From the Flower Bud to the Mature Seed: Timing and Dynamics of Flower and Seed Development in High-Mountain Plants

  • Johanna WagnerEmail author
  • Ursula Ladinig
  • Gerlinde Steinacher
  • Ilse Larl


High mountains are climatically extreme environments. Short growing seasons and low temperatures are the most important factors limiting plant life at higher altitudes. In the mountains of temperate and cold climates, the period available for growth, flowering and seed production varies with relief and snow accumulation in winter (e.g. Crawford 2008; Galen and Stanton 1991; Kudo 1991, 1992; Galen and Stanton 1995; Kudo and Suzuki 1999; Inouye et al. 2002, 2003; Körner 2003; Ladinig and Wagner 2005; Molau et al.


Seed Development Pollen Tube Growth Reproductive Development Floral Development Flower Initiation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This work was supported by funding from the Austrian Science Foundation (FWF-projects P15595-B3 “Diversity of sexual reproduction in high-mountain plants” and P18398-BO3 “Pollen tube growth and pistil receptivity of high-mountain plants under extreme climatic conditions”) to J. Wagner. We thank S. Erler and S. Widmann for providing data, and W. Sakai for SEM preparation. We further thank the Patscherkofelbahn and the Stubai Gletscherbahn for free transportation by cable-car.


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© Springer-Verlag/Wien 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Johanna Wagner
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ursula Ladinig
    • 1
  • Gerlinde Steinacher
    • 1
  • Ilse Larl
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of BotanyUniversity of InnsbruckInnsbruckAustria

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