Square Knot

  • Cengiz Yildirim
  • Fazli Levent Umur
  • João Espregueira-Mendes


Square knot is a reliable and easy technique which can be used with various surgical sutures. It can be applied with free hand or a surgical instrument depending on the suture material. Parallel structure of the loops is the basis of square knot, and it is essential. The top leg of the suture during the preparation of the first loop should be on the top again in the second loop. Otherwise parallel structure of the loops can’t be achieved, and the knot turns into a “granny knot.”

Copyright information

© ESSKA 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cengiz Yildirim
    • 1
  • Fazli Levent Umur
    • 1
  • João Espregueira-Mendes
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedics and TraumatologyUniversity of Health Sciences, Sultan Abdulhamid Han Training and Research HospitalIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Clínica do DragãoEspregueira-Mendes Sports Centre—FIFA Medical Centre of ExcellencePortoPortugal
  3. 3.Dom Henrique Research CentrePortoPortugal
  4. 4.3B’s Research Group–Biomaterials, Biodegradables and BiomimeticsHeadquarters of the European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, University of MinhoBarco/GuimarãesPortugal
  5. 5.ICVS/3B’s–PT Government Associate LaboratoryBraga/GuimarãesPortugal
  6. 6.Orthopaedics Department of Minho UniversityBragaPortugal

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