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Quantum physics of complex systems

  • A. I. LvovskyEmail author
Chapter
  • 2.2k Downloads
Part of the Undergraduate Lecture Notes in Physics book series (ULNP)

Abstract

In many practical cases we may not have complete knowledge of the state of a quantum system. Our knowledge could be of the form of a statistical ensemble, or mixture: that our system is in state \( \left| {\psi_{1} } \right\rangle \) with a probability p1, in state \( \left| {\psi_{2} } \right\rangle \) with a probability p2, etc., with \( \sum\nolimits_{i} {p_{i} = 1} \). The states \( \left| {\psi_{i} } \right\rangle \) are all assumed to be normalized, but may not necessarily be orthogonal; their number does not have to be equal to the dimension of the Hilbert space.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Calgary and Russian Quantum CenterCalgaryCanada

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