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Governing Smart Spaces Through Autonomous Vehicles

Part of the MPI Studies on Intellectual Property and Competition Law book series (MSIP,volume 29)

Abstract

Autonomous vehicles may be understood to govern the spaces around them through their technological composites. This understanding of governance, or control, diverges from established perspectives in intellectual property and competition law according to which technological control is assessed in relation to societal, or market, effects. This chapter bypasses such questions by exploring how autonomous vehicles can be understood to interact with their surrounding environment, whether urban or not, and how this in itself can be considered a new form of control.

To arrive at a visualization of this type of governance, a theory of spatial property is here deployed and developed. In short, this theory implies that property can be understood as something that holds up bodies in, and as, space. The aim of pursuing such a perspective is to show that governance occurs through different interfaces between autonomous vehicles and space. In sum, this chapter suggests a threefold understanding of governance in terms of how autonomous vehicles could govern smart spaces: through data commodification, through control over the surrounding space’s materialities and through control over the interpretation of space.

Keywords

  • Autonomous vehicles
  • Property
  • Smart cars
  • Spatial property
  • Spatial theory
  • Spatiolegal theory
  • Spatial justice

Jannice Käll, LL.D. Legal Philosophy, is Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Sociology of Law, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    Luciano Floridi, The 4th Revolution: How the Infosphere is Reshaping Human Reality (Oxford University Press 2014).

  2. 2.

    Jathan Sadowski and Roy Bendor, ‘Selling Smartness: Corporate Narratives and the Smart City as a Sociotechnical Imaginary’ (2019) 44 Science, Technology, & Human Values 540.

  3. 3.

    Rob Kitchin and Martin Dodge, Code/Space, Software and Everyday Life (MIT Press 2011).

  4. 4.

    Rosi Braidotti, The Posthuman (Polity Press 2013) 164; Rick Dolphijn and Iris van der Tuin, ‘Pushing Dualism to an Extreme: On the Philosophical Impetus of a New Materialism’ (2011) 44 Continental Philosophy Review 383, 392f.

  5. 5.

    For a longer discussion on this perspective, see my doctoral dissertation: Jannice Käll, Converging Human and Digital Bodies, Posthumanism, Property, Law (University of Gothenburg 2017) 41-44.

  6. 6.

    cf Margaret Jane Radin, Contested Commodities (Harvard University Press 1996).

  7. 7.

    Andreas Philippopoulos-Mihalopoulos, Spatial Justice, Body, Lawscape, Atmosphere (Routledge 2015) 15-28.

  8. 8.

    See eg Doreen Massey, For Space (Sage Publications 2006).

  9. 9.

    Eg Philippopoulos-Mihalopoulos (n 7) 5.

  10. 10.

    ibid 215.

  11. 11.

    Mireille Hildebrandt, Smart technologies and the End(s) of Law (Routledge 2015).

  12. 12.

    ibid 216.

  13. 13.

    ibid.

  14. 14.

    cf Philippopoulos-Mihalopoulos (n 7) 215.

  15. 15.

    Sarah Keenan, Subversive Property: Law and the Production of Spaces of Belonging (Routledge 2015) 17.

  16. 16.

    ibid.

  17. 17.

    ibid 6.

  18. 18.

    ibid 7.

  19. 19.

    Keenan (n 15) 18-20.

  20. 20.

    Devon W Carbado and others, ‘Intersectionality: Mapping the Movements of a Theory’ (2013) 10 Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race 303.

  21. 21.

    Käll, Converging Human and Digital Bodies, Posthumanism, Property, Law (n 5).

  22. 22.

    See eg Megan Lampinen, ‘Smart Cities and the Vehicle Ownership Shift’ (Automotive World, 28 February 2018) <www.automotiveworld.com/articles/smart-cities-vehicle-ownership-shift/> accessed 10 January 2020.

  23. 23.

    Garrett Hardin, ‘The Tragedy of the Commons’ (1968) 162 Science 1243, see also Giulia Priora and Caterina Sganga, ‘Smart Urban Mobility: A Positive or Negative IP Space? A Case Study to Test the Role of IP in Fostering Digital Data-Driven Innovation’, in this volume.

  24. 24.

    On platform-based business models, see Annabelle Gawer, ‘Platform Dynamics and Strategies: From Products to Services’, in Annabelle Gawer (ed), Platforms, Markets and Innovation (Edward Elgar Publishing 2009).

  25. 25.

    Jussi Parikka, ‘On Seeing Where There’s Nothing to See: Practices of Light Beyond Photography’ in Thomas Dvorak and Jussi Parikka (eds), Photography Off the Scale (Edinburgh University Press 2020) (final draft) 8.

  26. 26.

    Margaret J Radin, Boilerplate: The Fine Print, Vanishing Rights, and the Rule of Law (Princeton University Press 2013).

  27. 27.

    Other terms for the general phenomenon of non-negotiable contracts include: adhesion contract, standard contract, take-it-or-leave-it contract, and shrinkwrap contract.

  28. 28.

    Radin, Boilerplate: The Fine Print, Vanishing Rights, and the Rule of Law (n 26) and Margaret J Radin, ‘Information Tangibility’ in Ove Granstrand (ed), Economics, Law and Intellectual Property: Seeking Strategies for Research and Teaching in a Developing Field (Springer Science and Business Media 2003).

  29. 29.

    See eg N Katherine Hayles, How We Became Posthuman (University of Chicago Press 1999).

  30. 30.

    Radin, ‘Information Tangibility’ (n 28).

  31. 31.

    Eg Philippopoulos-Mihalopoulos (n 7) 5.

  32. 32.

    cf Jannice Käll, ‘Blockchain Control’ (2018) 29 Law & Critique 133.

  33. 33.

    Benjamin H Bratton, The Stacks: On Software and Sovereignty (MIT Press 2015) 13.

  34. 34.

    ibid.

  35. 35.

    Lawrence Lessig, Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace (Basic Books 1999) 11-15.

  36. 36.

    Jonathan Zittrain, ‘The Generative Internet’ (2006) 119 Harvard Law Review 1974.

  37. 37.

    Lessig (n 35) and Zittrain (n 36).

  38. 38.

    Zittrain (n 36).

  39. 39.

    Also see: Käll, ‘Blockchain Control’ (n 32).

  40. 40.

    Parikka (n 25) 1.

  41. 41.

    ibid.

  42. 42.

    ibid 4, references omitted from quote.

  43. 43.

    Bratton (n 33) 12.

  44. 44.

    Parikka (n 25) 3.

  45. 45.

    ibid 1.

  46. 46.

    ibid.

  47. 47.

    Geoff Manaugh, ‘The Dream Life of Driverless Cars’ The New York Times (New York, 11 November 2015) <www.nytimes.com/2015/11/15/magazine/the-dream-life-of-driverless-cars.html> accessed 10 January 2020.

  48. 48.

    ibid and Parikka (n 25) 9.

  49. 49.

    See eg Trent Eady, ‘Tesla’s Deep Learning at Scale: Using Billions of Miles to Train Neural Networks’ (Medium, 7 May 2019) <https://towardsdatascience.com/teslas-deep-learning-at-scale-7eed85b235d3> accessed 10 January 2020.

  50. 50.

    Parikka (n 25).

  51. 51.

    Bratton (n 33); cf Donna J Haraway, Simians, Cyborgs, and Women: The Reinvention of Nature (Free Association Books 1991) 161-169.

  52. 52.

    For a recent critical intervention into such debates, see eg Nick Dyer-Witheford, Atle Mikkola Kjosen and James Steinhoff, Inhuman Power: Artificial Intelligence and the Future of Capitalism (Pluto Press 2019).

  53. 53.

    Hildebrandt (n 11) 96.

  54. 54.

    See eg Benjamin Wilson, Judy Hoffman and Jamie Morgenstern, ‘Predictive Inequity in Object Detection’ <https://arxiv.org/pdf/1902.11097.pdf> accessed 5 January 2020.

  55. 55.

    ibid.

  56. 56.

    National Transportation Safety Board, ‘Preliminary Report Highway Hwy18mh010’ 1 <www.ntsb.gov/investigations/AccidentReports/Reports/HWY18MH010-prelim.pdf> accessed 5 January 2020.

  57. 57.

    ibid 2.

  58. 58.

    ibid.

  59. 59.

    ibid 2-3.

  60. 60.

    ibid 3-4.

  61. 61.

    ibid.

  62. 62.

    See eg Sarah Ahmed, Living a Feminist Life (Duke University Press 2017) 43; Sarah Ahmed, ‘A Phenomenology of Whiteness’ (2007) 8 Feminist Theory 149.

  63. 63.

    See eg Margaret Davies and Ngaire Naffine, Are Persons Property? Legal Debates about Property and Personality (Ashgate Publishing Limited 2002).

  64. 64.

    Rossana Ducato, ‘Private Ordering of Online Platforms in Smart Urban Mobility: The Case of Uber’s Rating System’, in this volume.

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Käll, J. (2020). Governing Smart Spaces Through Autonomous Vehicles. In: Finck, M., Lamping, M., Moscon, V., Richter, H. (eds) Smart Urban Mobility. MPI Studies on Intellectual Property and Competition Law, vol 29. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-61920-9_7

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