The Material Use of Perovskite Solar Cells

  • Juan Camillo GomezEmail author
  • Thomas Vogt
  • Urte Brand
Conference paper


This work quantifies, through material flow analysis, the demand and discard of lead and indium in scenarios of future adoption of perovskite solar cells, considering four aspects for the construction of scenarios. These aspects include the type of perovskite solar cell, the future market share, the lifetime of the modules and the absence or presence, respectively, of recycling. The results show that the demand for lead might not be significant compared to the current supply. However, the use of indium in a high market share scenario might go beyond the current supply of this material. The required amount of material may decrease through the use of tandem technologies, a longer product lifetime and end-of-life recycling.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1] IPCC, “Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change,” Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2014. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 18-Dec-2017].
  2. [2] N. Jungbluth and M. Stucki, “Life cycle inventories of photovoltaics,” ESU-services Ltd., 2012. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 12-Jan-2018].
  3. [3] M. A. Green, Y. Hishikawa, E. D. Dunlop, D. H. Levi, J. Hohl-Ebinger, and A. W. Y. Ho-Baillie, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 51),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl., vol. 2018, no. 26, p. 20, 2017.Google Scholar
  4. [4] I. Mesquita, L. Andrade, and A. Mendes, “Perovskite solar cells: Materials, configurations and stability,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., no. May, 2017.Google Scholar
  5. [5] L. Qiu, L. K. Ono, and Y. Qi, “Advances and challenges to the commercialization of organic–inorganic halide perovskite solar cell technology,” Mater. Today Energy, 2017.Google Scholar
  6. [6] Q. Wali, N. K. Elumalai, Y. Iqbal, A. Uddin, and R. Jose, “Tandem perovskite solar cells,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 84, no. December 2017, pp. 89–110, 2018.Google Scholar
  7. [7] W. Chen et al., “Efficient and stable large-area perovskite solar cells with inorganic charge extraction layers Efficient and stable large-area perovskite solar cells with inorganic charge extraction layers,” vol. 350, no. November, pp. 1–6, 2015.Google Scholar
  8. [8] R. Rajeswari, M. Mrinalini, S. Prasanthkumar, and L. Giribabu, “Emerging of Inorganic Hole Transporting Materials For Perovskite Solar Cells,” Chem. Rec., vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 681–699, 2017.Google Scholar
  9. [9] M. Anaya, G. Lozano, M. E. Calvo, and H. Míguez, “ABX3Perovskites for Tandem Solar Cells,” Joule, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 769–793, 2017.Google Scholar
  10. [10] M. I. Asghar, J. Zhang, H. Wang, and P. D. Lund, “Device stability of perovskite solar cells – A review,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 77, no. April, pp. 131–146, 2017.Google Scholar
  11. [11] A. Abate, “Perovskite Solar Cells Go Lead Free,” Joule, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 659–664, 2017.Google Scholar
  12. [12] O. Cencic and H. Rechberger, “Material flow analysis with software STAN,” J. Environ. Eng. Manag., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 3–7, 2008.Google Scholar
  13. [13] European Commission, “DIRECTIVE 2011/65/EU OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 8 June 2011 - ROHS,” Official Journal of the European Union, 2011. [Online]. Available:
  14. [14] S. Yang, W. Fu, Z. Zhang, H. Chen, and C.-Z. Li, “Recent advances in perovskite solar cells: efficiency, stability and lead-free perovskite,” J. Mater. Chem. A, vol. 5, no. 23, pp. 11462–11482, 2017.Google Scholar
  15. [15] USGS, “Mineral Commodity Summaries 2018,” 2018. [Online]. Available:
  16. [16] P. Lippens and U. Muehlfeld, “Indium Tin Oxide (ITO): Sputter Deposition Processes,” in Handbook of Visual Display Technology, J. Chen, W. Cranton, and M. Fihn, Eds. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp. 1215–1234.Google Scholar
  17. [17] K. a. Bush et al., “23.6%-Efficient Monolithic Perovskite/Silicon Tandem Solar Cells With Improved Stability,” Nat. Energy, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 1–7, 2017.Google Scholar
  18. [18] European Commission, Study on the review of the list of critical raw materials, no. June. 2017.Google Scholar
  19. [19] C. Breyer et al., “On the role of solar photovoltaics in global energy transition scenarios,” Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl., vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 727–745, Aug. 2017.Google Scholar
  20. [20] M. Marwede and A. Reller, “Estimation of Life Cycle Material Costs of Cadmium Telluride – and Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide – Photovoltaic Absorber Materials based on Life Cycle Material Flows,” J. Ind. Ecol., vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 254–267, 2014.Google Scholar
  21. [21] M. Marwede and A. Reller, “Future recycling flows of tellurium from cadmium telluride photovoltaic waste,” Resour. Conserv. Recycl., vol. 69, pp. 35–49, 2012.Google Scholar
  22. [22] MBraun, “Slot Dye Coating,” 2018. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 20-Feb-2018].
  23. [23] C. C. Stoumpos, C. D. Malliakas, and M. G. Kanatzidis, “Semiconducting tin and lead iodide perovskites with organic cations: Phase transitions, high mobilities, and near-infrared photoluminescent properties,” Inorg. Chem., vol. 52, no. 15, pp. 9019–9038, 2013.Google Scholar
  24. [24] AZoM, “Indium Tin Oxide ( ITO ) - Properties and Applications,” 2004. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 23-Jun-2018].
  25. [25] IRENA, “END-OF-LIFE MANAGEMENT /Solar Photovoltaic Panels,” 2016. [Online]. Available:
  26. [26] J. Jean, P. R. Brown, R. L. Jaffe, T. Buonassisi, and V. Bulovic, “Pathways for solar photovoltaics,” Energy Environ. Sci., vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 1200–1219, 2015.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Deutschland, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.DLRInstitute of Networked Energy SystemsOldenburgGermany

Personalised recommendations