Advertisement

Interaction of Carbon and Nitrogen Metabolisms in Alpine Plants

  • F. BaptistEmail author
  • I. Aranjuelo
Chapter

Abstract

The importance of nitrogen (N) for plant growth has been well understood since the pioneering work of von Liebig (1840), which described the effect of individual nutrients on crops. Since this work, many studies have addressed plant nutrients in general and N in particular, leading to greater understanding of the coupling between N availability, carbon (C) and N fluxes, and whole plant growth.

Keywords

Snow Cover Specific Leaf Area Alpine Plant Grow Season Length Oxidative Pentose Phosphate Pathway 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Ainsworth EA, Long SP (2005) What have we learned from 15 years of free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE)? A meta-analytic review of responses of photosynthesis, canopy properties and plant production to rising CO2. New Phytol 165:351–372PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ainsworth EA, Rogers A (2007) The response of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance to rising [CO2]: mechanisms and environmental interactions. Plant Cell Environ 30:258–270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Alley R, Berntsen T, Bindoff NL et al (2007) Climate change 2007: the physical 613 science basis. In: Summary of policymakers fourth assessment report of working 614 group I, Intergovernmental panel on climate change, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  4. Andrews M (1986) The partitioning of nitrate assimilation between root and shoot of higher plants. Plant Cell Environ 9:511–519Google Scholar
  5. Andrews JT, Lorimer GH (1987) Rubisco: structure, mechanisms and prospects for improvement. In: Hatch MD, Broadman NK (eds) Biochemistry of plants, vol 10. Academic, New York, pp 132–207Google Scholar
  6. Aranjuelo I, Irigoyen JJ, Pérez P, Martínez-Carrasco R, Sánchez-Díaz M (2005) The use of temperature gradient tunnels for studying the combined effect of CO2, temperature and water availability in N2 fixing alfalfa plants. Ann Appl Biol 146:51–60Google Scholar
  7. Aranjuelo I, Irigoyen JJ, Sánchez-Díaz M, Nogués S (2008) Carbon partitioning in N2 fixing Medicago sativa plants exposed to different CO2 and temperature conditions. Funct Plant Biol 35:306–317Google Scholar
  8. Aranjuelo I, Pardo T, Biel C, Savé R, Azcón-Bieto J, Nogués S (2009) Leaf carbon management in slow-growing plants exposed to elevated CO2. Glob Chang Biol 15:97–109Google Scholar
  9. Arnone JA III (1997) Indices of plant N availability in an alpine grassland under elevated atmospheric CO2. Plant Soil 190:61–66Google Scholar
  10. Arnone JA III (1999) Symbiotic N2 fixation in a high Alpine grassland: effects of four growing seasons of elevated CO2. Funct Ecol 13:383–387Google Scholar
  11. Auer I, Böhm R, Jurkovic A et al (2007) HISTALP – Historical instrumental climatological surface time series of the Greater Alpine Region 1760–2003. Int J Climatol 27:17–46Google Scholar
  12. Avice JC, Ourry A, Lemaire G, Boucaud J (1996) Nitrogen and carbon flows estimated by 15N and 13C pulse chase labelling during regrowth of alfalfa. Plant Phys 112:281–290Google Scholar
  13. Baptist F, Choler P (2008) A simulation on the importance of growing season length and canopy functional properties on the seasonal gross primary production of temperate alpine meadows. Ann Bot 101:549–559PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Baptist F, Tcherkez G, Aubert S, Pontailler JY, Choler P, Noguès S (2009a) 13C and 15N allocations of two alpine species from early and late snowmelt locations reflect their different growth strategies. J Exp Bot 60:2725–2735PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Baptist F, Flahaut C, Streb P, Choler P (2009b) No increase in alpine snowbed productivity in response to experimental lengthening of the growing season. Plant Biol. doi: 10.1111/j.1438-8677.2009.00286.x
  16. Baptist F, Yoccoz G, Choler P (2010) Direct and indirect control by snow cover over decomposition in alpine tundra along a snowmelt gradient. Plant soil 328:397–410Google Scholar
  17. Beniston M (2003) Climatic change in mountain regions: a review of possible impacts. Clim Chang 59:5–31Google Scholar
  18. Bilbrough CJ, Welker JM, Bowman WD (2000) Early spring nitrogen uptake by snow-covered plants: a comparison of arctic and alpine plant function under the snowpack. Arct Antarctic Alp Res 32(2):404–411Google Scholar
  19. Björk RG, Molau U (2007) Ecology of alpine snowbed and the impact of global change. Arc Antarctic Alp Res 39:34–43Google Scholar
  20. Bliss L (1956) A comparison of plant development in microenvironments of arctic and alpine tundras. Ecol Monogr 26:303–307Google Scholar
  21. Bloom AJ, Chapin FS, Mooney HA (1985) Resource limitation in plants – an economic analogy. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 16:363–392Google Scholar
  22. Bowman WD, Theodose TA, Schardt JC, Conant RT (1993) Constraints of nutrient availability on primary production in two alpine tundra communities. Ecology 74:2085–2097Google Scholar
  23. Bryant DM, Holland EA, Seastedt TR, Walker MD (1998) Analysis of litter decomposition in an alpine tundra. Can J Bot 76:1295–1304Google Scholar
  24. Chapin F (1980) The mineral nutrition of wild plants. Ann Rev Ecol Systematics 11:37–52Google Scholar
  25. Chapin FS, Schulze ED, Mooney HA (1990) The ecology and economics of storage in plants. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 21:423–447Google Scholar
  26. Chapin F, Moilanen L, Kielland K (1993) Preferential use of organic nitrogen for growth by a non-mycorrhizal arctic sedge. Nature 361:743–751Google Scholar
  27. Choler P (2005) Consistent shifts in alpine plant traits along a mesotopographical gradient. Arct Antarctic Alp Res 37(4):444–453Google Scholar
  28. Craine JM, Tilman D, Wedin D, Reich P, Tjoelker M, Knops J (2002) Functional traits, productivity and effects on nitrogen cycling of 33 grassland species. Funct Ecol 16:563–574Google Scholar
  29. Craine JM, Lee WG, Bond WJ, Williams RJ, Johnson LC (2005) Environmental constraints on a global relationship among leaf and root traits of grasses. Ecology 86:12–19Google Scholar
  30. Drake BG, González-Meler MA, Long SP (1997) More efficient plants: a consequence of rising atmospheric CO2? Ann Rev Plant Phys Plant Mol Biol 48:609–639Google Scholar
  31. Dye DG, Tucker CJ (2003) Seasonality and trends of snow-cover, vegetation index, and temperature in northern Eurasia. Geophys Res Lett 30:9–12Google Scholar
  32. European Environment Agency (2009) Regional climate change and adaptation. The Alps facing the challenge of changing water resources 8, ISSN 1725–9177Google Scholar
  33. Evans JR, Seemann JR (1989) The allocation of protein nitrogen in the photosynthetic apparatus: costs, consequences, and control. In: Briggs WR (ed) Photosynthesis. Alan R. Liss Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  34. Fisk MC, Schmidt SK, Seastedt TR (1998) Topographic patterns of above- and belowground production and nitrogen cycling in Alpine tundra. Ecology 79:2253–2266Google Scholar
  35. Garnier E (1991) Resource capture, biomass allocation and growth in herbaceous plants. Trends Ecol Evol 6:126–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Garnier E, Salager JL, Laurent G, Sonie L (1999) Relationships between photosynthesis, nitrogen and leaf structure in 14 grass species and their dependence on the basis of expression. New Phytol 143:119–129Google Scholar
  37. Geiger M, Haake V, Ludewig F, Sonnewald U, Stitt M (1999) The nitrate and ammonium nitrate supply have a major influence on the response of photosynthesis, carbon metabolism and growth to elevated carbon dioxide in tobacco. Plant Cell Env 22:1177–1199Google Scholar
  38. Germino MJ, Smith WK (2000) High resistance to low temperature photoinhibition in two alpine, snowbank species. Physiol Plant 110:89–95Google Scholar
  39. Grime J (1977) Evidence for the existence of three primary strategies in plants and its relevance to ecological and evolutionary theory. Am Nat 111:1169–1194Google Scholar
  40. Grime J (1997) Biodiversity and ecosystem function: the debate deepens. Science 277:1260–1261Google Scholar
  41. Guy CL (1990) Cold acclimation and freezing stress tolerance: role of protein metabolism. Ann Rev Plant Phys Plant Mol Biol 41:187–223Google Scholar
  42. Haselwandter K, Hofmann A, Holzmann HP, Read DJ (1983) Availability of nitrogen and phosphorus in the nival zone of the Alps. Oecologia 57:266–269Google Scholar
  43. Hendry G (1987) The ecological significance of fructan in a contemporary flora. New Phytol 106:201–216Google Scholar
  44. Hovenden MJ, Karen EW, Vander Schoor JK, Williams AL, Newton PCD (2008) Flowering phenology in a species-rich temperate grassland is sensitive to warming but not to elevated CO2. New Phytol 178(4):815–822PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Inouye DW (2000) The ecological and evolutionary significance of frost in the context of climate change. Ecol Lett 3:457–463Google Scholar
  46. Inouye D (2008) Effects of climate change on phenology, frost damage, and floral abundance of montane wildflowers. Ecol 89:353–362Google Scholar
  47. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) (2007) Climatic change 2007: the physical science basis. In: Proceedings of the 10th session of working group I of the IPCC, Paris, February 2007Google Scholar
  48. Jaeger C, Monson R (1992) Adaptive significance of nitrogen storage in Bistorta bistortoides, an alpine herb. Oecologia 92:121–131Google Scholar
  49. Jaeger C, Monson RK, Fisk MC, Schmidt S (1999) Seasonal partitioning of nitrogen by plants and soil microorganisms in an alpine ecosystem. Ecol 80:1883–1891Google Scholar
  50. Jifon JL, Wolfe DW (2002) Photosynthetic acclimation to elevated CO2 in Phaseolus vulgaris L. is altered by growth response to nitrogen supply. Glob Chang Biol 8:1018–1027Google Scholar
  51. Jones H, Pomeroy J, Walker DA, Hoham R (2000) Snow ecology: an interdisciplinary examination of snow-covered ecosystems. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  52. Justes E, Thiébeau P, Avice JC, Lemaire G, Volenec JJ, Ourry A (2002) Influence of sowing dates, N fertilization and irrigation on autumn VSP accumulation and dynamics of spring regrowth in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). J Exp Bot 53:111–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Kielland K (1994) Amino acid absorption by arctic plants: implications for plant nutrition and nitrogen cycling. Ecol 75:155–181Google Scholar
  54. Kleijn D, Treier UA, Muller Scharer H (2005) The importance of nitrogen and carbohydrate storage for plant growth of the alpine herb Veratrum album. New Phytol 166:565–575PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Komarkova V, Webber PJ (1978) An alpine vegetation map of Niwot Ridge, Colorado. Arct Alp Res 1:1–29Google Scholar
  56. Körner C (1999) Alpine plant life. Springer Verlag, Berlin/Heidelberg/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  57. Körner C, Diemer M (1987) In situ photosynthetic response to light, temperature and carbon dioxide in herbaceous plants from low and high altitude. Funct Ecol 1:179–194Google Scholar
  58. Körner C, Diemer M (1994) Evidence that plants from high altitudes retain their greater photosynthetic efficiency under elevated CO2. Funct Ecol 8:58–68Google Scholar
  59. Körner C, Pelaez Menendez-Riedl S (1989) The significance of developmental aspects in plant growth analysis. In: Lambers H, Cambridge ML, Konings H, Pons TL (eds) Causes and consequences of variation in growth rate productivity of higher plants. Springer Verlag Academic Publishing, The Hague, pp 141–157Google Scholar
  60. Körner C, Diemer M, Scäppi B, Niklaus P, Arnone J III (1997) Response of alpine grassland to four seasons of CO2 enrichment: a synthesis. Acta Ecol 18:165–175Google Scholar
  61. Körner C, Asshoff R, Bignucolo O, Hättenschwiler S, Keel SG, Peláez-Riedl S, Pepin S, Siegwolf RTW, Zotz G (2005) Carbon flux and growth in mature deciduous forest trees exposed to elevated CO2. Science 309:1360–1362PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Kudo G, Ito K (1992) Plant distribution in relation to the length of the growing season in a snow-bed in the Taisetsu Mountains, northern Japan. Vegetatio 98:319–328Google Scholar
  63. Kudo G, Nordenhall U, Molau U (1999) Effects of snowmelt timing on leaf traits, leaf production, and shoot growth of alpine plants: comparisons along a snowmelt gradient in northern Sweden. Ecoscience 6:439–450Google Scholar
  64. Lawlor D (2002) Carbon and nitrogen assimilation in relation to yield: mechanisms are the key to understanding production systems. J Exp Bot 53:773–787PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Leakey ADB, Ainsworth EA, Bernacchi CJ, Rogers A (2009) Elevated CO2 effects on plant carbon, nitrogen, and water relations: six important lessons from FACE. J Exp Bot 60:2859–2876PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Lewis JD, Wang XZ, Griffin KL, Tissue DT (2002) Effects of age and ontogeny on photosynthetic responses of a determinate annual plant to elevated CO2 concentrations. Plant Cell Env 25:359–368Google Scholar
  67. Liebig J (1840) Die organische chemie in ihrer anwendung auf agrikultur und physiologie. Friedrich Vieweg, BraunschweigGoogle Scholar
  68. Lipson D, Monson R, Bowman W (1996) Luxury uptake and storage of nitrogen in the rhizomatous alpine herb, Bistorta bistortoides. Ecology 77:569–576Google Scholar
  69. Lipson DA, Schmidt SK, Monson RK (1999) Links between microbial population dynamics and nitrogen availability in an alpine ecosystem. Ecology 80:1623–1631Google Scholar
  70. Lloyd J, Farquhar GD (2000) Do slow-growing species and nutrient-stressed plants consistently respond less to elevated CO2? A clarification of some issues raised by Poorter (1998). Glob Chang Biol 6:871–876Google Scholar
  71. Long SP, Ainsworth EA, Rogers A, Ort DR (2004) Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide: plants FACE the future. Ann Rev Plant Biol 55:591–628Google Scholar
  72. May DE, Webber PJ et al (1982) Spatial and temporal variation of vegetation and its productivity on Niwot Ridge, Colorado. In: Ecological studies in the Colorado alpine, a Festschrift for John W. Marr. Occasional Paper Number 37. Institute of Artic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder/Colorado, pp 35–62Google Scholar
  73. Menke J, Trlica M (1981) Carbohydrate reserve, phenology, and growth cycles of nine Colorado range species. J Range Management 34:269–277Google Scholar
  74. Meuriot F, Simon JC, Decau MP, Prudhomme MP, Morvan-Bertrand A, Gastal F, Volenec JJ, Avice JC (2005) Contribution of initial C and N reserves in Medicago sativa L. recovering from defoliation: modulation by the cutting height and the residual leaf area. Funct Plant Biol 32:321–334Google Scholar
  75. Miller AE, Bowman WD (2003) Alpine plants show species-level differences in the uptake of organic and inorganic nitrogen. Plant Soil 250:283–292Google Scholar
  76. Miller A, Schimel J, Sickman J, Skeen K, Meixner T, Melack J (2009) Seasonal variation in nitrogen uptake and turnover in two high-elevation soils: mineralization responses are site-dependent. Biogeochemistry 93:253–270Google Scholar
  77. Monson RK, Rosenstiel TN, Forbis TA, Lipson DA, Jaeger CH (2006) Nitrogen and carbon storage in alpine plants. Integrative Comparative Biol 46:35–48Google Scholar
  78. Moore BD, Cheng SH, Sims D, Seemann JR (1999) The biochemical and molecular basis for photosynthetic acclimation to elevated atmospheric CO2. Plant Cell Environ 22:567–582Google Scholar
  79. Naumburg E, Loik ME, Smith SD (2004) Photosynthetic responses of Larrea tridentata to seasonal extreme temperatures under elevated CO2. New Phytol 162:323–330Google Scholar
  80. Noguès-Bravo D, Araujo M, Errea M, Martínez-Rica J (2007) Exposure of global mountain systems to climate warming during the 21st century. Glob Env Chang 17:420–428Google Scholar
  81. Nowak RS, Ellsworth DS, Smith S (2004) Functional responses of plants to elevated atmospheric CO2: do photosynthetic and productivity data from FACE experiments support early prediction? New Phytol 162:253–280Google Scholar
  82. Oaks A, Hirel B (1986) Nitrogen metabolism in roots. Ann Rev Plant Physiol 36:345–365Google Scholar
  83. Öncel I, Yurdakulol E, Keles Y, Kurt L, YIldIz A (2004) Role of antioxidant defense system and biochemical adaptation on stress tolerance of high mountain and steppe plants. Acta Oecol 26:211–218Google Scholar
  84. Osone Y, Ishida A, Tateno M (2008) Correlation between relative growth rate and specific leaf area requires associations of specific leaf area with nitrogen absorption rate of roots. New Phytol 179:417–427PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Pate JS (1980) Transport and partitioning of nitrogenous solutes. Ann Rev Plant Physiol 31:313–340Google Scholar
  86. Pate JS (1983) Patterns of nitrogen metabolism in higher plants and their ecological significance. In: Lee JA, McNeill S, Rorison IH (eds) Nitrogen as an ecological factor. Blackwell Scientific Publishing, Oxford, pp 225–255Google Scholar
  87. Pollock CJ, Cairns AJ (1991) Fructan metabolism in grasses and cereals. Ann Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 42:77–101Google Scholar
  88. Poorter H, Pérez-Soba M (2001) The growth response of plants to elevated CO2 under non-optimal environmental conditions. Oecologia 129:1–20Google Scholar
  89. Pornon A, Escavarage N, Lamaze T (2007) Complementarity in mineral nitrogen use among dominant plant species in a subalpine community. Am J Bot 11:1778–1785Google Scholar
  90. Raab TK, Lipson DA, Monson RK (1999) Soil amino acid utilization among species of the cyperaceae: plant and soil processes. Ecol 80:2408–2419Google Scholar
  91. Reich P, Walters M, Ellsworth D (1992) Leaf-life span in relation to leaf, plant, and stand characteristics among diverse ecosystems. Ecol Monogr 62:2142–2147Google Scholar
  92. Reich PB, Ellsworth DS, Walters MB, Vose JM, Gresham C, Volin JC, Bowman WD (1999) Generality of leaf trait relationships: a test across six biomes. Ecology 80:1955–1969Google Scholar
  93. Reviere-Rolland H, Contard P, Betsche T (1996) Adaptation of pea to elevated CO2: rubisco, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and chloroplast phosphate translocator at different levels of nitrogen and phosphorus nutrition. Plant Cell Env 19:109–117Google Scholar
  94. Riedo M, Grub A, Rosset M, Fuhrer J (1997) A pasture simulation model for dry matter production, and fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and water energy. Ecol Model 105:141–183Google Scholar
  95. Rigollier C, Bauer O, Wald L (1999) On the clear sky model of the 4th European Solar Radiation Atlas with respect to the Heliosat method. Solar Energy 68:33–48Google Scholar
  96. Sakai A, Larcher W (1987) Frost survival of plants. Response and adaptation to freezing stress, Ecological Studies 62. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  97. Saxe H, Ellsworth DS, Heath J (1998) Tree and forest functioning in an enriched CO2 atmosphere. New Phytol 139:395–436Google Scholar
  98. Scheurwater M, Koren M, Lambers H, Atkin OK (2002) The contribution of roots and shoots to whole plant nitrate reduction in fast- and slow-growing grass species. J Exp Bot 53:1635–1642Google Scholar
  99. Schmidt SK, Costello EK, Nemergut DR, Cleveland CC, Reed SC, Weintraub MN, Meyer AF, Martin AM (2007) Biogeochemical consequences of rapid microbial turnover and seasonal succession in soil. Ecology 88:1379–1385PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Shaver G, Chapin F, Gartner B (1986) Factors limiting seasonal growth and peak biomass accumulation in Eriophorum vaginatum in Alaskan tussock tundra. J Ecol 74:983–989Google Scholar
  101. Sierra-Almeida A, Cavieres L (2010) Summer freezing resistance decreased in high-elevation plants exposed to experimental warming in the central Chilean Andes. Oecologia 163:267–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Sørensen T (1941) Temperature relations and phenology of the northeast Greenland flowering plants. Meddelelser om Grønland 125:1–305Google Scholar
  103. Stewart IT (2009) Changes in snowpack and snowmelt runoff for key mountain regions. Hydrol Process 23:78–94Google Scholar
  104. Stitt M, Krapp A (1999) The interaction between elevated carbon dioxide and nitrogen nutrition: the physiological and molecular background. Plant Cell Env 22:583–621Google Scholar
  105. Theurillat JP, Guisan A (2001) Potential impact of climate change on vegetation in the European Alps: a review. Clim Chang 50:77–109Google Scholar
  106. Theurillat J-P, Aeschimann D, Küpfer P, Spichiger R (1994) The higher vegetation units of the Alps. Colloq Phytosociol 23:189–239Google Scholar
  107. Thomas RB, Strain BR (1991) Root restriction as a factor in photosynthetic acclimation of cotton seedlings grown in elevated carbon dioxide. Plant Phys 96:627–634Google Scholar
  108. Tjoelker MG, Craine JM, Wedin D, Reich PB, Tilman D (2005) Linking leaf and root trait syndromes among 39 grassland and savannah species. New Phytol 167:493–508PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Valladares F, Pearcy RW (1997) Interactions between water stresses, sunshade acclimation, heat tolerance and photoinhibition in the sclerophyll Heteromeles arbutifoliar. Plant Cell Env 20:25–36Google Scholar
  110. Valladares F, Pugnaire FI (1999) Tradeoffs between irradiance capture and avoidance in semi-arid environments assessed with a crown architecture model. Ann Bot 83:459–469Google Scholar
  111. Westoby M (1998) A leaf-height-seed (LHS) plant ecology strategy scheme. Plant Soil 199:213–227Google Scholar
  112. Wright IJ, Reich PB, Westoby M, Ackerly DD, Baruch Z, Bongers F, Cavender Bares J, Chapin T, Cornelissen JHC, Diemer M, Flexas J, Garnier E, Groom PK, Gulias J, Hikosaka K, Lamont BB, Lee T, Lee W, Lusk C, Midgley JJ, Navas ML, Niinemets U, Oleksyn J, Osada N, Poorter H, Poot P, Prior L, Pyankov VI, Roumet C, Thomas SC, Tjoelker MG, Veneklaas EJ, Villar R (2004) The worldwide leaf economics spectrum. Nature 428:821–827PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Wyka T (1999) Carbohydrate storage and use in an alpine population of the perennial herb, Oxytropis sericea. Oecologia 120(2):198–208Google Scholar
  114. Xu XL, Ouyang H, Kuzyakov Y, Richter A, Wanek W (2006) Significance of organic nitrogen acquisition for dominant plant species in an alpine meadow on the Tibet plateau, China. Plant Soil 285:221–231Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/Wien 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de Biologia VegetalUniversitat de BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain

Personalised recommendations