Skip to main content
  • 679 Accesses


Schmerz ist ein vielgestaltiges Phänomen. Die Schmerzerfahrung wird als eine komplexe Reaktion angesehen, die aus dem Zusammenspiel von einander abhängigen neurologischen, endokrinen, immunologischen und psychologischen Faktoren resultiert. Sie ist keine konstante Größe, sondern kann erheblich fluktuieren durch z. B. altersbedingte Veränderungen des nozizeptiven Systems, Empfindungsstörungen wie Sensitisation, Silent Pain Syndrome, veränderte Schmerzwahrnehmung und subjektive Schmerzberichterstattung (Meints et al. 2018).

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
USD 29.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 37.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions


  • Bayam L, Ahmad MA, Naqui SZ, Chouhan A, Funk L (2011) Pain mapping for common shoulder disorders. Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ) 40(7):353–358

    Google Scholar 

  • Bayam L, Arumilli R, Horsley I, Bayam F, Herrington L, Lennard Funk L (2017) Testing shoulder pain mapping. Pain Med 18(7):1382–1393 PMID: 28339752

  • Chimenti PC, Drinkwater CJ, Li W, Lemay CA, Franklin PD, O’Keefe RJ (2016) Factors associated with early improvement in low back pain After total hip arthroplasty: a multi-center prospective cohort analyses. J Arthroplasty 31(1):176–179.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Coronel instituut voor arbeid en gezondheid (2016) Actualisatie wetenschappelijk kennis en inzichten over het LRS. AMCC UVA. Amsterdam Publishe, Amsterdam

    Google Scholar 

  • Devillé WL, van der Windt DA, Dzaferagić A, Bezemer PD, Bouter LM (2000) The test of Lasègue: systematic review of the accuracy in diagnosing herniated discs. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 25(9):1140–1147. MID: 10788860

  • Diabetes and your joints. Clin Diabetes 19(3):sang136.

  • Han D-G (2009) The other mechanism of muscular referred pain: the “connective tissue” theory. Med Hypotheses 73(3):292–295. Epub 2009 May 9. PMID: 19433346

  • Hicks GE, Sions JM, Velasco TO (2017) Hip symptoms, physical performance, and health status in older adults with chronic low back pain: a preliminary investigation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 99(7):1273–1278. Epub 2017 Oct 27

  • Hu Y, Chen X, Wang S, Jing Y, Su J (2021) Subchondral bone microenvironment in osteoarthritis and pain. Bone Res 9(1):20. PMID: 33731688

  • Kalff R, Ewald C, Waschke A, Gobisch L, Hopf C (2013) Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis in older people—current treatment options. Dtsch Arztebl Int 110(37):613–624.

  • Kim RP, Edelman SV, Kim DD (2001) Musculoskeletal complications of diabetes mellitus. Clin Diabetes 19(3):132–135.

  • Kimura LF, Novaes LS, Picolo G, Munhoz CD, Cheung CW, Camarini R (2022) How environmental enrichment balances out neuroinflammation in chronic pain and comorbid depression and anxiety disorders. Br J Pharmacol. 179(8):1640–1660. Epub 2021 Jul 1

  • Li, G., Yin, J, Gao, J, Cheng TS, Pavlos NJ, Zhang C, Zheng MH (2013) Subchondral bone in osteoarthritis: insight into risk factors and microstructural changes. Arthritis Res Ther 2013;15(6):223

  • Lee BH, Moon SH, Lee HM, Kim TH, Lee SJ (2012) Prevalence of hip pathology in patients over age 50 with spinal conditions requiring surgery. Indian J Orthop 46(3):291–296. PMCID: PMC3377139. PMID: 22719115

  • Lephart SM, Fu FH (2000) Proprioception and neuromuscular control in joint stability, 1. Aufl. Human Kinetics Pittsburgh

    Google Scholar 

  • Loeser D (2002) (medisch contact). Zugegriffen: 12 Juli 2022

  • Liu N, Goodman SB, Lachiewicz PF, Wood KB (2019) Hip or spine surgery first? A survey of treatment order for patients with concurrent degenerative hip and spinal disorders. Bone Jt J 101-B(6 Supple B):37–44. Published Online: 31 May 2019

  • Lund B, Søballe K, Winge S, Hølmich P, Jacobsen S, Lind M (2011) Hofteartroskopi. Ugeskr Laeger 173(3):197–200. PMID: 21241628

    Google Scholar 

  • McCaffery M (1968) Nursing practice theories related to cognition, bodily pain, and man-environment interactions. UCLA Students Store, Los Angeles

    Google Scholar 

  • Meints SM, Edwards RR (2018) Evaluating psychosocial contributions to chronic pain outcomes. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry. Elsevier 2018; 1–15 AGS Panel on Persistent Pain in Older Persons. The Management of Persistent Pain in Older Persons. JAGS 2002; 50:S205–S224

    Google Scholar 

  • Melzack R (2001) Pain and the neuromatrix in the brain. J Dent Educ 65(12):1378–1382.

    Google Scholar 

  • Melzack R, Wall PD (1965) Pain mechanisms: a new theory. Science 150:971–979

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Munakomi S, Foris LA, Varacallo M (2022) Spinal stenosis and neurogenic claudication. StatPearls Publishing, Treasure Island (FL), USA

    Google Scholar 

  • Morgenstern J, Campos Campos M, Nawroth P, Fleming T (2020) The glyoxalase system-new insights into an ancient metabolism. Antioxidants (Basel) 9(10):939. PMID: 33019494. PMCID: PMC7600140

  • Nijs J, Lahousse A, Kapreli E, Bilika P, Saraçoğlu I, Malfliet A, Coppieters I, De Baets L, Leysen L, Roose E, Clark J, Voogt L, Huysmans E (2021) Nociplastic pain criteria or recognition of central sensitization? Pain phenotyping in the past, present and future. J Clin Med 10(15):3203. PMID: 34361986. PMCID: PMC8347369

  • Orita S, Inage K, Eguchi Y, Kubota G, Aoki Y, Nakamura J, Furuya T, Matsuura Y, Koda M, Ohtori S (2016) Lumbar foraminal stenosis, the hidden stenosis including at L5/S1. Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol 26(7):685–693 Epub 2016 Jun 18. PMID: 27318669

  • Parvizi J, MD, Pour AE, Hillibrand A, Goldberg G, Sharkey PF, Rothman (2010) Back pain and total hip arthroplasty: a prospective natural history study. Clin Orthop Relat Res 468(5):1325–1330. PMCID: PMC2853644. PMID: 20127429

  • Picard S, Vasilevski D, Fagherazzi G (2020) Distribution of highly prevalent musculoskeletal disorders and their association with diabetes complications in a population of 140 individuals with type 1 diabetes: a retrospective study in a French diabetes center. Clin Diabetes 38(2):181–187.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Prabu RG,Shyamasunder BN, Fernández-de-las-Peñas C, Gangavelli R, Davis F, Shankar R, Prabhu A (2021) Effectiveness of deep cervical fascial manipulation and yoga postures on pain, function, and oculomotor control in patients with mechanical neck pain: study protocol of a pragmatic, parallel-group, randomized, controlled trial. Trials 22:574. Published online 2021 Aug 28. PMCID: PMC8399821. PMID: 34454582

  • Prather H, Cheng A, Steger-May K, Maheshwari V, Van Dillen L (2017) Hip and lumbar spine physical examination findings in people presenting with low back pain, with or without lower extremity Pain. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 47(3):163–172

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Prather H, van Dillen L (2019) A narrative review of the links between the hip and the lumbar spine (hip spine syndrome) as they relate to clinical decision making for patients with lumbopelvic pain. PM&R. PMID: 31074168

  • Raja PG, Fernandes S, Cruz AM, Prabhu A (2020) The plausible role of deep cervical fascia and its continuum in chronic craniofacial and cervicobrachial pain. A case report. Heliyon 6:e04560.

  • Redaktion Aerzteblatt (2017) „Marsili-Syndrom“: Gendefekt macht Familie schmerzlos. Aerzteblatt 18. Dezember 2017, Reinhardtstr. 34-10117 Berlin. Zugegriffen: 11 Dez. 2019

  • Redmond JM, Gupta A, Hammarstedt JE, Stake CE, Domb BG (2014) The hip-spine syndrome: how does back pain impact the indications and outcomes of hip arthroscopy? Arthroscopy 30(7):872–81. Epub 2014 Apr 18

  • Shim K, MacKenzie MJ, Winquist E (2008) Chemotherapy-associated osteonecrosis in cancer patients with solid tumours: a systematic review. Drug Saf 31(5):359–371. PMID: 18422377

  • Szok D, Tajti J, Nyári A, Vécsei L (2019) Therapeutic Approaches for Peripheral and Central Neuropathic Pain. Behav Neurol 2019:8685954. eCollection 2019. PMID: 31871494. PMCID: PMC6906810

  • Tranovich MJ, Salzler MJ, Enseki KR, Wright VJ (2014) A review of femoroacetabular impingement and hip arthroscopy in the athlete. Phys Sportsmed. 42(1):75–87. PMID: 24565824

  • Trouvin A-P, Perrot S (2019) New concepts of pain. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol 33(3):101415.

  • Yarnitsky D (2010) Conditioned pain modulation (the diffuse noxious inhibitory control-like effect): its relevance for acute and chronic pain states. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 23:611–615

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Yin T-C, Wegner AM, Lu M-L, Yang Y-H, Wang Y-C, Kung W-M, Lo W-C (2021) Do orthopedic surgeons or neurosurgeons detect more hip disorders in patients with hip-spine syndrome? A nationwide database study. Brain Sci 11(4):485. PMID: 33920497. PMCID: PMC8070546

  • van der Windt DAwm, Simons E, Riphagen II Ammendolia C, Verhagen AP, Laslett M, Devillé W, Deyo RA Bouter LM, de Vet HCw, Aertgeerts B (2010) Physical examination for lumbar radiculopathy due to disc herniation in patients with low-back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2:CD007431. PMID: 20166095

  • Zhu S, Zhu J, Zhen G et al (2019) Subchondral bone osteoclasts induce sensory innervation and osteoarthritis pain. J ClinInvest 129(3):1076–1093. PMCID: PMC6391093. PMID: 30530994

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Paul Geraedts .

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2023 Der/die Autor(en), exklusiv lizenziert an Springer-Verlag GmbH, DE, ein Teil von Springer Nature

About this chapter

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Geraedts, P. (2023). Nozizeption. In: Trainingskonzeption für Patienten mit Rückenschmerz. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Download citation

  • DOI:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-662-66382-0

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-662-66383-7

  • eBook Packages: Medicine (German Language)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics