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Ideas of History in Ming and Qing Dynasties: Historical Criticism and Aspirations to Change

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Abstract

Shixue, or the Practical Learning, was a good Chinese tradition. It witnessed a new growth in the specific circumstances of Ming-Qing transition.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    Hou Wailu 侯外庐, “Lun Ming Qing zhiji de shehui jieji guanxi yu qimeng sichao de tedian 论明清之际的社会阶级关系与启蒙思潮的特点” (The characteristics of socio-class relationship and enlightenment thoughts during the Ming-Qing transition), in Hou Wailu shixue lunwen xuanji 侯外庐史学论文选集 [Selected historical papers penned by Hou Wailu] (Beijing: Renmin chubanshe, 1987), vol. 2, p. 65.

  2. 2.

    Ibid.

  3. 3.

    Huang Rucheng 黄汝成, Rizhi lu jishi 日知录集释 [Collected annotations on Gu Yanwu’s Rizhi lu (Record of Daily Knowledge)] (Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe, 2006), vol. 2, pp. 937, 944. This edition was fully collated by messieurs Luan Baoqun 栾保群 and Lü Zongli 吕宗力.

  4. 4.

    Ibid., p. 946.

  5. 5.

    Gu Yanwu 顾炎武, Record of Daily Knowledge and Collected Poems and Essays: Selections, trans. Ian Johnston (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 2017), pp. 66–67.

  6. 6.

    Huang Rucheng, Rizhi lu jishi, vol. 2, p. 1043.

  7. 7.

    Gu Yanwu, Record of Daily Knowledge and Collected Poems and Essays: Selections, pp. 136–137.

  8. 8.

    Ibid, p. 66.

  9. 9.

    Gu Yanwu 顾炎武, Gu Tinglin shiwen ji 顾亭林诗文集 [Collected poems and essays of Gu Tinglin (Yanwu)] (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1983), p. 98.

  10. 10.

    Ibid.

  11. 11.

    Huang Rucheng, Rizhi lu jishi, vol. 1, “Pan Lei’s Original Preface,” p. 1.

  12. 12.

    Gu Yanwu, Gu Tinglin shiwen ji, p. 93.

  13. 13.

    Huang Rucheng, Rizhi lu jishi, vol. 1, “Pan Lei’s Original Preface,” p. 1.

  14. 14.

    Huang Rucheng, Rizhi lu jishi, vol. 2, p. 958.

  15. 15.

    Gu Yanwu, Gu Tinglin shiwen ji, p. 138.

  16. 16.

    Huang Rucheng, Rizhi lu jishi, vol. 1, “Huang Rucheng’s Preface,” p. 1.

  17. 17.

    Gu Yanwu, Record of Daily Knowledge and Collected Poems and Essays: Selections, p. 61.

  18. 18.

    Huang Rucheng, Rizhi lu jishi, vol. 2, p. 1079.

  19. 19.

    Gu Zuyu 顾祖禹, Dushi fangyu jiyao 读史方舆纪要 [Elaborations of the essence of geographical treatises through all ages] (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 2005), vol. 1, “Yuanxu er 原序二” (The second original preface), p. 10.

  20. 20.

    Wang Fuzhi 王夫之, Zhang zi Zhengmeng zhu 张子正蒙注 [Annotations on Zhang Zai’s Zheng Meng (Rectification of naivety and ignorance)] (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1975), “Xulun 序论” (Preface), p. 3.

  21. 21.

    Ibid., pp. 240–241, 243–244.

  22. 22.

    Wang Fuzhi, Du Tongjian lun 读通鉴论 [Reading notes on Zizhi tongjian] (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1975), vol. 8, pp. 1971–1972.

  23. 23.

    Ibid., vol. 1, p. 1.

  24. 24.

    Wang Fuzhi, Du Sishu daquan shuo 读四书大全说 [Reading notes on the Comprehensive Elaborations of Four Books] (Beijing: Zhonghau shuju, 1975), vol. 2, p. 601.

  25. 25.

    Wang Fuzhi, Du Tongjian lun, vol. 7, p. 1778.

  26. 26.

    Huang Rucheng, Rizhi lu jishi, vol. 1, p. 28.

  27. 27.

    Wang Fuzhi, Du Tongjian lun, vol. 7, p. 1578; Wang Fuzhi, Siwen lu 思问录 [Contemplation & questions] (Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe, 2000), p. 96.

  28. 28.

    Wang Fuzhi, Du Tongjian lun, vol. 7, p. 1581.

  29. 29.

    Ibid., vol. 7, p. 1505; vol. 3, p. 474.

  30. 30.

    Ibid., vol. 4, p. 915.

  31. 31.

    Wang Fuzhi, Chuanshan quanshu 船山全书 [Complete works of Wang Chuanshan (Anshi)] (Changsha: Yuelu shushe, 1988), vol. 1, p. 695.

  32. 32.

    Wang Fuzhi, Du Tongjian lun, vol. 1, p. 100.

  33. 33.

    Ibid., vol. 10, pp. 2548–2549.

  34. 34.

    Ibid., vol. 7, p. 1740.

  35. 35.

    Ibid., vol. 8, pp. 1947–1948.

  36. 36.

    Ibid., vol. 10, pp. 2330–2331.

  37. 37.

    Ibid., vol. 9, pp. 2101–2102.

  38. 38.

    Ibid., vol. 10, p. 2552.

  39. 39.

    Ibid., vol. 2, pp. 350–351.

  40. 40.

    Ibid., vol. 10, pp. 2552–2553.

  41. 41.

    Ibid.

  42. 42.

    Ibid., vol. 2, p. 368.

  43. 43.

    Theodore de Bary et al. eds., Sources of Chinese Tradition; Vol. 2: From 1600 Through the Twentieth Century (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 1999), 2nd edition, pp. 6–7.

  44. 44.

    Ibid., p. 8.

  45. 45.

    Huang Zongxi 黄宗羲, Huang Lizhou wenji 黄梨洲文集 [Collected works of Huang Lizhou (Zongxi)] (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1959), p. 380.

  46. 46.

    Ibid., p. 160.

  47. 47.

    Huang Zongxi, “Mingru xue’an fafan 明儒学案发凡” (Overall description of Mingru xue’an), in Huang Zongxi quanji 黄宗羲全集 [Complete works of Huang Zongxi] (Hangzhou: Zhejiang guji chubanshe, 1985), vol. 7, p. 5.

  48. 48.

    Ibid., p. 6.

  49. 49.

    Ibid., p. 5.

  50. 50.

    Huang Zongxi, Huang Lizhou wenji, p. 452.

  51. 51.

    Ibid., p. 451.

  52. 52.

    Huang Zongxi, Mingru xue’an, in Huang Zongxi quanji, vol. 7, p. 1.

  53. 53.

    Ibid., p. 414.

  54. 54.

    Ibid., p. 821.

  55. 55.

    Ibid., p. 822.

  56. 56.

    Huang Zongxi, “Mingru xue’an fafan,” in Huang Zongxi quanji, vol. 7, p. 6.

  57. 57.

    Huang Zongxi, Mingru xue’an, ibid., p. 377.

  58. 58.

    Ibid., p. 821.

  59. 59.

    Ibid., p. 201.

  60. 60.

    Ibid.

  61. 61.

    Ibid., pp. 482, 822.

  62. 62.

    Ibid., pp. 100–101.

  63. 63.

    Huang Zongxi, Huang Zongxi quanji, vol. 8, p. 138.

  64. 64.

    Huang Zongxi, “Mingru xue’an fafan,” in Huang Zongxi quanji, vol. 7, p. 6.

  65. 65.

    Huang Zongxi, Huang Zongxi quanji, vol. 8, p. 331.

  66. 66.

    Ibid.

  67. 67.

    Huang Zongxi, Huang Lizhou wenji, p. 477.

  68. 68.

    Liang Qichao 梁启超, Zhongguo jin sanbainian xueshu shi 中国近三百年学术史 [The history of Chinese scholarship in the very recent three hundred years] (Beijing: Dongfang chubanshe, 1996), p. 297.

  69. 69.

    Wang Mingsheng 王鸣盛, Shiqi shi shangque 十七史商榷 [Critically reexamining the seventeen official history books] (Shanghai: Shanghai shudian, 2005), “Xu 序” (Author’s preface), p. 2.

  70. 70.

    Ibid, pp. 1–3.

  71. 71.

    Zhao Yi 赵翼, Nian’er shi zhaji 廿二史箚记 [Notes on the twenty-two official history books] (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1984), “Xiaoyin 小引” (Short forewords), p. 1. The edition is amended and rectified by Wang Shumin 王树民.

  72. 72.

    Wang Mingsheng, Shiqi shi shangque, p. 275.

  73. 73.

    Ibid., p. 290.

  74. 74.

    Jiang Fan, Guochao Hanxue shicheng ji, p. 18.

  75. 75.

    Wang Mingsheng, Shiqi shi shangque, p. 926.

  76. 76.

    Ibid., p. 927.

  77. 77.

    Bai Shouyi 白寿彝, Lishi jiaoyu he shixue yichan 历史教育和史学遗产 [The education of history and historiographical heritages] (Zhengzhou: Henan renmin chubanshe, 1983), p. 170. p. 112.

  78. 78.

    Yan Yuan 颜元, Yan Yuan ji 颜元集 [Collected works of Yan Yuan] (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1987), pp. 75, 76.

  79. 79.

    Zhang Xuecheng 章学诚, Wenshi tongyi 文史通义 [All-embracing delineations of literature and history] (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1985), vol. 1, p. 523.

  80. 80.

    Ibid.

  81. 81.

    Zhang Xuecheng 章学诚, Zhang Xuecheng yishu 章学诚遗书 [The posthumous collection of writings of Zhang Xuecheng] (Beijing: Wenwu chubanshe, 1985), p. 224.

  82. 82.

    Zhang Xuecheng, Wenshi tongyi, “Zhang Huafu’s preface,” p. 9.

  83. 83.

    Ibid.

  84. 84.

    Zhang Xuecheng, Zhang Xuecheng yishu, pp. 116–117.

  85. 85.

    Ibid., p. 224.

  86. 86.

    Ibid., p. 332.

  87. 87.

    Ibid., p. 82.

  88. 88.

    Zhang Xuecheng, Wenshi tongyi, vol. 1, p. 1.

  89. 89.

    Ibid., p. 102.

  90. 90.

    Zhang Xuecheng, On Ethics and History: Essays and Letters of Zhang Xuecheng, trans. Philip J. Ivanhoe (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2009), pp. 36, 37, 38.

  91. 91.

    Zhang Xuecheng, Wenshi tongyi, vol. 1, p. 3.

  92. 92.

    Ibid., p. 20.

  93. 93.

    Ibid., p. 231.

  94. 94.

    Ibid.

  95. 95.

    Ibid., p. 523.

  96. 96.

    Zhang Xuecheng, On Ethics and History: Essays and Letters of Zhang Xuecheng, p. 37.

  97. 97.

    Zhang Xuecheng, Wenshi tongyi, vol. 1, p. 172.

  98. 98.

    Zhang Xuecheng, Zhang Xuecheng yishu, p. 612.

  99. 99.

    Ibid.

  100. 100.

    Zhang Xuecheng, Wenshi tongyi, vol. 1, p. 30.

  101. 101.

    Ibid., pp. 50–51.

  102. 102.

    Ibid., p. 471.

  103. 103.

    Zhouyi 周易, or Book of Changes, trans. James Legge, http://ctext.org/book-of-changes/xi-ci-shang/ens.

  104. 104.

    Zhang Xuecheng, Wenshi tongyi, vol. 1, p. 49.

  105. 105.

    Ibid.

  106. 106.

    Ibid., p. 50.

  107. 107.

    Ibid., p. 52. See also: Ibid., p. 30.

  108. 108.

    Ibid., pp. 52–53.

  109. 109.

    Ibid., p. 52.

  110. 110.

    Ibid., pp. 470–471.

  111. 111.

    Ibid., p. 463.

  112. 112.

    Ibid., p. 374.

  113. 113.

    Ibid., p. 463.

  114. 114.

    Ibid., p. 464.

  115. 115.

    Ibid., p. 470.

  116. 116.

    Ibid., p. 477.

  117. 117.

    Ibid.

  118. 118.

    Ibid., p. 482.

  119. 119.

    Zhang Xuecheng, Zhang Xuecheng yishu, p. 612.

  120. 120.

    Ibid.

  121. 121.

    Zhang Xuecheng, On Ethics and History: Essays and Letters of Zhang Xuecheng, pp. 76–77.

  122. 122.

    Ibid., p. 78.

  123. 123.

    Ibid., pp. 78–79.

  124. 124.

    Ibid., p. 81.

  125. 125.

    Ibid., pp. 84–85.

  126. 126.

    Zhang Xuecheng, Wenshi tongyi, vol. 1, p. 239.

  127. 127.

    Zhang Xuecheng, Wenshi tongyi, vol. 2, p. 642.

  128. 128.

    Ibid., p. 588.

  129. 129.

    Hou Wailu, Zhongguo sixiang tongshi, vol. 5, p. 490.

  130. 130.

    Ibid.

  131. 131.

    Zhang Xuecheng, Wenshi tongyi, vol. 1, p. 161.

  132. 132.

    Qian Daxin 钱大昕, Shijia Zhai yangxin lu 十驾斋养心录 [Accounts devoted to the effort nourishing the fresh elements in the Assiduous-Inferior-Horse Study] (Shanghai: Shanghai shudian, 1983), “Ruan Yuan’s Preface,” p. 7.

  133. 133.

    Zhao Yi, Nian’er shi zhaji, pp. 36–37.

  134. 134.

    Ibid., p. 93.

  135. 135.

    Ibid.

  136. 136.

    Ibid., p. 620.

  137. 137.

    Ibid., pp. 324, 325.

  138. 138.

    Ibid., p. 39.

  139. 139.

    Ibid., pp. 538–539.

  140. 140.

    Ibid., p. 541.

  141. 141.

    Ibid., pp. 443–445.

  142. 142.

    Ibid., p. 566.

  143. 143.

    Ibid., pp. 740–741.

  144. 144.

    Ibid., p. 121.

  145. 145.

    Ibid., pp. 1–2.

  146. 146.

    Ibid., p. 30.

  147. 147.

    Ibid., p. 31.

  148. 148.

    Ibid., p. 227.

  149. 149.

    Ibid., p. 264.

  150. 150.

    Ibid., p. 457.

  151. 151.

    Ibid., pp. 458, 463–464.

  152. 152.

    Ibid., p. 460.

  153. 153.

    Ibid., p. 196.

  154. 154.

    Ibid., pp. 586–587.

  155. 155.

    Ibid., pp. 885–886.

  156. 156.

    Wang Mingsheng, Shiqi shi shangque, p. 191.

  157. 157.

    Ibid., p. 162.

  158. 158.

    Ibid., p. 522.

  159. 159.

    Ibid., “Author’s Preface,” p. 2.

  160. 160.

    Ibid.

  161. 161.

    Ibid., p. 1.

  162. 162.

    Ibid., p. 45.

  163. 163.

    Ibid., p. 162.

  164. 164.

    Ibid., “Author’s Preface,” pp. 1–2.

  165. 165.

    Ibid., p. 1.

  166. 166.

    Ibid., p. 860.

  167. 167.

    Ibid., p. 460.

  168. 168.

    Ibid., p. 38.

  169. 169.

    Ibid., “Author’s Preface,” p. 2.

  170. 170.

    Ibid., pp. 925–926.

  171. 171.

    Ibid., p. 927.

  172. 172.

    Cui Shu 崔述, Cui Dongbi yishu 崔东壁遗书 [The posthumous collection of works of Cui Dongbi [i.e. Cui Shu]] (Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe, 1983), p. 395.

  173. 173.

    Ibid., p. 6.

  174. 174.

    Ibid., p. 478.

  175. 175.

    Ibid.

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Wu, H. (2018). Ideas of History in Ming and Qing Dynasties: Historical Criticism and Aspirations to Change. In: An Historical Sketch of Chinese Historiography. China Academic Library. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-56253-6_8

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