Selective non-operative management of distal rectal cancer: The Watch & Wait Protocol

  • Angelita Habr-GamaEmail author
  • Rodrigo O. Perez
  • Patricio B. Lynn
  • Guilherme Pagin São Julião
  • Joaquim José Gama Rodrigues


The observation of improved local disease control with the use of preoperative chemoradiation (CRT) for locally advanced rectal cancer established this treatment strategy as one the preferred initial approaches for this disease. Interestingly, the benefits of preoperative CRT were not restricted to local recurrence rates but also included reduced toxicity rates compared to postoperative CRT, significant tumor downstaging and downsizing, greater rates of sphincter preservation, and better functional results [1, 2].


Rectal Cancer Radiat Oncol Biol Phys Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery Advanced Rectal Cancer Preoperative Chemoradiation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/Wien 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Angelita Habr-Gama
    • 1
    Email author
  • Rodrigo O. Perez
    • 1
    • 2
  • Patricio B. Lynn
    • 1
  • Guilherme Pagin São Julião
    • 1
    • 2
  • Joaquim José Gama Rodrigues
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Angelita & Joaquim Gama InstituteSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.School of MedicineUniversity of Sao PauloSão PauloBrazil

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