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Tennis players are exposed to overuse and overload injuries due to the high number of repetitions during training and the fact that tennis matches are not limited in duration. The kinetic chain is used to generate high racquet and ball velocities. It begins with feet, knees and hips, progressing with core and trunk, shoulder and elbow, and finally, to the wrist, hand and racquet. Any part of this chain may be affected and this will translate into the “catch up phenomenon,” meaning that an alteration in one segment creates changes within the entire system, triggering a cascade leading to injury. The most affected anatomic parts are the shoulder, the lower limb and lower back due to overuse injuries coming from repetitive microtrauma inherent in the sport. It is well established that females are more frequently injured than men. In terms of external factors, there are significantly more injures on hard court surfaces than on clay.

There are specific alterations/adaptations in elite tennis players that are worth noting. In the shoulder these include GIRD, dyskinesis, LHB tenderness, and suprascapular nerve entrapment.

It is of great importance to be fully aware of these alterations in order to design good treatment and prevention programs that can avoid surgery and delayed time out of competition.

Team work is mandatory for success, involving the player, the whole technical staff, the personal physiotherapist, physical trainer, and even the family of the player.


  • Tennis medicine
  • Kinetic chain
  • GIRD
  • Dyskinesis
  • Long head of biceps tendinopathy
  • Suprascapular nerve entrapment
  • Ultrasound guided injection

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  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-662-64532-1_21
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López-Vidriero Tejedor, R., Najfeld, M., López-Vidriero, E. (2022). Tennis. In: Canata, G.L., Jones, H. (eds) Epidemiology of Injuries in Sports . Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

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