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Naturgeschichte und Umweltschutz

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Zusammenfassung

Schon die ersten Naturforscher, die Madagaskar besuchten, erkannten die Besonderheit dieser „Schatzinsel der Natur“. Auf Schritt und Tritt begegneten sie unbekannten Tieren, die so exotisch waren, dass sie sie mit Worten aus ihrer Welt nicht zu benennen wussten. Die Madagassen hatten sie wohl aus demselben Grund oft einfach nach den Lauten benannt, die sie von sich gaben: Sifaka, Fossa, Tenrek, Aye-Aye oder Vanga. Der französische Botaniker und Mediziner Philibert Commerson wähnte sich sogar im „Gelobten Land für Naturforscher“. Bis heute hat sich am Staunen der Biologen nichts geändert, denn die Tier- und Pflanzenwelt Madagaskars ist nur mit Superlativen zu beschreiben. Der einsame Vorposten vor der Ostküste Afrikas ist die viertgrößte Insel der Welt und umfasst mit 587.000 Quadratkilometern etwa die Fläche Frankreichs. Dieses relativ kleine Areal ist allerdings bewohnt von fünf Prozent aller beschriebenen Tier- und Pflanzenarten der Erde. Bemerkenswert ist zudem, dass die Mehrzahl dieser Arten endemisch ist, also einzig und allein auf Madagaskar vorkommt. Alle Amphibien und Säugetiere (bis auf wenige vom Menschen eingeführte Arten), 92 Prozent aller Reptilien, 44 Prozent aller Vögel, 74 Prozent aller Schmetterlinge und mehr als 90 Prozent aller Pflanzenarten sind nirgendwo sonst auf der Welt zu finden (Goodman und Benstead 2005). Diese Vielfalt und Einzigartigkeit von Flora und Fauna zeichnen Madagaskar als „Megadiversitätsland“ aus, ein Status, den weltweit nur zwölf Länder erreichen, die mehr als zwei Drittel der auf der Erde lebenden Arten beherbergen (Myers et al. 2000).

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Dammhahn, M. et al. (2021). Naturgeschichte und Umweltschutz. In: Pyritz, L. (eds) Madagaskar - Von Makis, Menschen und einem bedrohten Paradies. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-61590-4_1

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