Advertisement

Music and Emotions

  • Tuomas EerolaEmail author
Part of the Springer Handbooks book series (SHB)

Abstract

The rapid rise in emotion research in psychology has brought forth a rich palette of concepts and tools for studying emotions expressed and induced by music. This chapter summarizes the current state of music and emotion research, starting with the fundamental definitions and the assumed structures of emotions (Sect. 29.2). A synthesis of the core affects, basic emotions and complex emotions is offered to clarify this complex landscape. A vital development for the field has been the introduction of a set of mechanisms and modifiers for the induction of emotion via music that are here connected to the structures of emotions (Sects. 29.3 and 29.4). Particular attention is given to challenges that are still waiting to be resolved, such as the cultural context and the situal context of music listening (Sect. 29.5).

ACC

anterior cingulate cortex

BRECVEMA

brain stem reflex, rhythmic entrainment, evaluative conditioning, contagion, visual imagery, episodic memory, musical expectancy, and aesthetic judgment

DES

differential emotions scale

EEG

electroencephalogram/electroencephalography

EMG

electromyogram

ESM

experience sampling method

fMRI

functional magnetic resonance imaging

GEMS

Geneva emotional music scale

HRV

heart rate variability

MEG

magnetoencephalography

PANAS

positive and negative affect scale

POMS

profile of mood states

SAM

self-assessment manikin

SCR

skin conductance response

References

  1. 29.1
    A.J. Lonsdale, A.C. North: Why do we listen to music? A uses and gratifications analysis, Br. J. Psychol. 102(1), 108–134 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 29.2
    E. Dissanayake: Root, leaf, blossom, or bole: Concerning the origin and adaptive function of music. In: Communicative Musicality: Exploring the Basis of Human Companionship, ed. by S. Malloch, C. Trevarthen (Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford 2009) pp. 17–30Google Scholar
  3. 29.3
    R. MacDonald, G. Kreutz, L. Mitchell: What is music, health, and wellbeing and why is it important. In: Music, Health and Wellbeing, ed. by R. MacDonald, G. Kreutz, L. Mitchell (Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford 2012) pp. 3–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 29.4
    P. Juslin, J.A. Sloboda (Eds.): Handbook of Music and Emotion: Theory, Research, Applications (Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford 2010)Google Scholar
  5. 29.5
    A. Gabrielsson: Strong Experiences with Music: Music is Much More Than Just Music (Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford 2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 29.6
    P.N. Juslin: From everyday emotions to aesthetic emotions: Towards a unified theory of musical emotions, Phys. Life Rev. 10(3), 235–266 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 29.7
    S. Koelsch: Brain and Music (Wiley, Oxford 2012)Google Scholar
  8. 29.8
    J.A. Russell: A circumplex model of affect, J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 39(6), 1161–1178 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 29.9
    L.B. Meyer: Emotion and Meaning in Music (Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago 1956)Google Scholar
  10. 29.10
    P.R. Farnsworth: The Social Psychology of Music, 2nd edn. (Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames 1969)Google Scholar
  11. 29.11
    D.E. Berlyne: Aesthetics and Psychobiology (Appleton-Century-Crofts, East Norwalk 1971)Google Scholar
  12. 29.12
    M.G. Rigg: The mood effects of music: A comparison of data from four investigators, J. Psychol. 58(2), 427–438 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 29.13
    L. Wedin: A multidimensional study of perceptual-emotional qualities in music, Scand. J. Psychol. 13(4), 241–257 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 29.14
    A. Gabrielsson: Adjective ratings and dimension analyses of auditory rhythm patterns, Scandinavian J. Psychol. 14(1), 244–260 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 29.15
    F.V. Nielsen: Oplevelse af musikalsk spænding [The experience of Musical Tension] (Akademisk Forlag, Copenhagen 1983)Google Scholar
  16. 29.16
    J. Panksepp: The emotional sources of chills induced by music, Music Percept. 13(2), 171–207 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 29.17
    A. Gabrielsson, S. Lindström Wik: Strong experiences related to music: A descriptive system, Musicae Scientiae 7, 157–217 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 29.18
    A. Damasio: Descartes’ Error: Emotion, Reason and the Human Brain (Random House, New York 1994)Google Scholar
  19. 29.19
    J.E. LeDoux: The Emotional Brain: The Mysterious Underpinnings of Emotional Life (Simon Schuster, New York 1996)Google Scholar
  20. 29.20
    J. Panksepp: Affective Neuroscience: The Foundations of Human and Animal Emotions (Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford 1998)Google Scholar
  21. 29.21
    A.J. Blood, R.J. Zatorre, P. Bermudez, A.C. Evans: Emotional responses to pleasant and unpleasant music correlate with activity in paralimbic brain regions, Nature Neurosci. 2(4), 382–287 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 29.22
    P.N. Juslin, J.A. Sloboda (Eds.): Music and emotion. Theory and Research (Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford 2001) pp. 583–646Google Scholar
  23. 29.23
    C. Beedie, P. Terry, A. Lane: Distinctions between emotion and mood, Cogn. Emot. 19(6), 847–878 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 29.24
    M. Gendron, L.F. Barrett: Reconstructing the past: A century of ideas about emotion in psychology, Emot. Rev. 1(4), 316–339 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 29.25
    C.E. Izard: Emotion theory and research: Highlights, unanswered questions, and emerging issues, Annual Rev. Psychol. 60, 1–25 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 29.26
    P.M. Niedenthal, S. Krauth-Gruber, F. Ric: Psychology of Emotion: Interpersonal, Experiential, and Cognitive Approaches (Psychology, New York 2006)Google Scholar
  27. 29.27
    D. Sander: The cambridge handbook of human affective neuroscience. In: The Cambridge Handbook of Human Affective Neuroscience, ed. by J.L. Armony, P. Vuilleumier (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge 2013) pp. 5–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 29.28
    N.H. Frijda, K.R. Scherer: Emotion definition (psychological perspectives). In: Oxford Companion to Emotion and the Affective Sciences, ed. by D. Sander, K.R. Scherer (Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford 2009) pp. 142–143Google Scholar
  29. 29.29
    K. Hevner: Expression in music: A discussion of experimental studies and theories, Psychol. Rev. 42(2), 186–204 (1935)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 29.30
    K.R. Scherer, J.S. Oshinsky: Cue utilization in emotion attribution from auditory stimuli, Motiv. Emot. 1(4), 331–346 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 29.31
    P.G. Hunter, E.G. Schellenberg, U. Schimmack: Mixed affective responses to music with conflicting cues, Cogn. Emot. 22(2), 327–352 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 29.32
    P. Evans, E. Schubert: Relationships between expressed and felt emotions in music, Musicae Scientiae 12, 75–99 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 29.33
    L. Barrett: Emotions as natural kinds, Perspect. Psychol. Sci. 1(1), 28–58 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 29.34
    J.A. Russell, L.B. Feldman: The circumplex model of affect. In: The Oxford Companion to Emotion and the Affective Sciences, ed. by D. Sander, K.R. Scherer (Oxford Univ. Press, New York 2009) p. 104Google Scholar
  35. 29.35
    R. Reisenzein, S. Doring: Ten perspectives on emotional experience: Introduction to the special issue, Emot. Rev. 1(3), 195–205 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 29.36
    J.A. Russell, L. Feldman Barrett: Core affect, prototypical emotional episodes, and other things called emotion: Dissecting the elephant, J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 76(5), 805–819 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 29.37
    J.A. Russell: Pancultural aspects of the human conceptual organization of emotions, J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 45(6), 1281–1288 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 29.38
    J. Posner, J.A. Russell, B.S. Peterson: The circumplex model of affect: An integrative approach to affective neuroscience, cognitive development, and psychopathology, Dev. Psychopathol. 17(03), 715–734 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 29.39
    M. Lewis: The emergence of human emotions, Handb. Emotions 2, 265–280 (2000)Google Scholar
  40. 29.40
    J.A. Russell: Culture and the categorization of emotions, Psychol. Bull. 110(3), 426–450 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 29.41
    B. Mesquita: Emotions as dynamic cultural phenomena. In: Handbook of Affective Sciences, Series in Affective Science, ed. by R.J. Davidson, K.R. Scherer, H.H. Goldsmith (Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford 2003) pp. 871–890Google Scholar
  42. 29.42
    R.J. Davidson, W. Irwin: The functional neuroanatomy of emotion and affective style, Trends Cogn. Sci. 3(1), 11–21 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 29.43
    D. Watson, L.A. Clark, A. Tellegen: Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales, J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 54(6), 1063–1070 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 29.44
    R.E. Thayer: The Biopsychology of Mood and Arousal (Oxford Univ. Press, New York 1989)Google Scholar
  45. 29.45
    G. Ilie, W. Thompson: A comparison of acoustic cues in music and speech for three dimensions of affect, Music Percept. 23(4), 319–329 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 29.46
    T. Eerola, R. Ferrer, V. Alluri: Timbre and affect dimensions: Evidence from affect and similarity ratings and acoustic correlates of isolated instrument sounds, Music Percept. 30(1), 49–70 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 29.47
    J.T. Cacioppo, G. Berntson: Relationship between attitudes and evaluative space: A critical review, with emphasis on the separability of positive and negative substrates, Psychol. Bull. 115, 401–423 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 29.48
    U. Schimmack, S. Colcombe: Eliciting mixed feelings with the paired-picture paradigm: A tribute to kellogg (1915), Cogn. Emot. 21(7), 1546–1553 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 29.49
    J.T. Larsen, A.P. McGraw, J.T. Cacioppo: Can people feel happy and sad at the same time?, J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 81(4), 684–696 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 29.50
    J.T. Larsen, A.P. McGraw: Further evidence for mixed emotions, J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 100(6), 1095–1110 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 29.51
    D. Matsumoto, P. Ekman: Basic emotions. In: Oxford Companion to Affective Sciences, ed. by D. Sander, K.R. Scherer (Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford 2009) pp. 69–72Google Scholar
  52. 29.52
    K. Vytal, S. Hamann: Neuroimaging support for discrete neural correlates of basic emotions: A voxel-based meta-analysis, J. Cogn. Neurosci. 22(12), 2864–2885 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 29.53
    T. Eerola, J.K. Vuoskoski: A review of music and emotion studies: Approaches, emotion models and stimuli, Music Percept. 30(3), 307–340 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 29.54
    S.B. Dalla, I. Peretz, L. Rousseau: N. Gosselin A developmental study of the affective value of tempo and mode in music, Cognition 80(3), B1–10 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 29.55
    E. Nawrot: The perception of emotional expression in music: Evidence from infants, children and adults, Psychol. Music 31(1), 75–92 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 29.56
    P.N. Juslin: Emotional communication in music performance: A functionalist perspective and some data, Music Percept. 14(4), 383–418 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 29.57
    P. Laukka, A. Gabrielsson: Emotional expression in drumming performance, Psychol. Music 28(2), 181–189 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 29.58
    P. Gomez, B. Danuser: Affective and physiological responses to environmental noises and music, Int. J. Psychophysiol. 53(2), 91–103 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 29.59
    J.A. Etzel, E.L. Johnsen, J. Dickerson, D. Tranel, R. Adolphs: Cardiovascular and respiratory responses during musical mood induction, Int. J. Psychophysiol. 61(1), 57–69 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 29.60
    T. Baumgartner, M. Esslen, L. Jancke: From emotion perception to emotion experience: Emotions evoked by pictures and classical music, Int. J. Psychophysiol. 60(1), 34–43 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 29.61
    I. Peretz, L. Gagnon, B. Bouchard: Music and emotion: Perceptual determinants, immediacy, and isolation after brain damage, Cognition 68(2), 111–141 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 29.62
    N. Gosselin, I. Peretz, M. Noulhiane, D. Hasboun, C. Beckett, M. Baulac, S. Samson: Impaired recognition of scary music following unilateral temporal lobe excision, Brain 128(3), 628–640 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 29.63
    T. Eerola, J.K. Vuoskoski: A comparison of the discrete and dimensional models of emotion in music, Psychol. Music 39(1), 18–49 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 29.64
    J. Robinson: Aesthetic emotions (philosophical perspectives). In: The Oxford Companion to Emotion and the Affective Sciences, ed. by D. Sander, K.R. Scherer (Oxford Univ. Press, New York 2009) pp. 6–9Google Scholar
  65. 29.65
    J.L. Tsai, B. Knutson, H.H. Fung: Cultural variation in affect valuation, J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 90, 288–307 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 29.66
    V. Bennett: Music and emotion, Music. Q. XXVIII(4), 406–414 (1942)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 29.67
    D. Cooke: The Language of Music (Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford 1959)Google Scholar
  68. 29.68
    K. Nordenstreng: A comparison between the semantic differential and similarity analysis in the measurement of musical experience, Scand. J. Psychol. 9(1), 89–96 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 29.69
    E.P. Asmus: The development of a multidimensional instrument for the measurement of affective responses to music, Psychol. Music 13(1), 19–30 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 29.70
    M. Zentner, D. Grandjean, K. Scherer: Emotions evoked by the sound of music: Characterization, classification, and measurement, Emotion 8(4), 494–521 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 29.71
    W. Trost, T. Ethofer, M. Zentner, P. Vuilleumier: Mapping aesthetic musical emotions in the brain, Cerebral Cortex 22(12), 2769–2783 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 29.72
    L. Taruffi, S. Koelsch: The paradox of music-evoked sadness: An online survey, PLoS ONE 9(10), e110490 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 29.73
    P.N. Juslin, S. Liljeström, P. Laukka, D. Västfjäll, L.-O. Lundqvist: Emotional reactions to music in a nationally representative sample of swedish adults prevalence and causal influences, Musicae Scientiae 15(2), 174–207 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 29.74
    P. Juslin, D. Västfjäll: Emotional responses to music: The need to consider underlying mechanisms, Behav. Brain Sci. 31(05), 559–575 (2008)Google Scholar
  75. 29.75
    P.N. Juslin, J.A. Sloboda: Music and emotion. In: Psychology of Music, 3rd edn., ed. by D. Deutsch (Academic Press, New York 2013)Google Scholar
  76. 29.76
    P.N. Juslin, L. Harmat, T. Eerola: What makes music emotionally significant? Exploring the underlying mechanisms, Psychol. Music 42(4), 599–623 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 29.77
    D. Huron: Sweet Anticipation: Music and the Psychology of Expectation (MIT Press, Cambridge 2006)Google Scholar
  78. 29.78
    J.A. Sloboda: Music structure and emotional response: Some empirical findings, Psychol. Music 19(2), 110–120 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 29.79
    W. Trost, P. Vuilleumier: Rhythmic entrainment as a mechanism for emotion induction by music: A neurophysiological perspective. In: The Emotional Power of Music: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Musical Arousal, Expression, and Social Control, ed. by T. Cochrane, B. Fantini, K.R. Scherer (Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford 2013) pp. 213–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 29.80
    W. Trost, S. Frühholz, D. Schön, C. Labbé, S. Pichon, D. Grandjean, P. Vuilleumier: Getting the beat: Entrainment of brain activity by musical rhythm and pleasantness, NeuroImage 103, 55–64 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 29.81
    A.P. Demos, R. Chaffin, K.T. Begosh, J.R. Daniels, K.L. Marsh: Rocking to the beat: Effects of music and partner’s movements on spontaneous interpersonal coordination, J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 141(1), 49–53 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 29.82
    P.M. Niedenthal, P. Winkielman, L. Mondillon, N. Vermeulen: Embodiment of emotion concepts, J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 96(6), 1120–1136 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 29.83
    L.W. Barsalou: Simulation, situated conceptualization, and prediction, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 364(1521), 1281–1289 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 29.84
    P.M. Niedenthal: Embodying emotion, Science 316(5827), 1002–1005 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 29.85
    L.W. Barsalou, P.M. Niedenthal, A.K. Barbey, J.A. Ruppert: Social embodiment, Psychol. Learn. Motiv. 43, 43–92 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 29.86
    U. Dimberg, M. Thunberg, K. Elmehed: Unconscious facial reactions to emotional facial expressions, Psychol. Sci. 11(1), 86–89 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 29.87
    S.R. Arnott, A. Singhal, M.A. Goodale: An investigation of auditory contagious yawning, Cogn. Affect. Behav. Neurosci. 9(3), 335–342 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 29.88
    S.M. Rodrigues, J.E. LeDoux, R.M. Sapolsky: The influence of stress hormones on fear circuitry, Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 32, 289–313 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 29.89
    P.N. Juslin, P. Laukka: Communication of emotions in vocal expression and music performance: Different channels, same code?, Psychol. Bull. 129, 770–814 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 29.90
    Z. Eitan, R.Y. Granot: How music moves: Musical parameters and listeners images of motion, Music Percept. 23(3), 221–248 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 29.91
    C. Spence: Crossmodal correspondences: A tutorial review, Atten. Percept. Psychophys. 73(4), 971–995 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 29.92
    A.B. Hostetter, M.W. Alibali: Visible embodiment: Gestures as simulated action, Psychonomic Bull. Rev. 15(3), 495–514 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 29.93
    G. Lakoff, M. Johnson: The metaphorical structure of the human conceptual system, Cogn. Sci. 4(2), 195–208 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 29.94
    L.E. Crawford: Conceptual metaphors of affect, Emot. Rev. 1(2), 129–139 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 29.95
    A.C. Bolders, G.P. Band, P.J. Stallen: Evaluative conditioning induces changes in sound valence, Front. Psychol. 3, 106 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 29.96
    J.B. Davies: The Psychology of Music (Hutchinson, London 1978)Google Scholar
  97. 29.97
    F.S. Barrett, K.J. Grimm, R.W. Robins, T. Wildschut, C. Sedikides, P. Janata: Music-evoked nostalgia: Affect, memory, and personality, Emotion 10(3), 390–403 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 29.98
    K.R. Scherer: Emotion. In: Introduction to Social Psychology: A European Perspective, 3rd edn., ed. by M. Hewstone, W. Stroebe (Blackwell, Oxford 2000) pp. 151–191Google Scholar
  99. 29.99
    R.S. Lazarus: Progress on a cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotion, Am. Psychol. 46(8), 819–834 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 29.100
    K.R. Scherer: Appraisal considered as a process of multilevel sequential checking. In: Appraisal Processes in Emotion: Theory, Methods, Research, Series in Affective Science, ed. by K.R. Scherer, A. Schorr, T. Johnstone (Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford 2001) pp. 92–120Google Scholar
  101. 29.101
    P. Silvia: Emotional responses to art: From collation and arousal to cognition and emotion, Rev. General Psychol. 9(4), 342 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 29.102
    K. Millis: Making meaning brings pleasure: The influence of titles on aesthetic experiences, Emotion 1(3), 320–329 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 29.103
    T. DeNora: Music in Everyday Life (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge 2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 29.104
    D. Hesmondhalgh: Towards a critical understanding of music, emotion and self-identity, Consum. Mark. Cult. 11(4), 329–343 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 29.105
    H. Leder, B. Belke, A. Oeberst, D. Augustin: A model of aesthetic appreciation and aesthetic judgments, Br. J. Psychol. 95(4), 489–508 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 29.106
    D. Huron: Why is sad music pleasurable? A possible role for prolactin, Musicae Scientiae 15(2), 146–158 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 29.107
    C.L. Krumhansl: An exploratory study of musical emotions and psychophysiology, Can. J. Exp. Psychol. 51(4), 336–352 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 29.108
    P. Laukka, T. Eerola, N.S. Thingujam, T. Yamasaki, G. Beller: Universal and culture-specific factors in the recognition and performance of musical emotions, Emotion 13(3), 434–449 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 29.109
    K.R. Scherer, M.R. Zentner: Emotional effects of music: Production rules. In: Music and Emotion: Theory and Research, ed. by P.N. Juslin, J.A. Sloboda (Oxford Univ. Press, New York 2001) pp. 361–392Google Scholar
  110. 29.110
    T. Fritz, S. Jentschke, N. Gosselin, D. Sammler, I. Peretz, R. Turner, A.D. Friederici, S. Koelsch: Universal recognition of three basic emotions in music, Current Biol. 19(7), 573–576 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 29.111
    T. Eerola: Are the emotions expressed in music genre-specific? An audio-based evaluation of datasets spanning classical, film, pop and mixed genres, J. New Music Res. 40(4), 349–366 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 29.112
    P. Saari, T. Eerola, M. Barthet, G. Fazekas, O. Lartillot: Genre-adaptive semantic computing and audio-based modelling for music mood annotation. In: IEEE Trans. Audio Speech Lang. Process. (TASLP) (2015),  https://doi.org/10.1109/TAFFC.2015.2462841 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 29.113
    J.K. Vuoskoski, T. Eerola: Extramusical information contributes to emotions induced by music, Psychol. Music 43(2), 262–274 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 29.114
    S.O. Ali, Z.F. Peynircioğlu: Songs and emotions: Are lyrics and melodies equal partners?, Psychol. Music 34(4), 511–534 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 29.115
    L.-L. Balkwill, W.F. Thompson, R. Matsunaga: Recognition of emotion in Japanese, Western, and Hindustani music by Japanese listeners, Jpn. Psychol. Res. 46(4), 337–349 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 29.116
    G. Kreutz, U. Ott, D. Teichmann, P. Osawa, D. Vaitl: Using music to induce emotions: Influences of musical preference and absorption, Psychol. Music 36(1), 101–126 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 29.117
    E. Bigand, S. Vieillard, F. Madurell, J. Marozeau, A. Dacquet: Multidimensional scaling of emotional responses to music: The effect of musical expertise and of the duration of the excerpts, Cogn. Emot. 19(8), 1113–1139 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 29.118
    J.K. Vuoskoski, T. Eerola: Measuring music-induced emotion: A comparison of emotion models, personality biases, and intensity of experiences, Musicae Scientiae 15(2), 159–173 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 29.119
    J.K. Vuoskoski, T. Eerola: The role of mood and personality in the perception of emotions represented by music, Cortex 47(9), 1099–1106 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 29.120
    P. Juslin, S. Liljeström, D. Västfjäll, G. Barradas, A. Silva: An experience sampling study of emotional reactions to music: Listener, music, and situation, Emotion 8(5), 668–683 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 29.121
    W.M. Randall, N.S. Rickard: Development and trial of a mobile experience sampling method (m-eSM) for personal music listening, Music Percept. 31(2), 157–170 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 29.122
    H. Egermann, M.E. Sutherland, O. Grewe, F. Nagel, R. Kopiez, E. Altenmüller: Does music listening in a social context alter experience? A physiological and psychological perspective on emotion, Musicae Scientiae 15(3), 307–323 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 29.123
    H. Egermann, R. Kopiez, E. Altenmüller: The influence of social normative and informational feedback on musically induced emotions in an online music listening setting, Psychomusicol. Music Mind Brain 23(1), 21–32 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 29.124
    M.R. Zentner, T. Eerola: Self-report measures and models. In: Handbook of Music and Emotion: Theory, Research, Applications, ed. by P.N. Juslin, J.A. Sloboda (Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford 2010) pp. 187–221Google Scholar
  125. 29.125
    H.-R. Peltola, T. Eerola: Fifty shades of blue: Classification of music-evoked sadness, Musicae Scientiae 20(1), 84–102 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 29.126
    L.-O. Lundqvist, F. Carlsson, P. Hilmersson, P.N. Juslin: Emotional responses to music: Experience, expression, and physiology, Psychol. Music 37(1), 61–90 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 29.127
    C.V.O. Witvliet, S.R. Vrana: Play it again Sam: Repeated exposure to emotionally evocative music polarises liking and smiling responses, and influences other affective reports, facial EMG, and heart rate, Cogn. Emot. 21(1), 1–23 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 29.128
    D. Hodges: Psychophysiological measures. In: Handbook of Music and Emotion: Theory, Research, Applications, ed. by P.N. Juslin, J.A. Sloboda (Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford 2010) pp. 279–312Google Scholar
  129. 29.129
    O. Grewe, F. Nagel, R. Kopiez, E. Altenmuller: Listening to music as a re-creative process: Physiological, psychological, and psychoacoustical correlates of chills and strong emotions, Music Percept. 24(3), 297–314 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 29.130
    A.J. Blood, R.J. Zatorre: Intensely pleasurable responses to music correlate with activity in brain regions implicated in reward and emotion, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 98(20), 11818–11823 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 29.131
    U.M. Nater, E. Abbruzzese, M. Krebs, U. Ehlert: Sex differences in emotional and psychophysiological responses to musical stimuli, Int. J. Psychophysiol. 62(2), 300–308 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 29.132
    S. Koelsch, T. Fritz, D.Y. v. Cramon, K. Müller, A.D. Friederici: Investigating emotion with music: An fMRI study, Hum. Brain Mapp. 27(3), 239–250 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 29.133
    E. Altenmüller, K. Schuermann, V.K. Lim, D. Parlitz: Hits to the left, flops to the right: Different emotions during listening to music are reflected in cortical lateralisation patterns, Neuropsychologia 40(13), 2242–2256 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 29.134
    L.A. Schmidt, L.J. Trainor: Frontal brain electrical activity (EEG) distinguishes valence and intensity of musical emotions, Cogn. Emot. 15(4), 487–500 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 29.135
    E. Flores-Gutiérrez, J. Díaz, F. Barrios, R. Favila-Humara, M. Guevara, Y. del Río-Portilla, M. Corsi-Cabrera: Metabolic and electric brain patterns during pleasant and unpleasant emotions induced by music masterpieces, Int. J. Psychophysiol. 65(1), 69–84 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 29.136
    T. Colibazzi, J. Posner, Z. Wang, D. Gorman, A. Gerber, S. Yu, B.S. Peterson: Neural systems subserving valence and arousal during the experience of induced emotions, Emotion 10, 377–389 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 29.137
    T. Ball, B. Rahm, S.B. Eickhoff, A. Schulze-Bonhage, O. Speck, I. Mutschler: Response properties of human amygdala subregions: evidence based on functional MRI combined with probabilistic anatomical maps, PLoS One 2(3), e307 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 29.138
    V. Menon, D. Levitin: The rewards of music listening: Response and physiological connectivity of the mesolimbic system, Neuroimage 28(1), 175–184 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 29.139
    V.N. Salimpoor, M. Benovoy, K. Larcher, A. Dagher, R.J. Zatorre: Anatomically distinct dopamine release during anticipation and experience of peak emotion to music, Nature Neurosci. 14(2), 257–262 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 29.140
    M.T. Mitterschiffthaler, H.Y. Cynthia, C.H.Y. Fu, J.A. Dalton, C.M. Andrew, S.C.R. Williams: A functional MRI study of happy and sad affective states induced by classical music, Human Brain Mapp. 28, 1150–1162 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 29.141
    L. Nadel: Hippocampus and context revisited. In: Hippocampal Place Fields: Relevance to Learning and Memory, ed. by S. Mizumori (Oxford Univ. Press, New York 2008) pp. 3–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 29.142
    S. Koelsch, A. Remppis, D. Sammler, S. Jentschke, D. Mietchen, T. Fritz, H. Bonnemeier, W.A. Siebel: A cardiac signature of emotionality, Eur. J. Neurosci. 26(11), 3328–3338 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 29.143
    N. Gosselin, I. Peretz, E. Johnsen, R. Adolphs: Amygdala damage impairs emotion recognition from music, Neuropsychologia 45, 236–244 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 29.144
    D. Sammler, M. Grigutsch, T. Fritz, S. Koelsch: Music and emotion: Electrophysiological correlates of the processing of pleasant and unpleasant music, Psychophysiology 44(2), 293–304 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 29.145
    I. Daly, A. Malik, F. Hwang, E. Roesch, J. Weaver, A. Kirke, D. Williams, E. Miranda, S.J. Nasuto: Neural correlates of emotional responses to music: an EEG study, Neurosci. Lett. 573, 52–57 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 29.146
    B. Schuller, J. Dorfner, G. Rigoll: Determination of nonprototypical valence and arousal in popular music: Features and performances, EURASIP J. Audio Speech Music Process. 2010(5), 735854 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 29.147
    D.R. Turnbull, L. Barrington, G. Lanckriet, M. Yazdani: Combining audio content and social context for semantic music discovery. In: Proc. 32nd Int. ACM SIGIR Conf. Res. Dev. Inf. Retr. (2009) pp. 387–394Google Scholar
  148. 29.148
    Y.E. Kim, E. Schmidt, L. Emelle: Moodswings: A collaborative game for music mood label collection. In: Proc. Int. Symp. Music Inf. Retr (2008) pp. 231–236Google Scholar
  149. 29.149
    E.L. Law, L. Von Ahn, R.B. Dannenberg, M. Crawford: TagATune: A game for music and sound annotation. In: Int. Conf Music Inf. Retr. (iSMIR’07), Vol. 3 (2007) pp. 361–364Google Scholar
  150. 29.150
    L. Barrington, D. Turnbull, G. Lanckriet: Game-powered machine learning, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 109(17), 6411–6416 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 29.151
    P. Saari, T. Eerola: Semantic computing of moods based on tags in social media of music. In: IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng (2013),  https://doi.org/10.1109/TKDE.2013.128 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 29.152
    S. Koelsch: Music and emotion. In: The Cambridge Handbook of Human Affective Neuroscience, ed. by J. Armony, P. Vuilleumier (Cambridge Univ. Press, New York 2013) pp. 286–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 29.153
    R. Bresin, A. Friberg: Emotion rendering in music: Range and characteristic values of seven musical variables, Cortex 47(9), 1068–1081 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 29.154
    T. Eerola, A. Friberg, R. Bresin: Emotional expression in music: contribution, linearity, and additivity of primary musical cues, Front. Psychol. 4(487), 1–12 (2013),  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00487 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 29.155
    P.N. Juslin, G. Barradas, T. Eerola: From sound to significance: Exploring the mechanisms underlying emotional reactions to music, Am. J. Psychol. 128(3), 281–304 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 29.156
    E. Schubert: Measuring emotion continuously: Validity and reliability of the two-dimensional emotion-space, Aust. J. Psychol. 51(3), 154–165 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 29.157
    E. Schubert: Modeling perceived emotion with continuous musical features, Music Percept. 21(4), 561–585 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 29.158
    J.A. Sloboda, A.C. Lehmann: Tracking performance correlates of changes in perceived intensity of emotion during different interpretations of a Chopin piano prelude, Music Percept. 19(1), 87–120 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 29.159
    V. Alluri, P. Toiviainen, I.P. Jääskeläinen, E. Glerean, M. Sams, E. Brattico: Large-scale brain networks emerge from dynamic processing of musical timbre, key and rhythm, NeuroImage 59(4), 3677–3689 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dept. of MusicDurham UniversityDurhamUK

Personalised recommendations