CR, Timmis JN (1996) The molecular organisation of a B chromosome tandem repeat sequence from Brachycome dichromosomatica. Chromosoma 105:223–230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Frost S (1959) The cytological behaviour and mode of transmission of accessory chromosomes in Plantago serraria. Hereditas 45:191–210Google Scholar
  51. Fuchs J, Demidov D, Houben A, Schubert I (2006) Chromosomal histone modification patterns ― from conservation to diversity. Trends Plant Sci 11:199–208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Gaut BS, Wright SI, Rizzon C, Dvorak J, Anderson LK (2007) Recombination: an underappreciated factor in the evolution of plant genomes. Nat Rev Genet 8:77–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Gehring M, Henikoff S (2007) DNA methylation dynamics in plant genomes. BBA―Gene Struct Expr 1769:276–286Google Scholar
  54. Gernand D, Rutten T, Varshney A, Rubtsova M, Prodanovic S, Bruss C, Kumlehn J, Matzk F, Houben A (2005) Uniparental chromosome elimination at mitosis and interphase in wheat and pearl millet crosses involves micronucleus formation, progressive heterochromatinization, and DNA fragmentation. Plant Cell 17:2431–2438PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Gibson I, Hewitt G (1970) Isolation of DNA from B chromosomes in grasshoppers. Nature 225:67–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Gonzalez-Sanchez M, Gonzalez-Gonzalez E, Molina F, Chiavarino AM, Rosato M, Puertas MJ (2003) One gene determines maize B chromosome accumulation by preferential fertilisation; another gene(s) determines their meiotic loss. Heredity 90:122–129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Gonzalez-Sanchez M, Rosato M, Chiavarino M, Puertas MJ (2004) Chromosome instabilities and programmed cell death in tapetal cells of maize with B chromosomes and effects on pollen viability. Genetics 166:999–1009PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Green DM (1990) Muller’s ratchet and the evolution of supernumerary chromosomes. Genome 33:818–824Google Scholar
  59. Greilhuber J, Speta F (1976) C-banded karyotypes in the Scilla hohenackeri group, Scilla persica, and Puschkinia (Liliaceae). Plant Syst Evol 126:149–188Google Scholar
  60. Gruenbaum Y, Naveh-Many T, Cedar H, Razin A (1981) Sequence specificity of methylation in higher plant DNA. Nature 292:860–862PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Grun P (1959) Variability of accessory chromosomes in native populations of Allium cernuum. Am J Bot 46:218–224Google Scholar
  62. Grunstein M (1997) Histone acetylation in chromatin structure and transcription. Nature 389:349–352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Gutknecht J, Sperlich D, Bachmann L (1995) A species specific satellite DNA family of Drosophila subsilvestris appearing predominantly in B chromosomes. Chromosoma 103:539–544PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Hakansson A (1948) Behaviour of accessory rye chromosomes in the embryo sac. Hereditas 34:35–59Google Scholar
  65. Hall AE, Kettler GC, Preuss D (2006) Dynamic evolution at pericentromeres. Genome Res 16:355–364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Han F, Lamb JC, Birchler JA (2006) High frequency of centromere inactivation resulting in stable dicentric chromosomes of maize. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:3238–3243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Hasegawa N (1934) A cytological study on 8-chromosome rye. Cytologia 6:68–77Google Scholar
  68. Hasterok R, Jenkins G, Langdon T, Jones RN (2002) The nature and destiny of translocated B-chromosome-specific satellite DNA of rye. Chromosome Res 10:83–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Henderson S (1961) The chromosomes the of British Tetrigidae (Orthoptera). Chromosoma 12:553–572PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Hewitt GM (1976) Meiotic drive for B-chromosomes in the primary oocytes of Myrmeleotettix maculatus (Orthopera: Acrididae). Chromosoma 56:381–391PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Houben A, Kynast RG, Heim U, Hermann H, Jones RN, Forster JW (1996) Molecular cytogenetic characterisation of the terminal heterochromatic segment of the B-chromosome of rye (Secale cereale). Chromosoma 105:97–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Houben A, Belyaev ND, Leach CR, Timmis JN (1997a) Differences of histone H4 acetylation and replication timing between A and B chromosomes of Brachycome dichromosomatica. Chromosome Res 5:233–237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Houben A, Leach CR, Verlin D, Rofe R, Timmis JN (1997b) A repetitive DNA sequence common to the different B chromosomes of the genus Brachycome. Chromosoma 106:513–519PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Houben A, Thompson N, Ahne R, Leach CR, Verlin D, Timmis JN (1999) A monophyletic origin of the B chromosomes of Brachycome dichromosomatica (Asteraceae). Plant Syst Evol 219:127–135Google Scholar
  75. Houben A, Field BL, Saunders VA (2001a) Microdissection and chromosome painting of plant B chromosomes. Method Cell Sci 23:115–124Google Scholar
  76. Houben A, Verlin D, Leach CR, Timmis JN (2001b) The genomic complexity of micro B chromosomes of Brachycome dichromosomatica. Chromosoma 110:451–459PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Houben A, Demidov D, Gernand D, Meister A, Leach CR, Schubert I (2003) Methylation of histone H3 in euchromatin of plant chromosomes depends on basic nuclear DNA content. Plant J 33:967–973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Houben A, Demidov D, Caperta AD, Karimi R, Agueci F, Vlasenko L (2007) Phosphorylation of histone H3 in plants―a dynamic affair. Biochim Biophys Acta 1769:308–315PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Ikura T, Ogryzko VV, Grigoriev M, Groisman R, Wang J, Horikoshi M, Scully R, Qin J, Nakatani Y (2000) Involvement of the TIP60 histone acetylase complex in DNA repair and apoptosis. Cell 102:463–473PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Jamilena M, Rejon CR, Rejon MR (1994) A molecular analysis of the origin of the Crepis capillaris B chromosome. J Cell Sci 107:703–708PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Jamilena M, Garridoramos M, Rejon MR, Rejon CR, Parker JS (1995) Characterization of repeated sequences from microdissected B chromosomes of Crepis capillaris. Chromosoma 104:113–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Jenkins G, Jones RN (2004) B chromosomes in hybrids of temperate cereals and grasses. Cytogenet Genome Res 106:314–319PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Jimenez MM, Romera F, GonzalezSanchez M, Puertas MJ (1997) Genetic control of the rate of transmission of rye B chromosomes. 3. Male meiosis and gametogenesis. Heredity 78:636–644Google Scholar
  84. Jin WW, Lamb JC, Vega JM, Dawe RK, Birchler JA, Jiang J (2005) Molecular and functional dissection of the maize B chromosome centromere. Plant Cell 17:1412–1423PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Jin WW, Lamb JC, Zhang WL, Kolano B, Birchler JA, Jiang JM (2008) Histone modifications associated with both A and B chromosomes of maize. Chromosome Res 16:1203–1214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. John B, Hewitt GM (1965) B-chromosome system of Myrmeleotettix maculatus (Thunb.). Chromosoma 17:121–138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Jones RN (1975) B-chromosome systems in flowering plants and animal species. Int Rev Cytol 40:1–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Jones RN (1991) B-chromosome drive. Am Nat 137:430–442Google Scholar
  89. Jones RN (1995) B chromosomes in plants. New Phytol 131:411–434Google Scholar
  90. Jones N, Houben A (2003) B chromosomes in plants: escapees from the A chromosome genome? Trends Plant Sci 8:417–423PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Jones RN, Langdon T (2013) The plant nucleus at war and peace: genome organisation in the interphase nucleus. In: Leitch IJ, Greilhuber J, Doležel J, Wendel JF (eds) Plant genome diversity, vol 2, Physical structure, behaviour and evolution of plant genomes. Springer-Verlag, Wien, pp 13–31Google Scholar
  92. Jones RN, Puertas MJ (1993) The B-chromosomes of rye (Secale cereale L.). In: Dhir KK, Sareen TS (eds) Frontiers in plant science research. Bhagwati Enterprises, Delhi, India, pp 81–112Google Scholar
  93. Jones RN, Rees H (1982) B chromosomes, 1st edn. Academic, London, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  94. Jones RN, Gonzalez-Sanchez M, Gonzalez-Garcia M, Vega JM, Puertas MJ (2008a) Chromosomes with a life of their own. Cytogenet Genome Res 120:265–280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Jones RN, Viegas W, Houben A (2008b) A century of B chromosomes in plants: so what? Ann Bot 101:767–775PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Kaszas E, Birchler JA (1996) Misdivision analysis of centromere structure in maize. EMBO J 15:5246–5255PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Kaszas E, Birchler JA (1998) Meiotic transmission rates correlate with physical features of rearranged centromeres in maize. Genetics 150:1683–1692PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Kaszas E, Cande WZ (2000) Phosphorylation of histone H3 is correlated with changes in the maintenance of sister chromatid cohesion during meiosis in maize, rather than the condensation of the chromatin. J Cell Sci 113:3217–3226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Kaszas E, Kato A, Birchler JA (2002) Cytological and molecular analysis of centromere misdivision in maize. Genome 45:759–768PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Kayano H (1957) Cytogenetic studies in Lilium callosum. III. Preferential segregation of a supernumerary chromosome in EMCs. P Jpn Acad B-Phys 33:553–558Google Scholar
  101. Kayano H (1971) Accumulation of B chromosomes in the germ line of Locusta migratoria. Heredity 27:119–123Google Scholar
  102. Kimura M, Kayano H (1961) Maintenance of supernumerary chromosomes in wild populations of Lilium callosum by preferential segregation. Genetics 46:1699–1712PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Klein AS, Eckhardt RA (1976) DNAs of A and B chromosomes of the mealy bug, Pseudococcus obscurus. Chromosoma 57:333–340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Kouzarides T (2007) Chromatin modifications and their function. Cell 128:693–705PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Krishnamoorthy T, Chen X, Govin J, Cheung WL, Dorsey J, Schindler K, Winter E, Allis CD, Guacci V, Khochbin S et al (2006) Phosphorylation of histone H4 Ser1 regulates sporulation in yeast and is conserved in fly and mouse spermatogenesis. Genes Dev 20:2580–2592PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Kubalakova M, Valarik M, Bartos J, Vrana J, Cihalikova J, Molnar-Lang M, Dolezel J (2003) Analysis and sorting of rye (Secale cereale L.) chromosomes using flow cytometry. Genome 46:893–905PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Kumke K, Jones RN, Houben A (2008) B chromosomes of Puschkinia libanotica are characterized by a reduced level of euchromatic histone H3 methylation marks. Cytogenet Genome Res 121:266–270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Kynast RG, Galatowitsch MW, Huettl PA, Phillips RL, Rines HW (2007) Adding B-chromosomes of Zea mays L. to the genome of Avena sativa L. Maize Genet Coop Newsl 81:17–19Google Scholar
  109. Lamb J, Kato A, Birchler J (2005) Sequences associated with A chromosome centromeres are present throughout the maize B chromosome. Chromosoma 113:337–349PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Lamb JC, Han F, Auger DL, Birchler J (2006) A trans-acting factor required for non-disjunction of the B chromosome is located distal to the TB-4Lb breakpoint on the B chromosome. Maize Genet Coop Newsl 80:51–54Google Scholar
  111. Lamb JC, Meyer JM, Corcoran B, Kato A, Han F, Birchler JA (2007a) Distinct chromosomal distributions of highly repetitive sequences in maize. Chromosome Res 15:33–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Lamb JC, Riddle NC, Cheng YM, Theuri J, Birchler JA (2007b) Localization and transcription of a retrotransposon-derived element on the maize B chromosome. Chromosome Res 15:383–398PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Langdon T, Seago C, Jones RN, Ougham H, Thomas H, Forster JW, Jenkins G (2000) De novo evolution of satellite DNA on the rye B chromosome. Genetics 154:869–884PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Leach CR, Donald TM, Franks TK, Spiniello SS, Hanrahan CF, Timmis JN (1995) Organization and origin of a B chromosome centromeric sequence from Brachycome dichromosomatica. Chromosoma 103:708–714PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Leach CR, Houben A, Field B, Pistrick K, Demidov D, Timmis JN (2005) Molecular evidence for transcription of genes on a B chromosome in Crepis capillaris. Genetics 171:269–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Lemos B, Araripe LO, Hartl DL (2008) Polymorphic Y chromosomes harbor cryptic variation with manifold functional consequences. Science 319:91–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Levin DA, Palestis BG, Jones RN, Trivers R (2005) Phyletic hot spots for B chromosomes in angiosperms. Evolution 59:962–969PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Lima de Faria A (1962) Genetic interaction in rye expressed at the chromosome phenotype. Genetics 47:1455–1462PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Lo KL, Peng SF, Chen LJ, Lin BY (2009) Tandem organization of StarkB element (22.8 kb) in the maize B chromosome. Mol Genet Genomics 282:131–139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Lysák MA, Schubert I (2013) Mechanisms of chromosome rearrangements. In: Leitch IJ, Greilhuber J, Doležel J, Wendel JF (eds) Plant genome diversity, vol 2, Physical structure, behaviour and evolution of plant genomes. Springer-Verlag, Wien, pp 137–147Google Scholar
  121. Lysák MA, Berr A, Pecinka A, Schmidt R, McBreen K, Schubert I (2006) Mechanisms of chromosome number reduction in Arabidopsis thaliana and related Brassicaceae species. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:5224–5229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Maistro EL, Foresti F, Oliveira C, Toledo LFD (1992) Occurrence of macro-B chromosomes in Astyanax scabripinnis paranae (Pisces, Characiformes, Characidae). Genetica 87:101–106Google Scholar
  123. Maluszynska J, Schweizer D (1989) Ribosomal RNA genes in B-chromosomes of Crepis capillaris detected by non-radioactive in situ hybridization. Heredity 62:59–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Mandakova T, Lysák MA (2008) Chromosomal phylogeny and karyotype evolution in x = 7 crucifer species (Brassicaceae). Plant Cell 20:2559–2570PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Manzanero S, Puertas MJ (2003) Rye terminal neocentromeres: characterisation of the underlying DNA and chromatin structure. Chromosoma 111:408–415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Margulies M, Egholm M, Altman WE, Attiya S, Bader JS, Bemben LA, Berka J, Braverman MS, Chen YJ, Chen ZT et al (2005) Genome sequencing in microfabricated high-density picolitre reactors. Nature 437:376–380PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Marschner S, Kumke K, Houben A (2007a) B chromosomes of B. dichromosomatica show a reduced level of euchromatic histone H3 methylation marks. Chromosome Res 15:215–222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Marschner S, Meister A, Blattner FR, Houben A (2007b) Evolution and function of B chromosome 45S rDNA sequences in Brachycome dichromosomatica. Genome 50:638–644PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Martin C, Zhang Y (2005) The diverse functions of histone lysine methylation. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 6:838–849PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Martis MM, Klemme S, Banaei-Moghaddam AM et al. (2012) Selfish supernumerary chromosome reveals its origin as a mosaic of host genome and organellar sequences. Proc Natl Acad Sci 109:13343–13346PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Masonbrink RE, Birchler JA (2010) Sporophytic nondisjunction of the maize B chromosome at high copy numbers. J Genet Genomics 37:79–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Matthews RB, Jones RN (1983) Dynamics of the B-chromosome polymorphism in rye. 2. Estimates of parameters. Heredity 50:119–137Google Scholar
  133. May BP, Lippman ZB, Fang Y, Spector DL, Martienssen RA (2005) Differential regulation of strand-specific transcripts from Arabidopsis centromeric satellite repeats. PLoS Genet 1:e79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Mayer KFX, Taudien S, Martis M, Simkova H, Suchankova P, Gundlach H, Wicker T, Petzold A, Felder M, Steuernagel B et al (2009) Gene content and virtual gene order of barley chromosome 1H. Plant Physiol 151:496–505PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. McAllister BF (1995) Isolation and characterization of a retroelement from B chromosome (PSR) in the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis. Insect Mol Biol 4:253–262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Meller VH, Rattner BP (2002) The roX genes encode redundant male-specific lethal transcripts required for targeting of the MSL complex. EMBO J 21:1084–1091PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Mendelson D, Zohary D (1972) Behavior and transmission of supernumerary chromosomes in Aegilops speltoides. Heredity 29:329–339Google Scholar
  138. Misteli T (2007) Beyond the sequence: cellular organization of genome function. Cell 128:787–800PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Morais-Cecilio L, Delgado M, Jones RN, Viegas W (1996) Painting rye B chromosomes in wheat: Interphase chromatin organization, nuclear disposition and association in plants with two, three or four Bs. Chromosome Res 4:195–200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Morais-Cecilio L, Delgado M, Jones RN, Viegas W (1997) Interphase arrangement of rye B chromosomes in rye and wheat. Chromosome Res 5:177–181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Moralli D, Chan DY, Jefferson A, Volpi EV, Monaco ZL (2009) HAC stability in murine cells is influenced by nuclear localization and chromatin organization. BMC Cell Biol 10:18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Müntzing A (1948) Cytological studies of extra fragment chromosomes in rye. 5. A new fragment type arisen by deletion. Hereditas 34:435–442Google Scholar
  143. Müntzing A (1970) Chromosomal variation in the Lindstroem strain of wheat carrying accessory chromosomes of rye. Hereditas 66:279–285Google Scholar
  144. Niwa K, Sakamoto S (1995) Origin of B-chromosomes in cultivated rye. Genome 38:307–312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Niwa K, Horiuchi G, Hirai Y (1997) Production and characterization of common wheat with B chromosomes of rye from Korea. Hereditas 126:139–146Google Scholar
  146. Nur U (1963) A mitotically unstable supernumerary chromosome with an accumulation mechanism in a grasshopper. Chromosoma 14:407–422PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Nur U (1969) Mitotic instability leading to an accumulation of B-chromosomes in grasshoppers. Chromosoma 27:1–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Östergren G (1947) Heterochromatic B chromosomes in Anthoxanthum. Hereditas 33:261–296Google Scholar
  149. Page BT, Wanous MK, Birchler JA (2001) Characterization of a maize chromosome 4 centromeric sequence: evidence for an evolutionary relationship with the B chromosome centromere. Genetics 159:291–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Palestis BG, Trivers R, Burt A, Jones RN (2004) The distribution of B chromosomes across species. Cytogenet Genome Res 106:151–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Parker JS, Jones GH, Edgar L, Whitehouse C (1989) The population cytogenetics of Crepis capillaris. II. The stability and inheritance of B-chromosomes. Heredity 63:19–27Google Scholar
  152. Patton JL (1977) B chromosome systems in pocket mouse, Perognathus baileyi―meiosis and C-band studies. Chromosoma 60:1–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Peng SF, Lin YP, Lin BY (2005) Characterization of AFLP sequences from regions of maize B chromosome defined by 12 B-10L translocations. Genetics 169:375–388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Perfectti F, Werren JH (2001) The interspecific origin of B chromosomes: experimental evidence. Evolution 55:1069–1073PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Pidoux AL, Allshire R (2005) The role of heterochromatin in centromere function. Philos Trans Roy Soc Lond B Bio 360:569–579Google Scholar
  156. Price L, Short KC, Roberts AV (1981) Poor resolution of C-bands and the presence of B-chromosomes in Rosa rugosa ‘Scabrosa’. Caryologia 34:69–72Google Scholar
  157. Prigent C, Dimitrov S (2003) Phosphorylation of serine 10 in histone H3, what for? J Cell Sci 116:3677–3685PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Puertas MJ (2002) Nature and evolution of B chromosomes in plants: a non-coding but information-rich part of plant genomes. Cytogenet Genome Res 96:198–205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Puertas MJ, Romera F, Delapena A (1985) Comparison of B-chromosome effects on Secale cereale and Secale vavilovii. Heredity 55:229–234Google Scholar
  160. Ribeiro T, Pires B, Delgado M, Viegas W, Jones N, Morais-Cecilio L (2004) Evidence for ‘cross-talk’ between A and B chromosomes of rye. P Roy Soc Lond B Bio 271:S482–S484Google Scholar
  161. Richards EJ, Elgin SCR (2002) Epigenetic codes for heterochromatin formation and silencing: rounding up the usual suspects. Cell 108:489–500PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Riddle NC, Birchler JA (2003) Effects of reunited diverged regulatory hierarchies in allopolyploids and species hybrids. Trends Genet 19:597–600PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Rimpau J, Flavell RB (1975) Characterization of rye B chromosome DNA by DNA-DNA hybridization. Chromosoma 52:207–217Google Scholar
  164. Roman H (1947) Mitotic nondisjunction in the case of interchanges involving the B-type chromosome in maize. Genetics 32:391–409PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Roman H (1948) Directed fertilization in maize. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 34:36–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Romera F, Jimenez MM, Puertas MJ (1991) Genetic control of the rate of transmission of rye B chromosomes. 1. Effects in 2B × 0B crosses. Heredity 66:61–65Google Scholar
  167. Rudd MK, Mays RW, Schwartz S, Willard HF (2003) Human artificial chromosomes with alpha satellite-based de novo centromeres show increased frequency of nondisjunction and anaphase lag. Mol Cell Biol 23:7689–7697PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Ruiz-Rejon M, Posse F, Oliver JL (1980) The B-chromosome system of Scilla autumnalis (Liliaceae) – effects at the isoenzyme level. Chromosoma 79:341–348Google Scholar
  169. Rusche ML, Mogensen HL, Shi L, Keim P, Rougier M, Chaboud A, Dumas C (1997) B chromosome behavior in maize pollen as determined by a molecular probe. Genetics 147:1915–1921PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Rutishauser A, Röthlisberger E (1966) Boosting mechanism of B-chromosomes in Crepis capillaris. Chromosomes Today 1:28–30Google Scholar
  171. Sandery MJ, Forster JW, Blunden R, Jones RN (1990) Identification of a family of repeated sequences on the rye B-chromosome. Genome 33:908–913Google Scholar
  172. SanMiguel P, Tikhonov A, Jin YK, Motchoulskaia N, Zakharov D, Melake-Berhan A, Springer PS, Edwards KJ, Lee M, Avramova Z, Bennetzen JL (1996) Nested retrotransposons in the intergenic regions of the maize genome. Science 274:765–768PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Sapre B, Deshpande S (1987) Origin of B chromosomes in Coix L. through spontaneous interspecific hybridisation. J Hered 78:191–196Google Scholar
  174. Schlegel R, Pohler W (1994) Identification of an A-B chromosome translocation in diploid rye (Secale cereale L). Breed Sci 44:279–283Google Scholar
  175. Schmid M, Ziegler CG, Steinlein C, Nanda I, Haaf T (2002) Chromosome banding in Amphibia – XXIV. The B chromosomes of Gastrotheca espeletia (Anura, Hylidae). Cytogenet Genome Res 97:205–218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Schmid M, Ziegler CG, Steinlein C, Nanda I, Schartl M (2006) Cytogenetics of the bleak (Alburnus alburnus), with special emphasis on the B chromosomes. Chromosome Res 14:231–242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Schubert I (2007) Chromosome evolution. Curr Opinion Plant Biol 10:109–115Google Scholar
  178. Schubert I, Wobus U (1985) In situ hybridisation confirms jumping nucleolus organizing regions in Allium. Chromosoma 92:143–148Google Scholar
  179. Shambulingappa KG (1965) Occurrence of B chromosomes in the genus Clematis. Curr Sci 34:670–671Google Scholar
  180. Shishido R, Sano Y, Fukui K (2000) Ribosomal DNAs: an exception to the conservation of gene order in rice genomes. Mol Gen Genet 263:586–591PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Stark EA, Connerton I, Bennett ST, Barnes SR, Parker JS, Forster JW (1996) Molecular analysis of the structure of the maize B-chromosome. Chromosome Res 4:15–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Stitou S, Diaz de La Guardia R, Jimenez R, Burgos M (2000) Inactive ribosomal cistrons are spread throughout the B chromosomes of Rattus rattus (Rodentia, Muridae). Implications for their origin and evolution. Chromosome Res 8:305–311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Struhl K (1998) Histone acetylation and transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. Genes Dev 12:599–606PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Tanaka M, Kawahara T (1982) Cytogenetical effects of B chromosomes in plants – a review. Rep Plant Germplasm Inst Kyoto Univ 5:1–18Google Scholar
  185. Tanaka R, Matsuda T (1972) A high occurrence of accessory chromosomal type in Tainia laxiflora, Orchidaceae. Bot Mag Tokyo 85:43–49Google Scholar
  186. Tanic N, Vujosevic M, Dedovi-Tanic N, Dimitrijevic B (2005) Differential gene expression in yellow-necked mice Apodemus flavicollis (Rodentia, Mammalia) with and without B chromosomes. Chromosoma 113:418–427PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Teoh SB, Rees H (1977) B-chromosomes in white spruce. P Roy Soc Lond B Bio 198:325–344Google Scholar
  188. Teruel M, Cabrero J, Perfectti F, Camacho JP (2007) Nucleolus size variation during meiosis and NOR activity of a B chromosome in the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans. Chromosome Res 15:755–765PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Teruel M, Cabrero J, Perfectti F, Camacho JPM (2010) B chromosome ancestry revealed by histone genes in the migratory locust. Chromosoma 119:217–225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Theuri J, Phelps-Durr T, Mathews S, Birchler J (2005) A comparative study of retrotransposons in the centromeric regions of A and B chromosomes of maize. Cytogenet Genome Res 110:203–208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Timmis JN, Ingle J, Sinclair J, Jones RN (1975) Genomic quality of rye B chromosomes. J Exp Bot 26:367–368Google Scholar
  192. Topp CN, Zhong CX, Dawe RK (2004) Centromere-encoded RNAs are integral components of the maize kinetochore. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:15986–15991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Tsujimoto H, Niwa K (1992) DNA structure of the B-chromosome of rye revealed by in situ hybridization using repetitive sequences. Jpn J Genet 67:233–241Google Scholar
  194. Tsujimoto H, Niwa K (1994) Evolutionary mechanism of a rye B chromosome viewed from its DNA structure. In: Raupp WJ, Gill BS (eds) Classical and molecular cytogenetic analysis, proceedings of US-Japan symposium. Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, Kansas State University, Manhattan, pp 90–95Google Scholar
  195. van Vugt J, de Nooijer S, Stouthamer R, de Jong H (2005) NOR activity and repeat sequences of the paternal sex ratio chromosome of the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma kaykai. Chromosoma 114:410–419PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Volpe T, Schramke V, Hamilton GL, White SA, Teng G, Martienssen RA, Allshire RC (2003) RNA interference is required for normal centromere function in fission yeast. Chromosome Res 11:137–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Vos LJ, Famulski JK, Chan GK (2006) How to build a centromere: from centromeric and pericentromeric chromatin to kinetochore assembly. Biochem Cell Biol 84:619–639PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Vosa CG (1973) The enhanced and reduced quinacrine fluorescence bands and their relationship to the Giemsa patterns in Allium flavum. In: Caspersson T, Zech L (eds) Chromosome identification, proceedings of the 23rd Nobel symposium (medical and natural sciences), pp 156–158Google Scholar
  199. Wilkes TM, Francki MG, Langridge P, Karp A, Jones RN, Forster JW (1995) Analysis of rye B-chromosome structure using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Chromosome Res 3:466–472PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Wutz A, Rasmussen TP, Jaenisch R (2002) Chromosomal silencing and localization are mediated by different domains of Xist RNA. Nat Genet 30:167–174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Zhang Y, Reinberg D (2001) Transcription regulation by histone methylation: interplay between different covalent modifications of the core histone tails. Genes Dev 15:2343–2360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Zhang P, Li WL, Friebe B, Gill BS (2008) The origin of a “zebra” chromosome in wheat suggests nonhomologous recombination as a novel mechanism for new chromosome evolution and step changes in chromosome number. Genetics 179:1169–1177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Zhou JP, Yang ZJ, Li GR, Liu C, Tang ZX, Zhang Y, Ren ZL (2010) Diversified chromosomal distribution of tandemly repeated sequences revealed evolutionary trends in Secale (Poaceae). Plant Syst Evol 287:49–56Google Scholar
  204. Ziegler CG, Lamatsch DK, Steinlein C, Engel W, Schartl M, Schmid M (2003) The giant B chromosome of the cyprinid fish Alburnus alburnus harbours a retrotransposon-derived repetitive DNA sequence. Chromosome Res 11:23–35PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andreas Houben
    • 1
  • Ali Mohammad Banaei-Moghaddam
    • 2
  • Sonja Klemme
    • 3
  1. 1.Leipnitz-Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK)Chromosome Structure and Function LaboratoryGaterslebenGermany
  2. 2.Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK)GaterslebenGermany
  3. 3.Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK)Chromosome Structure and Function LaboratoryGaterslebenGermany

Personalised recommendations