Skip to main content

Athletics: Throwing

  • 141 Accesses


Shot put, discus, hammer, and javelin throwers use the kinetic chain to transfer energy from the lower extremities through the pelvis, trunk, shoulder, arm, wrist, hand, and finally, into the implement to generate maximum force. Therefore, all of these regions are susceptible to injuries, in case of breakdown in the chain. However, there is a paucity of data reporting specific injury type, rate, and mechanism of throwing injuries in literature. Most upper and lower extremity injuries can be managed nonoperatively with rehabilitation while surgical outcomes are often poor in shoulder and elbow pathology, especially with regard to superior labral tear from anterior to posterior (SLAP) repair. Shoulder rehabilitation programs focus on correcting the cause of the dysfunction and pain with particular focus on re-establishing full range of motion (ROM) and dynamic shoulder stability and implementing a progressive resistance exercise program to fully restore strength and local muscle endurance of the shoulder and scapular musculature. Finally, the focus on prevention is reducing risk factors and practicing and competing with proper technique.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-662-64532-1_5
  • Chapter length: 7 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
USD   109.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-662-64532-1
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Hardcover Book
USD   139.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)


  1. Meron A, Saint-Phard D. Track and field throwing sports: injuries and prevention. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2017;16(6):391–6.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  2. Mautner BK, Blazuk J. Overuse throwing injuries in skeletally immature athletes-diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2015;14(3):209–14.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  3. Schmitt H, Hansmann HJ, Brocai DR, Loew M. Long term changes of the throwing arm of former elite javelin throwers. Int J Sports Med. 2001;22(4):275–9.

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  4. Thorsness R, Alland JA, McCulloch CB, Romeo A. Return to play after shoulder surgery in throwers. Clin Sports Med. 2016;35(4):563–75.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  5. Wilk KE, Macrina LC. Nonoperative and postoperative rehabilitation for injuries of the throwing shoulder. Sports Med Arthrosc Rev. 2014;22(2):137–50.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  6. Terzis G, Stratakos G, Manta P, Georgiadis G. Throwing performance after resistance training and detraining. J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22(4):1198–204. PMID: 18545188.

  7. Trakis JE, McHugh MP, Caracciolo PA, Busciacco L, Mullaney M, Nicholas SJ. Muscle strength and range of motion in adolescent pitchers with throwing-related Pain: implications for injury prevention. Am J Sports Med. 2008;36(11):2173–8.

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2022 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer-Verlag GmbH, DE, part of Springer Nature

About this chapter

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Zanon, G., Calderoni, E.F., Polizzi, A., Ivone, A., Jannelli, E., Benazzo, F. (2022). Athletics: Throwing. In: Canata, G.L., Jones, H. (eds) Epidemiology of Injuries in Sports . Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Download citation

  • DOI:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-662-64531-4

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-662-64532-1

  • eBook Packages: MedicineMedicine (R0)