Spectra of Minerals and Rocks

  • Ravi P. Gupta


Interactions of the EM radiation with matter at atomic-molecular scale result in selective absorption, emission and reflection. These phenomena govern spectral response of objects that form the basis of remote sensing. Various atomic-molecular energy states (viz. electronic and vibrational) are responsible for different types of interactions with EM radiation. Visible and near-infrared radiation causes mainly electronic transitions and short-wave infrared radiation causes mainly vibrational transitions. The thermal infrared region is marked by the presence of Reststrahlen bands.


  1. Abrams MJ, Ashley RP, Rowan LC, Goetz AFH, Kahle AB (1977) Mapping of hydrothermal alteration in the Cuprite Mining District, Nevada, using aircraft scanner images for the spectral region 0.46 to 2.36 µm. Geology 5:713–718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams JB, Smith MO (1986) Spectral mixture modeling: a new analysis ofrock and soil types at the Viking Lander I site. J Geophys Res 91(B8):8098–8112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baldridge AM, Hook SJ, Grove CI, Rivera G (2009) The ASTER spectral library version 2.0. Remote Sens Environ 113:711–715CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Christensen PR (1986) A study of filter selection for the thematic mapper thermal infrared enhancement. Commercial applications and scientific research requirements for thermal infrared observations of terrestrial surfaces, NASA-EOSAT Joint Report, pp 105–114Google Scholar
  5. Chukanov NV, Cherronnyi AD (2016) Infrared Spectroscopy of Minerals and Related Compunds. SpringerGoogle Scholar
  6. Clark RN, Roush TL (1984) Reflectance spectroscopy: quantitative analysis techniques for remote sensing applications. J Geophys Res 89(B7):6329–6340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Farmer VC (ed) (1974) The Infrared Spectra of Minerals. Mineralogical Society Publications, LondonGoogle Scholar
  8. Goetz AFH, Rock BN, Rowan LC (1983) Remote sensing for exploration: an overview. Econ Geol 79:573–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Huguenin RL, Jones JL (1986) Intelligent information extraction from reflectance spectra: absorption band positions. J Geophy Res 91: 9585–9598Google Scholar
  10. Hunt GR (1977) Spectral signatures of particulate minerals in the visible and near-infrared. Geophysics 42:501–513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hunt GR (1979) Near-Infrared (1.3–2.4 µm) spectra of alteration minerals potential for use in remote sensing. Geophysics 44:1974–1986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hunt GR (1980) Electromagnetic radiation: the communication link in remote sensing. In: Siega1 BS, Gillepie AR (eds) Remote Sensing in Geology, Wiley, New York, pp 5–45Google Scholar
  13. Johnson PE, Smith MO, Taylor-George S, Adams JB (1983) A semiempricial method for analysis of the ref1ectance spectra of binary mineral mixtures. J Geophys Res 88(B4):3557–3561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kahle AB, Christensen P, Crawford M, Cuddapah P, Malila W, Palluconi F, Podwysocki M, Salisbury J, Vincent R (1986) Geology panel report. Commercial applications and scientific research requirements for TIR observations of terrestrial surfaces, EOSAT-NASA Thermal IR Working Group, Aug 1986, pp 17–34Google Scholar
  15. Kokaly RF et al. (2017) USGS Spectral Library Version 7: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1035, p. 61.
  16. Lyon RJP (1962) Minerals in the Infrared a Critical Bibliography. Stanford Research Institute Publications, Palo Alto, CA, p 76Google Scholar
  17. Lyon RJP (1965) Analysis of rocks by spectral infrared emission (18–25 μm). Econ Geol 60:715–736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Salisbury JW, Hunt GR (1974) Remote sensing of rock type in the visible and near infrared. In Proceedings of 9th International Symposium on Remote Sensing Environment, Ann Arbor, MI, vol III, pp 1953–1958Google Scholar
  19. Salisbury JW, Walter LS, Vergo N, D’Aria DM (1991) Infrared (2.1–2.5 µm) Spectra of Minerals. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1991, pp. 1–267Google Scholar
  20. Schanda E (1986) Physical Fundamentals of Remote Sensing. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, p 187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Segal DB (1983) Use of Landsat multispectral scanner data for the definition of limonitic exposures in heavily vegetated areas. Econ Geol 78:711–722Google Scholar
  22. Siegal BS, Abrams MJ (1976) Geologic mapping using Landsat data. Photogram Eng Remote Sens 42:325–337Google Scholar
  23. Siegal BS, Goetz AFH (1977) Effect of vegetation on rock and soil type discrimination. Photogramm Eng Remote Sens 43:191–196Google Scholar
  24. Smith MO, Johnson PE, Adams JB (1985) Quantitative determination of mineral types and abundanees from reflectance spectra using principal component analysis. J Geophys Res 90(Suppl):C797–C804CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Thenkabail PS, Lyon JG, Huete A (ed) (2012) Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Vegetation, CRC press, Taylor & FrancisGoogle Scholar
  26. Whitney GG, Abrams MJ, Goetz AFH (1983) Mineral discrimination using a portable ratio-determining radiometer. Econ Geol 78:688–698CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Formerly Professor, Earth Resources Technology, Department of Earth SciencesIndian Institute of Technology RoorkeeRoorkeeIndia

Personalised recommendations