Perception of Timbre and Sound Color

  • Albrecht Schneider
Part of the Springer Handbooks book series (SHB)


This chapter deals with perception of timbre or sound color. Both concepts can be distinguished in regard to terminology as well as to their historical and factual background even though both relate to some common features for which an objective (acoustic) basis exists. Sections of this chapter review in brief developments in (traditional and electronic) musical instruments as well as in research on timbre and sound color. A subchapter on sensation and perception of timbre offers a retrospective on classical concepts of tone color or sound color and reviews some modern approaches from Schaeffer's objet sonore to semantic differentials and multidimensional scaling. Taking a functional approach, acoustical features (such as transients and modulation) and perceptual attributes of timbre as well as interrelations between pitch and timbre are discussed. In a final section, fundamentals of sound segregation and auditory streaming are outlined. For most of the phenomena covered in this chapter, examples are provided including sound analyses obtained with signal processing methods.






autocorrelation function


attack, decay, sustain, release


amplitude modulation


auditory pathway


basilar membrane


beats per minute


critical band


difference limen


digital signal processing


factor analysis


fast Fourier transform


frequency modulation


inferior colliculus


interaural level difference


interaural time difference


just-noticeable difference


long-term memory


multidimensional scaling


principal component analysis


spectral flux


subharmonic pitch summation


sound pressure level


verbal attribute magnitude estimation


  1. 32.1
    D. Muzzulini: Genealogie der Klangfarbe (P. Lang, Bern 2006)Google Scholar
  2. 32.2
    E. Dolan: The Orchestral Revolution. Haydn and the Technologies of Timbre (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge 2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 32.3
    F.A. Gevaert: Nouveau Traité d’instrumentation (Lemoine, Bruxelles, Paris 1885)Google Scholar
  4. 32.4
    H. Berlioz: Traité d’instrumentation et d’orchestration (Lemoine, Bruxelles, Paris 1904)Google Scholar
  5. 32.5
    V. Mahillon: Catalogue descriptif et analytique du Musée instrumental du Conservatoire royal de Bruxelles, Annuaire du Conservatoire (Annoot-Braeckman, Gand 1878)Google Scholar
  6. 32.6
    V. Mahillon: Catalogue descriptif et analytique du Musée instrumental du Conservatoire royal de Bruxelles, Annuaire du Conservatoire (Annoot-Braeckman, Gand 1879)Google Scholar
  7. 32.7
    V. Mahillon: Catalogue descriptif et analytique du Musée instrumental du Conservatoire royal de Bruxelles, Annuaire du Conservatoire (Annoot-Braeckman, Gand 1880)Google Scholar
  8. 32.8
    V. Mahillon: Catalogue descriptif et analytique du Musée instrumental du Conservatoire royal de Bruxelles, Annuaire du Conservatoire (Annoot-Braeckman, Gand 1881)Google Scholar
  9. 32.9
    E. von Hornbostel, C. Sachs: Systematik der Musikinstrumente, Z. Ethnol. 46, 553–590 (1914)Google Scholar
  10. 32.10
    P. Morse, K.U. Ingard: Theoretical Acoustics (Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton 1986)Google Scholar
  11. 32.11
    N. Fletcher, T. Rossing: The Physics of Musical Instruments, 2nd edn. (AIP/Springer, New York 1998)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 32.12
    C. Forsyth: Orchestration, 2nd edn. (Macmillan, London 1948)Google Scholar
  13. 32.13
    B. Lewis (Ed.): Bioacoustics. A Comparative Approach (Academic, London 1983)Google Scholar
  14. 32.14
    G. Manley, A.N. Popper, R. Fay (Eds.): Evolution of the Vertebrate Auditory System (Springer, New York 2004)Google Scholar
  15. 32.15
    R.G. Busnel (Ed.): Acoustic Behavior of Animals (Elsevier, Amsterdam 1963)Google Scholar
  16. 32.16
    G. Tembrock: Biokommunikation. Informationsübertragung im biologischen Bereich, Vol. 2 (Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1971)Google Scholar
  17. 32.17
    G. Witzany (Ed.): Biocommunication of Animals (Springer, Dordrecht 2014)Google Scholar
  18. 32.18
    M. Konishi: Birdsong: From behaviour to neuron, Annual Rev. Neurosci. 8, 125–170 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 32.19
    M. Naguib, K. Riebel: Singing in space and time: The biology of birdsong. In: Biocommunication of Animals, ed. by G. Witzany (Springer, Dordrecht 2014) pp. 233–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 32.20
    L. Sayigh: Cetacean acoustic communication. In: Biocommunication of Animals, ed. by G. Witzany (Springer, Dordrecht 2014) pp. 275–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 32.21
    J. Sundberg: The Science of the Singing Voice (Northern Illinois Univ. Press, DeKalb 1988)Google Scholar
  22. 32.22
    N. Fletcher: Bird Song – A quantitative acoustic model, J. Theor. Biol. 135, 455–481 (1988)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 32.23
    N. Fletcher: Acoustic Systems in Biology (Oxford Univ. Press, New York 1992)Google Scholar
  24. 32.24
    G. Fant: Acoustic Theory of Speech Production, 2nd edn. (Mouton, The Hague 1970)Google Scholar
  25. 32.25
    R. Bader: Nonlinearities and Synchronization in Musical Acoustics and Music Psychology (Springer, Berlin 2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 32.26
    A. Benade: On woodwind instrument bores, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 31, 137–146 (1959)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 32.27
    J. Roederer: The Physics and Psychophysics of Music: An Introduction, 3rd edn. (Springer, New York 1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 32.28
    J. Beauchamp: Analysis and synthesis of musical instrument sounds. In: Analysis, Synthesis, and Perception of Musical Sounds, ed. by J. Beauchamp (Springer, New York 2007) pp. 1–89zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 32.29
    J. Fricke: Formantbildende Impulsfolgen bei Blasinstrumenten. In: Fortschr. Akust. 4. Jahrestag. Akust. (DAGA), Braunschweig (1975) pp. 407–411Google Scholar
  30. 32.30
    W. Voigt: Untersuchungen zur Formantbildung in Klängen von Fagott und Dulzianen (Bosse, Regensburg 1975)Google Scholar
  31. 32.31
    C. Reuter: Der Einschwingvorgang nichtperkussiver Musikinstrumente (P. Lang, Frankfurt am Main 1995)Google Scholar
  32. 32.32
    E. Meyer, D. Guicking: Schwingungslehre (Vieweg, Braunschweig 1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 32.33
    S.L. Marple: Digital Spectral Analysis. With applications (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs 1987)Google Scholar
  34. 32.34
    A. Schneider: Change and continuity in sound analysis: A review of concepts in regard to musical acoustics, music perception, and transcription. In: Sound – Perception – Performance, Current Research in Systematic Musicology, ed. by R. Bader (Springer, Cham 2013) pp. 71–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 32.35
    A. Beurmann, A. Schneider, E. Lauer: Klanguntersuchungen an der Arp-Schnitger-Orgel zu St. Jacobi, Hamburg, Syst. Musikwiss. – Syst. Musicol. 6, 151–187 (1998)Google Scholar
  36. 32.36
    A. Beurmann, A. Schneider: Acoustics of the harpsichord: A case study. In: Systematic and Comparative Musicology: Concepts, Methods, Findings, ed. by A. Schneider (P. Lang, Frankfurt am Main 2008) pp. 241–263Google Scholar
  37. 32.37
    D. Arfib, F. Keiler, U. Zölzer: Source-filter processing. In: DAFX. Digital Audio Effects, ed. by U. Zölzer (Wiley, Chichester 1996) pp. 299–372Google Scholar
  38. 32.38
    X. Rodet, D. Schwarz: Spectral envelopes and additive + residual analysis/synthesis. In: Analysis, Synthesis, and Perception of Musical Sounds, ed. by J. Beauchamp (Springer, New York 2007) pp. 175–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 32.39
    S. Tempelaars: Signal processing, Speech and Music (Swets Zeitlinger, Lisse 1996)Google Scholar
  40. 32.40
    W. Hartmann: Signals, Sound, and Sensation (AIP/Springer, New York 1998)Google Scholar
  41. 32.41
    O. Elschek: Fujara. The Slovak Queen of European Flutes (Music Centre, Bratislava 2006)Google Scholar
  42. 32.42
    A. Beurmann, A. Schneider: Some Observations from a Stein-Conrad Hammerflügel from 1793. In: Systematic Musicology: Empirical and Theoretical Studies, ed. by A. Schneider (P. Lang, Frankfurt/M. 2011) pp. 175–184Google Scholar
  43. 32.43
    P. Holmes: The Scandinavian bronze lurs. In: The Bronze Lurs: 2nd Conference on the ICTM Study Group on Music Archaeology, Vol. II, ed. by C. Lund (R. Swedish Acad. of Music, Stockholm 1986) pp. 51–125Google Scholar
  44. 32.44
    L. von Falkenhausen: Suspended Music. Chime-bells in the culture of bronze age China (Univ. of Cal. Press, Berkeley 1993)Google Scholar
  45. 32.45
    M. Liang: Music of the Billion. An Introduction to Chinese Musical Culture (Heinrichshofen, New York 1985)Google Scholar
  46. 32.46
    A. Barker: Greek Musical Writings, Vol. 2: Harmonic and Acoustic Theory (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge 1989)Google Scholar
  47. 32.47
    G. Wille: Musica Romana. Die Musik im Leben der Römer (Schippers, Amsterdam 1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 32.48
    M. Bröcker: Die Drehleier. Ihr Bau und ihre Geschichte, 2nd edn. (Verlag für Systematische Musikwissenschaft, Bonn 1977), 2 Vols.Google Scholar
  49. 32.49
    H. Klotz: Über die Orgelkunst der Gotik, der Renaissance und des Barock, 2nd edn. (Bärenreiter, Kassel 1975)Google Scholar
  50. 32.50
    M. Praetorius: Syntagma musicorum II: De Organographia (Holwein, Wolffenbüttel 1619)Google Scholar
  51. 32.51
    C. Reuter: Klangfarbe und Instrumentation (P. Lang, Frankfurt am Main 2002)Google Scholar
  52. 32.52
    J. Meyer: Akustik und musikalische Aufführungspraxis, 5th edn. (Bochinsky, Frankfurt am Main 2004)Google Scholar
  53. 32.53
    W. Meyer-Eppler: Elektrische Klangerzeugung. Elektronische Musik und synthetische Sprache (Dümmler, Bonn 1949)Google Scholar
  54. 32.54
    D. Ernst: The Evolution of Electronic Music (Schirmer, New York 1977)Google Scholar
  55. 32.55
    Th Wells: The Technique of Electronic Music, 2nd edn. (Schirmer, New York 1981)Google Scholar
  56. 32.56
    T. Holmes: Electronic and experimental Music, 4th edn. (Routledge, New York 2012)Google Scholar
  57. 32.57
    A. Strange: Electronic Music. Systems, Techniques, and Controls, 2nd edn. (Brown, Dubuque 1983)Google Scholar
  58. 32.58
    J. Watkinson: The Art of Digital Audio (Focal, London, Boston 1989)Google Scholar
  59. 32.59
    J. Chowning: The synthesis of complex audio spectra by means of frequency modulation, J. Audio Eng. Soc. 21, 526–534 (1973)Google Scholar
  60. 32.60
    J. Chowning: The synthesis of complex audio spectra by means of frequency modulation, Comput. Music J. 1, 46–54 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 32.61
    C. Roads, J. Strawn (Eds.): Foundations of Computer Music (MIT Press, Cambridge 1985) pp. 6–29Google Scholar
  62. 32.62
    J. Chowning: Stria (1977), CD (Wergo/Schott, Mainz 1988)Google Scholar
  63. 32.63
    B. Bossis: Stria de John Chowning ou l’oxymoron musical: du nombre d’or comme poétique. In: John Chowning, Portraits polychromes, ed. by M. de Maule (Éd. TUM, Paris 2005) pp. 87–113Google Scholar
  64. 32.64
    P. Schaeffer: La Musique Concrète, 2nd edn. (Presses Univ. de France, Paris 1973)Google Scholar
  65. 32.65
    P. Schaeffer: Traité des objets musicaux (Seuil, Paris 1966)Google Scholar
  66. 32.66
    U. Zölzer (Ed.): DAFX – Digital Audio Effects (Wiley, Chichester 2002)Google Scholar
  67. 32.67
    The Ronettes: Be My Baby (Philles Records, Los Angeles 1963)Google Scholar
  68. 32.68
    H.F. Cohen: Quantifying Music. The Science of Music at the First Stage of the Scientific Revolution (Reidel, Dordrecht 1984) pp. 1580–1650Google Scholar
  69. 32.69
    S. Dostrovsky, R. Cannon: Entstehung der musikalischen Akustik (1600–1750). In: Hören, Messen und Rechnen in der frühen Neuzeit, Geschichte der Musiktheorie, Vol. 6, ed. by F. Zaminer (Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 1987) pp. 7–79Google Scholar
  70. 32.70
    J. Sauveur: Collected Writings on Musical Acoustics (Paris 1700-1713) (Diapason, Utrecht 1984), ed. by R. RaschGoogle Scholar
  71. 32.71
    J.P. Rameau: Démonstration du principe de l’harmonie (Pissot/Durand, Paris 1750)Google Scholar
  72. 32.72
    F. Chladni: Die Akustik, 2nd edn. (Breitkopf Haertel, Leipzig 1830)Google Scholar
  73. 32.73
    F. Opelt: Allgemeine Theorie der Musik auf den Rhythmus der Klangwellenpulse gegründet (Barth, Leipzig 1852)Google Scholar
  74. 32.74
    E. Boring: Sensation and Perception in the History of experimental Psychology (Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York 1942)Google Scholar
  75. 32.75
    R. Beyer: Sound of our Time. Two hundred Years of Acoustics (Springer/AIP, New York 1999)Google Scholar
  76. 32.76
    C. Seashore: The Present Status of Research in the Psychology of Music at the University of Iowa (Univ. of Iowa Press, Iowa City 1928)Google Scholar
  77. 32.77
    M. Metfessel: Phonophotography in Folk Music. American Negro Songs in new notation (Univ. of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill 1928)Google Scholar
  78. 32.78
    E. Meyer, G. Buchmann: Die Klangspektren der Musikinstrumente. In: Sitzungsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss., Math.-Phys. Kl, Vol. XXXII (1931) pp. 735–778Google Scholar
  79. 32.79
    H. Backhaus: Über die Bedeutung der Ausgleichsvorgänge in der Musik, Z. techn. Phys. 13, 31–46 (1932)Google Scholar
  80. 32.80
    F. Trendelenburg, E. Thienhaus, E. Franz: Klangeinsätze an der Orgel, Akust. Z. 1, 59–76 (1936)Google Scholar
  81. 32.81
    W. Graf: Vergleichende Musikwissenschaft (Stiglmayr, Wien-Föhrenau 1980)Google Scholar
  82. 32.82
    F. Födermayr: Zur gesanglichen Stimmgebung in der außereuropäischen Musik, Vol. 1 and 2 (Stiglmayr, Wien-Föhrenau 1971)Google Scholar
  83. 32.83
    R. Randall: Frequency Analysis, 3rd edn. (Bruel Kjaer, Naerum 1987)Google Scholar
  84. 32.84
    R. McAulay, T. Quatieri: Speech analsis/synthesis based on sinusoidal representation, IEEE Trans. on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing 34, 744–754 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 32.85
    A. Schneider: Tonhöhe – Skala – Klang. Akustische, tonometrische und psychoakustische Studien auf vergleichender Grundlage (Orpheus, Bonn 1997)Google Scholar
  86. 32.86
    A. Schneider: Inharmonic sounds: Implications as to pitch, timbre, and consonance, J. New Music Res. 29, 275–301 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 32.87
    G. de Poli, A. Piccialli, C. Roads (Eds.): Representations of Musical Signals (MIT Press, Cambridge 1991)Google Scholar
  88. 32.88
    C. Roads, S. Pope, A. Piccialli, G. de Poli (Eds.): Musical Signal Processing (Swets Zeitlinger, Lisse, Abingdon 1997)Google Scholar
  89. 32.89
    G. Peeters, B. Giordano, P. Susini, N. Misdariis, St McAdams: The timbre toolbox: Extracting audio descriptors from musical signals, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 130, 2902–2916 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 32.90
    H. von Helmholtz: Die Lehre von den Tonempfindungen als physiologische Grundlage für die Theorie der Musik (Vieweg, Braunschweig 1863), 3rd edn. 1870, 6th edn. 1913zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  91. 32.91
    C. Stumpf: Tonpsychologie, Vol. 2 (Barth, Leipzig 1890)Google Scholar
  92. 32.92
    C. Stumpf: Die Sprachlaute (Springer, Berlin 1926)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 32.93
    W. Köhler: Akustische Untersuchungen I-III, Z. Psychol. 54, 241–289 (1910)Google Scholar
  94. 32.94
    W. Köhler: Akustische Untersuchungen I-III, Z. Psychol. 58, 59–140 (1911)Google Scholar
  95. 32.95
    W. Köhler: Akustische Untersuchungen I-III, Z. Psychol. 64, 241–289 (1913)Google Scholar
  96. 32.96
    W. Köhler: Akustische Untersuchungen I-III, Z. Psychol. 72, 1–192 (1915)Google Scholar
  97. 32.97
    C. Stumpf: Konsonanz und Dissonanz (Barth, Leipzig 1898)Google Scholar
  98. 32.98
    C. Stumpf: Beobachtungen über Kombinationstöne, Z. Psychol. 55, 1–142 (1910)Google Scholar
  99. 32.99
    C. Stumpf: Über neuere Untersuchungen zur Tonlehre, Beitr. Akust. Musikwiss. 8, 305–344 (1914)Google Scholar
  100. 32.100
    E. von Hornbostel: Psychologie der Gehörserscheinungen. In: Handbuch der normalen und pathol. Physiol., Vol. 11, ed. by A. Bethe (Springer, Berlin 1926) pp. 701–730Google Scholar
  101. 32.101
    G. Rich: A preliminary study of tonal volume, J. Exp. Psych. 1, 13–22 (1916)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 32.102
    S. Stevens: The volume and intensity of tones, Am. J. Psych. 46, 397–408 (1934)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 32.103
    S. Stevens: The attributes of tones, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 20, 457–459 (1934)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 32.104
    E. Terhardt: Akustische Kommunikation (Springer, Berlin 1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 32.105
    W. Lichte: Attributes of complex tones, J. Exp. Psychol. 28, 455–480 (1941)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 32.106
    G. Albersheim: Zur Psychologie der Ton- und Klangeigenschaften unter Berücksichtigung der Zweikomponententheorie und der Vokalsystematik (Heitz, Leipzig, Straßburg 1939), repr. Körner, Baden-Baden 1975Google Scholar
  107. 32.107
    G. Rich: A Study of tonal attributes, Am. J. Psychol. 30, 121–164 (1919)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 32.108
    C. Ruckmick: A new classification of tonal qualities, Psych. Rev. 36, 172–180 (1929)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 32.109
    A. Wellek: Die Mehrseitigkeit der „Tonhöhe“ als Schlüssel zur Systematik der musikalischen Erscheinungen, Z. Psychol. 134, 302–348 (1935)Google Scholar
  110. 32.110
    H. Ebbinghaus: Grundzüge der Psychologie, Vol. 1, 4th edn. (Veit, Leipzig 1919)Google Scholar
  111. 32.111
    ASA: American Standard Acoustical Terminology (ASA, New York 1960) p. 45Google Scholar
  112. 32.112
    F. Kittler: Gramophone, Film, Typewriter (Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford 1999)Google Scholar
  113. 32.113
    Elektronische Musik: Sonderheft über elektronische Musik, Technische Hausmitteilungen des Nordwestdeutschen Rundfunks, Jg. 6, Nr. 1/2 (NWDR, Cologne 1954) Google Scholar
  114. 32.114
    A. Moles: Théorie de l’information et perception ésthetique (Flammarion, Paris 1958)Google Scholar
  115. 32.115
    D. Gabor: Theory of communication, J. Inst. Electr. Eng. 93, 429–457 (1946)Google Scholar
  116. 32.116
    C. Shannon: A mathematical theory of communication, Bell System Techn. J. 27(379–423), 623–656 (1948)MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 32.117
    L. Russolo: L’arte dei rumori (Ed. Futuriste di Poesia, Milano 1913) French transl.: L’art des bruits. Manifeste futuriste 1913 (Richard-Masse, Paris 1954)Google Scholar
  118. 32.118
    P. Schaeffer: Traité des objets musicaux. Nouveau Edition (Seuil, Paris 1977)Google Scholar
  119. 32.119
    E. Husserl: Erfahrung und Urteil. Untersuchungen zur Genealogie der Logik, 5th edn. (Meiner, Hamburg 1976), ed. by L. LandgrebeGoogle Scholar
  120. 32.120
    K. Hevner: Experimental studies of the elements of expression in music, Am. J. Psychol. 48, 246–268 (1936)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 32.121
    C. Osgood, G. Suci, P. Tannenbaum: The Measurement of Meaning (Univ. of Illinois Press, Urbana 1957)Google Scholar
  122. 32.122
    S. Ertel: Standardisierung eines Eindrucksdifferentials, Z. exp. angew. Psychol. 12, 22–58 (1965)Google Scholar
  123. 32.123
    R. Kendall, E. Carterette: Verbal attributes of simultaneous wind instrument timbres: I. von Bismarck’s adjectives, Music Percept. 10, 445–468 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 32.124
    A. Schneider, D. Müllensiefen: Musikpsychologie in Hamburg. Ein Forschungsbericht, Syst. Musikwiss. – Syst. Musicol. 7, 59–89 (2000)Google Scholar
  125. 32.125
    H. Böttcher, U. Kerner: Methoden der Musikpsychologie (Edition Peters, Leipzig 1978)Google Scholar
  126. 32.126
    S. Mulaik: Foundations of Factor Analysis, 2nd edn. (CRC, Boca Raton 2010)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  127. 32.127
    R. Mores: Nasality in musical sounds – a few intermediate results. In: Systematic Musicology: Empirical and theoretical Studies, ed. by A. Schneider, A. von Ruschkowski (Lang, Frankfurt am Main 2011) pp. 127–136Google Scholar
  128. 32.128
    St Solomon: Semantic approach to the perception of complex sounds, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 30, 421–425 (1958)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 32.129
    V. Rahls: Psychometrische Untersuchungen zur Wahrnehmung musikalischer Klänge, Ph.D. thesis (Univ. of Hamburg, Hamburg 1966)Google Scholar
  130. 32.130
    E. Jost: Akustische und psychometrische Untersuchungen an Klarinettenklängen (A. Volk, Köln 1967)Google Scholar
  131. 32.131
    G. von Bismarck: Timbre of steady sounds: A factorial investigation of its verbal attributes, Acustica 30, 146–159 (1974)Google Scholar
  132. 32.132
    R. Kendall, E. Carterette: Perceptual scaling of simultaneous wind instrument timbres, Music Percept. 8, 369–404 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 32.133
    W. Wundt: Grundriß der Psychologie, 15th edn. (Engelmann, Leipzig 1928)Google Scholar
  134. 32.134
    G. von Bismarck: Sharpness as an attribute of the timbre of steady sounds, Acustica 30, 159–172 (1974)Google Scholar
  135. 32.135
    L. Marks: On cross-modal similarity: the perceptual structure of pitch, loudness, and brightness, J. Exp. Psychol.: Hum. Percept. Perform. 15, 586–602 (1989)Google Scholar
  136. 32.136
    E. Zwicker, H. Fastl: Psychoacoustics. Facts and Models, 2nd edn. (Springer, Berlin 1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 32.137
    S. Stevens, J. Harris: The scaling of subjective roughness and smoothness, J. Exp. Psychol. 64, 489–494 (1962)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 32.138
    A. Schneider: ‘Verschmelzung’, tonal fusion, and consonance: Carl Stumpf revisited. In: Music, Gestalt, and Computing. Studies in Cognitive and Systematic Musicology, ed. by M. Leman (Springer, Berlin 1997) pp. 117–143Google Scholar
  139. 32.139
    Ch Seeger: Studies in Musicology. Vol. I (1935-1975) (Univ. of Cal. Press, Berkeley 1977)Google Scholar
  140. 32.140
    W. Thies: Grundlagen einer Typologie der Klänge (Wagner, Hamburg 1982)Google Scholar
  141. 32.141
    R. Kendall, E. Carterette: Perceptual scaling of simultaneous wind instrument timbres: II. Adjectives induced from Piston’s ‘Orchestration’, Music Percept. 10, 469–502 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 32.142
    J. Hajda: The Effect of dynamic acoustical features on musical timbre. In: Analysis, Synthesis, and Perception of Musical Sounds, ed. by J. Beauchamp (Springer, New York 2007) pp. 250–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 32.143
    A. Zacharakis, K. Pastiadis, J. Reiss: An interlanguage study of musical timbre semantic dimensions and their acoustic correlates, Music Percept. 31, 339–358 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 32.144
    A. Nykänen, Ö. Johansson, J. Lundberg, J. Berg: Modelling perceptual dimensions of saxophone sounds, Acustica 95, 539–549 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 32.145
    W. Aures: Der sensorische Wohlklang als Funktion psychoakustischer Empfindungsgrößen, Acustica 58, 282–290 (1985)Google Scholar
  146. 32.146
    W. Aures: Berechnungsverfahren für den sensorischen Wohlklang beliebiger Schallsignale, Acustica 59, 130–141 (1985)Google Scholar
  147. 32.147
    A. Tversky: Features of similarity, Psych. Rev. 84, 327–352 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 32.148
    D. Medin, R. Goldstone, D. Gentner: Respects for similarity, Psych. Rev. 100, 254–278 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 32.149
    C. Stumpf: Tonpsychologie, Vol. 1 (Barth, Leipzig 1883)Google Scholar
  150. 32.150
    W. Torgerson: Theory and Method of Scaling (Wiley, New York 1958)Google Scholar
  151. 32.151
    F. Sixtl: Meßmethoden der Psychologie. Theoretische Grundlagen und Probleme, 2nd edn. (Beltz, Weinheim, Basel 1982)Google Scholar
  152. 32.152
    I. Borg, J. Lingoes: Multidimensional Similarity Structure Analysis (Springer, New York 1987)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 32.153
    I. Borg, P. Groenen: Modern Multidimensional Scaling. Theory and Applications, 2nd edn. (Springer, New York 2005)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  154. 32.154
    F.G. Ashby, N. Perrin: Toward a unified theory of similarity and recognition, Psychol. Rev. 95, 124–150 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 32.155
    N. Perrin: Uniting identification, similarity and preference: General recognition theory. In: Multidimensional Models of Perception and Cognition, ed. by F. Ashby (Erlbaum, Hillsdale 1992) pp. 123–145Google Scholar
  156. 32.156
    R. Nosofsky: Similarity scaling and cognitive process models, Ann. Rev. Psych. 43, 25–53 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 32.157
    J. Beran: Statistics in Musicology (Chapman Hall, Boca Raton 2004)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  158. 32.158
    S. Donnadieu: Mental representations of the timbre of complex sounds. In: Analysis, Synthesis, and Perception of Musical Sounds, ed. by J. Beauchamp (Springer, New York 2007) pp. 272–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 32.159
    J. Grey: An Exploration of Musical Timbre. Report no. Stan-M-2 (CCRMA Dept. of Music, Stanford 1975)Google Scholar
  160. 32.160
    J. Grey: Multidimensional perceptual scaling of musical timbres, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 61, 1270–1277 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 32.161
    J. Grey, J. Gordon: Perceptual effects of spectral modifications on musical timbres, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 63, 1493–1500 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 32.162
    R. Plomp, H. Steeneken: Effect of phase on the timbre of complex tones, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 46, 409–421 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 32.163
    J. Miller, E. Carterette: Perceptual space for musical structures, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 58, 711–720 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 32.164
    D. Wessel: Timbre space as musical control structure, Comp. Music J. 3, 45–52 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 32.165
    C. Krumhansl: Why is musical timbre so hard to understand? In: Structure and Perception of Electroacoustic Sound and Music, ed. by S. Nielzen, O. Olsson (Elsevier, Amsterdam 1989) pp. 43–53Google Scholar
  166. 32.166
    P. Iverson, C. Krumhansl: Isolating the dynamic attributes of musical timbre, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 94, 2595–2603 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 32.167
    St McAdams, S. Winsberg, S. Donnadieu, G. de Soete, J. Krimphoff: Perceptual scaling of synthesized musical timbres: Common dimensions, specificities, and latent subject classes, Psychol. Res. 58, 177–192 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 32.168
    B. Markuse, A. Schneider: Ähnlichkeit, Nähe, Distanz: zur Anwendung multidimensionaler Skalierung in musikwissenschaftlichen Untersuchungen, Syst. Musikwiss. – Syst. Musicol. 4, 53–89 (1996)Google Scholar
  169. 32.169
    R. Plomp: Aspects of Tone Sensation (Academic, London 1976)Google Scholar
  170. 32.170
    A. Caclin, St McAdams, B. Smith, S. Winsberg: Acoustic correlates of timbre space dimensions: A confirmatory study using synthetic tones, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 118, 471–482 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 32.171
    S. Dixon: Onset detection revisited. In: Proc. 9th Intern. Conf. Digital Audio Effects (DAFx-06), Montreal (2006) pp. 133–137Google Scholar
  172. 32.172
    W.R. Garner: The Processing of Information and Structure (Erlbaum, Potomac 1974)Google Scholar
  173. 32.173
    B. Kostek: Perception-Based Data Processing in Acoustics. Applications to Music Information Retrieval and Psychophysiology of Hearing (Springer, Berlin 2005)Google Scholar
  174. 32.174
    St Handel: Timbre perception and auditory object identification. In: Hearing, ed. by B. Moore (Academic, San Diego 1995) pp. 425–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 32.175
    J. Schouten: The perception of timbre. In: Reports 6th Int. Congr. Acoust., Tokyo, Vol. VI (1968) pp. 35–44Google Scholar
  176. 32.176
    J. Licklider: Basic correlates of the auditory stimulus. In: Handbook of Experimental Psychology, ed. by S.S. Stevens (Wiley, New York 1951) pp. 985–1039Google Scholar
  177. 32.177
    W. Slawson: Sound Color (Univ. of Cal. Press, Berkeley 1985)Google Scholar
  178. 32.178
    H. Pollard, E. Jansson: Analysis and assessment of musical starting transients, Acustica 51, 249–262 (1982)Google Scholar
  179. 32.179
    D. Howard, J. Angus: Acoustics and Psychoacoustics, 2nd edn. (Focal, Oxford 2001)Google Scholar
  180. 32.180
    E. Jost: Über den Einfluß der Darbietungsdauer auf die Identifikation von instrumentalen Klangfarben. In: Jahrb. Staatl. Inst. Musikforsch. (Berlin) für 1969 (1970) pp. 83–92Google Scholar
  181. 32.181
    C. Reuter: Die auditive Diskrimination von Orchesterinstrumenten. Verschmelzung und Heraushörbarkeit von Instrumentalklangfarben im Ensemblespiel (Lang, Frankfurt am Main 1996)Google Scholar
  182. 32.182
    R. Rasch: The Perception of simultaneous notes such as in polyphonic music, Acustica 40, 21–33 (1978)Google Scholar
  183. 32.183
    P. Vos, R. Rasch: The perceptual onset of tones, Percept. Psychophys. 29, 323–335 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 32.184
    B. Lau, R. Bader, A. Schneider, P. Wriggers: Finite Element transient calculation of a bell struck by its clapper. In: Concepts, Experiments, and Fieldwork: Studies in Systematic Musicology and Ethnomusicology, ed. by R. Bader, C. Neuhaus, U. Morgenstern (Lang, Frankfurt am Main 2010) pp. 137–156Google Scholar
  185. 32.185
    A. Schneider, M. Leman: Sonological and psychoacoustic characteristics of carillon bells. In: The Quality of Bells: Proc. of the 16th Meeting of the FWO Res. Soc. Foundations Music Research, ed. by M. Leman (Univ. of Ghent., Ghent 2002)Google Scholar
  186. 32.186
    A. Schneider, M. Leman: Sound, pitches and tuning of a historic carillon. In: Studies in Musical Acoustics and Psychoacoustics, ed. by A. Schneider (Springer, Cham 2017) pp. 247–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 32.187
    A. Melka: Messungen der Klangeinsatzdauern bei Musikinstrumenten, Acustica 23, 108–177 (1970)Google Scholar
  188. 32.188
    T. Gäumann: The pretransient of the harpsichord sound. In: Proc. Stockholm Musical Acoustics Conf. (SMAC ’03), Vol. I (2003) pp. 163–166Google Scholar
  189. 32.189
    A. Beurmann, A. Schneider: Sonological analysis of harpsichord sounds. In: Proc. Stockholm Music Acoustics Conf. (SMAC ’03), Vol. I (2003) pp. 167–170Google Scholar
  190. 32.190
    E. Saldanha, J. Corso: Timbre cues and identification of musical instruments, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 36, 2021–2026 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 32.191
    L. Wedin, G. Goude: Dimension analysis of the perception of instrumental timbres, Scand. J. Psych. 13, 228–240 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 32.192
    N. Fletcher: Acoustical correlates of flute performance technique, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 57, 233–237 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 32.193
    X. Serra: Musical sound modelling with sinusoids plus noise. In: Musical Signal Processing, ed. by C. Roads, S. Pope, A. Piccialli, G. de Poli (Swets Zeitlinger, Lisse 1997) pp. 91–122Google Scholar
  194. 32.194
    S. Levine, J. Smith III: A compact and malleable sines + transients + noise model for sound. In: Analysis, Synthesis, and Perception of Musical Sound, ed. by J. Beauchamp (Springer, New York 2007) pp. 145–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 32.195
    R. Patterson, E. Gaudrain, Th Walters: The Perception of family and register in musical tones. In: Music Perception, ed. by M. Riess Jones, R. Fay, A. Popper (Springer, New York 2010) pp. 13–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 32.196
    W. Adelung: Einführung in den Orgelbau, 3rd edn. (Breitkopf Härtel, Leipzig 1972)Google Scholar
  197. 32.197
    N. Fletcher, T. Rossing: The Physics of Musical Instruments (AIP/Springer, New York 1991)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 32.198
    P. Goad, D. Keefe: Timbre discrimination of musical instruments in a concert hall, Music Percept. 10, 43–62 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 32.199
    J. Marozeau, A. de Cheveigné, St McAdams, S. Winsberg: The dependency of timbre on fundamental frequency, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 114, 2948–2957 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 32.200
    St Handel, M. Erickson: A rule of thumb: The bandwidth for timbre invariance is one octave, Music Percept. 19, 121–126 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 32.201
    K. Steele, A. Williams: Is the bandwidth for timbre invariance only one octave?, Music Percept. 23, 215–220 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 32.202
    J. Meyer: Zur klanglichen Wirkung des Streicher-Vibratos, Acustica 76, 283–291 (1992)Google Scholar
  203. 32.203
    J. Gärtner: Das Vibrato unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Verhältnisse bei Flötisten, 2nd edn. (Bosse, Regensburg 1980)Google Scholar
  204. 32.204
    A. Schneider, R. Mores: Fourier-Time-Transformation (FTT), analysis of sound and auditory perception. In: Sound – Perception – Performance, ed. by R. Bader (Springer, Cham 2013) pp. 299–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 32.205
    M. Barthet, Ph Depalle, R. Kronland-Martinet, S. Ystad: Acoustical correlates of timbre and expressiveness in clarinet performance, Music Percept. 28, 135–153 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 32.206
    H. Pollard, E. Jansson: A tristimulus method for the specification of musical timbre, Acustica 51, 162–171 (1982)Google Scholar
  207. 32.207
    E. Zwicker: Psychoakustik (Springer, Berlin 1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 32.208
    K. Denbigh: Three Concepts of Time (Springer, Berlin 1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 32.209
    A. Schneider: Virtual pitch and musical instrument acoustics. The case of idiophones. In: Musik im virtuellen Raum. KlangArt-Kongress 1997, ed. by B. Enders, J. Stange-Elbe (Universitätsverlag Rasch, Osnabrück 2000) pp. 397–417Google Scholar
  210. 32.210
    A. Schneider: Sound, pitch, and scale: From ‘tone measurements’ to sonological analysis in ethnomusicology, Ethnomusicology 45, 489–519 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 32.211
    R. Melara, L. Marks: Interaction among auditory dimensions: Timbre, pitch, and loudness, Percept. Psychophys. 48, 169–178 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 32.212
    C. Krumhansl, P. Iverson: Perceptual Interactions between musical pitch and timbre, J. Exp. Psych.: Human Percept. Perform. 18, 739–751 (1992)Google Scholar
  213. 32.213
    E. Allen, A. Oxenham: Symmetric interactions and interferences between pitch and timbre, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 135, 1371–1379 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 32.214
    R. Patterson, R. Milroy, M. Allerhand: What is the octave of a harmonically rich note?, Contemp. Music Rev. 9, 69–81 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 32.215
    H.P. Hesse: Experimente zum musikalischen Intervallurteil. In: Jahrb. Staatl. Inst. Musikforsch. (Berlin) für 1978 (1979) pp. 72–87Google Scholar
  216. 32.216
    M. van Tongeren: Overtone Singing. Physics and Metaphysics of Harmonics in East and West (Fusica, Amsterdam 2002)Google Scholar
  217. 32.217
    St Handel: Listening. An Introduction to the Perception of Auditory Events (MIT Press, Cambridge 1989)Google Scholar
  218. 32.218
    A. Schneider, K. Frieler: Perception of harmonic and inharmonic sounds: Results from ear models. In: Computer Music Modeling and Retrieval. Genesis of Meaning in Sound and Music, ed. by S. Ystad, R. Kronland-Martinet, K. Jensen (Springer, Berlin 2009) pp. 18–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 32.219
    J. Chowning: John Chowning on composition. In: Composers and the Computer, ed. by C. Roads (W. Kaufmann, Los Altos 1985) pp. 18–25Google Scholar
  220. 32.220
    J. Chowning: Phoné (1979–80), CD (Wergo/Schott, Mainz 1988)Google Scholar
  221. 32.221
    D. Arfib, F. Keiler, U. Zölzer: Source-Filter Processing. In: DAFX. Digital Audio Effects, ed. by U. Zölzer (Wiley, Chichester 2002) pp. 299–372Google Scholar
  222. 32.222
    J. Keuler: Problems of shape and background in sounds with inharmonic spectra. In: Music, Gestalt, and Computing. Studies in Cognitive and Systematic Musicology, ed. by M. Leman (Springer, Berlin 1997) pp. 214–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 32.223
    F. Lerdahl: Timbral hierarchies, Contemp. Music Rev. 2, 135–160 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 32.224
    A. Schönberg: Harmonielehre, 2nd edn. (Universal Ed., Wien 1922)Google Scholar
  225. 32.225
    A. Schneider: Akustische und psychoakustische Anmerkungen zu Arnold Schönbergs Emanzipation der Dissonanz und zu seiner Idee der Klangfarbenmelodie, Hamburger Jahrb. Musikwiss. 17, 35–55 (2000)Google Scholar
  226. 32.226
    A. Fokker: New Music with 31 Notes (Verlag für Systematische Musikwissenschaft, Bonn 1975)Google Scholar
  227. 32.227
    W. Voigt: Dissonanz und Klangfarbe. Instrumentationsgeschichtliche und experimentelle Untersuchungen (Verlag für Systematische Musikwissenschaft, Bonn 1985)Google Scholar
  228. 32.228
    P. Boersma, G. Kovacic: Spectral characteristics of three styles of Croatian folk singing, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 119, 1805–1816 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 32.229
    A. Bregman: Auditory Scene Analysis (MIT Press, Cambridge 1990)Google Scholar
  230. 32.230
    Y. Ando: Concert Hall Acoustics (Springer, Berlin 1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 32.231
    L. Beranek: Concert and Opera Halls. How they sound (Acoust. Soc. Am., Woodbury 1996)Google Scholar
  232. 32.232
    H. Kuttruff: Room Acoustics, 5th edn. (Spon, London 2009)Google Scholar
  233. 32.233
    J. Blauert: Spatial Hearing. The Psychophysics of Human Sound Localization, 6th edn. (MIT Press, Cambridge 2008)Google Scholar
  234. 32.234
    Ch Brown, B. May: Comparative mammalian sound localization. In: Sound Source Localization, ed. by A. Popper, R. Fay (Springer, New York 2005) pp. 124–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 32.235
    K. Hancock, B. Delgutte: A physiologically based model of interaural time difference discrimination, J. Neurosci. 24, 7110–7117 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. 32.236
    F. Wightman, D. Kistler: Sound localization. In: Human Psychophysics, ed. by W. Yost, A. Popper, R. Fay (Springer, New York 1993) pp. 155–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. 32.237
    T. Ziemer: Psychoacoustic effects in wave field synthesis applications. In: Systematic Musicology: Empirical and Theoretical Studies, ed. by A. Schneider, A. von Ruschkowski (Lang, Frankfurt am Main 2011) pp. 153–162Google Scholar
  238. 32.238
    J. Eggermont: Between sound and perception: Reviewing the search for a neural code, Hearing Res. 157, 1–42 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 32.239
    I. Nelken: Processing of complex stimuli and natural scenes in the auditory cortex, Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 14, 474–480 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 32.240
    I. Nelken: Processing of complex sounds in the auditory system, Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 18, 413–417 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. 32.241
    C. Von der Malsburg: Binding in models of perception and brain function, Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 5, 520–526 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. 32.242
    A. Roskies: The binding problem, Neuron 24, 7–9 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. 32.243
    B. Moore: Frequency analysis and pitch perception. In: Human Psychophysics, ed. by W. Yost, A. Popper, R. Fay (Springer, New York 1993) pp. 56–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. 32.244
    B. Moore: Frequency analysis and masking. In: Hearing, ed. by B. Moore (Academic, San Diego 1995) pp. 161–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. 32.245
    B. Moore: Basic psychophysics of human spectral processing. In: Auditory Spectral Processing, International Review of Neurobiology, Vol. 70, ed. by M. Malmierca, D. Irvine (Elsevier, Amsterdam 2005) pp. 49–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. 32.246
    E. Terhardt, G. Stoll, M. Seewann: Algorithm for extraction of pitch and pitch salience from complex tone signals, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 71, 679–688 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. 32.247
    E. Terhardt, G. Stoll, M. Seewann: Pitch of complex signals according to virtual-pitch theory: Tests, examples, and predictions, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 71, 671–678 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. 32.248
    E. Terhardt, M. Seewann: Auditive und objektive Bestimmung der Schlagtonhöhe von historischen Kirchenglocken, Acustica 54, 129–144 (1984)Google Scholar
  249. 32.249
    D. Huron: Voice denumerability in polyphonic music of homogeneous timbres, Music Percept. 6, 361–382 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. 32.250
    R. Rasch: Synchronization in performed ensemble music, Acustica 43, 121–131 (1979)Google Scholar
  251. 32.251
    St McAdams: Spectral fusion and the creation of auditory images. In: Music, Mind, and Brain, ed. by M. Clynes (Plenum, London 1982) pp. 279–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. 32.252
    St McAdams: Segregration of concurrent sounds. I: Effects of frequency modulation coherence, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 86, 2148–2159 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. 32.253
    D. Mellinger, B. Mont-Reynaud: Scene analysis. In: Auditory Computation, ed. by H. Hawkins, T. McMullen, A. Popper, R. Fay (Springer, New York 1996) pp. 271–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. 32.254
    J. Van Eyck: Der Fluyten Lust-Hof, beplant met Psalmen, Pavanen, Almanden, Couranten, Balletten, Airs (Matthysz, Amsterdam 1654)Google Scholar
  255. 32.255
    L. Van Noorden: Temporal Coherence in the Perception of Tone Sequences, Ph.D. Thesis (Technical Univ. of Eindhoven, Eindhoven 1975)Google Scholar
  256. 32.256
    G. Kubik: Die Amadinda-Musik von Buganda. In: Musik in Afrika, ed. by A. Simon (Museum für Völkerkunde, Berlin 1983) pp. 139–165Google Scholar
  257. 32.257
    G. Kubik: Theory of African Music, Vol. I (Heinrichshofen, Wilhelmshaven 1994)Google Scholar
  258. 32.258
    U. Wegner: Cognitive aspects of Amadinda xylophone music from Buganda: Inherent patterns reconsidered, Ethnomusicology 37, 201–241 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. 32.259
    G. Miller, G. Heise: The trill threshold, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 22, 637–638 (1950)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. 32.260
    A. Bregman, J. Campbell: Primary auditory stream segregation and perception of order in rapid sequences of tones, J. Exp. Psych. 89, 244–249 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. 32.261
    P. Iverson: Auditory stream segregation by musical timbre. Effects of static and dynamic acoustic attributes, J. Exp. Psych.: Hum. Percept. Perf. 21, 751–763 (1995)Google Scholar
  262. 32.262
    B. Roberts, B. Glasberg, B. Moore: Primitive stream segregation of tone sequences without differences in fundamental frequency or passband, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 2074–2085 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. 32.263
    H. Helson: The fundamental propositions of Gestalt Psychology, Psych. Rev. 40, 13–32 (1933)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. 32.264
    A. Fischer: Neurophysiologisch motivierte Modelle zur akustischen Figur-Hintergrund-Trennung (Deutsch, Frankfurt am Main 1994)Google Scholar
  265. 32.265
    S. McCabe, M. Denham: A model of auditory streaming, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 101, 1611–1621 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. 32.266
    A. Klapuri: Auditory model-based methods for multiple fundamental frequency estimation. In: Signal Processing Methods for Music Transcription, ed. by A. Klapuri, M. Davy (Springer, New York 2006) pp. 229–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. 32.267
    A. Klapuri: Multipitch analysis of polyphonic music and speech signals using an auditory model, IEEE Transactions Audio, Speech, and Language Process. 16, 255–266 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. 32.268
    K. Kashino: Auditory scene analysis in music signals. In: Signal Processing Methods for Music Transcription, ed. by A. Klapuri, M. Davy (Springer, New York 2006) pp. 299–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. 32.269
    M. Goto: Music scene description. In: Signal Processing Methods for Music Transcription, ed. by A. Klapuri, M. Davy (Springer, New York 2006) pp. 327–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. 32.270
    F. Cañadas Quesada, N. Ruiz Reyes, P.V. Candeas, J. Carabias, S. Maldonado: A multiple-F0 estimation approach based on Gaussian spectral modelling for polyphonic music transcription, J. New Music Res. 39, 93–107 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. 32.271
    A. Schneider: Klanganalyse als Methodik der Popularmusikforschung, Hamburger Jahrb. Musikwiss. 19, 107–129 (2002)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Albrecht Schneider
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Systematic MusicologyUniversity of HamburgHamburgGermany

Personalised recommendations