Advertisement

Dopplerechokardiographie bei fetalen Arrhythmien

  • U. Gembruch
Chapter

Zusammenfassung

Neben der M-Mode-Echokardiographie sind Dopplerechokardiographie und farbkodierte M-Mode-Dopplerechokardiographie aufgrund ihrer hohen zeitlichen Auflösung die wichtigsten Techniken zur Diagnostik und Differenzialdiagnostik fetaler Arrhythmien. In diesem Kapitel werden die fetalen Arrhythmien differenziert dargestellt. Die Besonderheiten dopplerechokardiographischer Befunde werden im Zusammenhang mit der Diagnostik von Extrasystolie, Bradyarrhythmien (Sinusbradykardie, AV-Blockierung) und Tachyarrhythmien (Sinustachykardie, ventrikuläre Tachykardie, Vorhofflattern, supraventrikuläre Tachykardie als „Conduction-System-Tachycardia“) erläutert.

Literatur

  1. Allan LD, Anderson RH, Sullivan I, Campbell S, Holt D, Tynan M (1983) Evaluation of fetal arrhythmias by echocardiography. Br Heart J 50: 240‒245PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Allan LD (1986) Manual of fetal echocardiography. MTP Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  3. Anandakumar C, Biswas A, Chew SSL, Chia D, Wong YC, Ratnam SS (1996) Direct fetal therapy for hydrops secondary to congenital atrioventricular heart block. Obstet Gynecol 87: 835‒837PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bar-Cohen Y, Loeb GE, Pruetz JD, Silka MJ, Guerra C, Vest AN, Zhou L, Chmait RH (2015) Preclinical testing and optimization of a novel fetal micropacemaker. Heart Rhythm 12: 1683‒1690PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Baschat AA, Gembruch U, Knöpfle G, Hansmann M (1999) First-trimester fetal heart block: a marker for cardiac anomaly. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 14: 311‒314PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Beall MH, Paul RH (1986) Artifacts, blocks, and arrhythmias; confusing nonclassical heart rate tracings. Clin Obstet Gynecol 29: 83‒94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Beinder E, Grancay T, Menendez T, Singer H, Hofbeck M (2001) Fetal sinus bradycardia and the long QT syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol 185: 743‒747PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Berg C, Geipel A, Smrcek J, Krapp M, Germer U, Kohl T, Gembruch U, Baschat AA (2003) Prenatal diagnosis of cardiosplenic syndromes: a 10-year experience. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 22: 451‒459PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Berg C, Geipel A, Kohl T, Breuer J, Germer U, Krapp M, Baschat AA, Hansmann M, Gembruch U (2005a) Atrioventricular block detected in fetal life: associated anomalies and potential prognostic markers. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 26: 4‒15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Berg C, Geipel A, Kamil D, Knüppel M, Breuer J, Krapp M, Baschat A, Germer U, Hansmann M, Gembruch U (2005b) The syndrome of left isomerism: sonographic findings and outcomes in prenatally diagnosed cases. J Ultrasound Med 24: 921‒931PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Berg C, Gottschalk I, Geipel A, Gembruch U (2013a) Diagnosis and therapy of fetal arrhythmias 1 - Methods of rhythm diagnosis, extrasystole and bradyarrhythias. Ultraschall Med 34: 114‒127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Berg C, Gottschalk I, Gembruch U, Geipel A (2013b) Diagnosis and therapy of fetal arrhythmia part 2 - Fetal tachyarrhythmias and their intrauterine treatment. Ultraschall Med 34: 322‒331PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bergman G, Eliasson H, Mohlkert LA, Wahren-Herlenius M, Sonesson SE (2012) Progression to first-degree heart block in preschool children exposed in utero to maternal anti-SSA/Ro52 autoantibodies. Acta Paediatr 101: 488‒493PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Breur JM, Visser GH, Kruize AA, Stoutenbeek P, Meijboom EJ (2004) Treatment of fetal heart block with maternal steroid therapy: case report and review of the literature. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 24: 467‒472Google Scholar
  15. Brucato A, Doria A, Frassi M, Castellino G, Franceschini F, Faden D, Pisoni MP et al. (2002) Pregnancy outcome in 100 women with autoimmune diseases and anti-Ro/SSA antibodies: a prospective controlled study. Lupus 11: 716‒721PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Buyon JP, Hiebert R, Copel J, Craft J, Friedman D, Katholi M, Lee LA et al. (1998) Autoimmune-associated congenital heart block: demographics, mortality, morbidity and recurrence rates obtained from a national neonatal lupus registry. J Am Coll Cardiol 31: 1658‒1666PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Cameron A, Nicholson S, Nimrod C, Harder J, Davies D, Fritzler M (1988) Evaluation of fetal cardiac dysrhythmias with two-dimensional, M-Mode, and pulsed Doppler ultrasonography. Am J Obstet Gynecol 158: 286‒290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Carpenter RJ Jr, Strasburger JF, Garson A, Smith RT, Deter RL, Engelhardt HT (1986) Fetal ventricular pacing for hydrops secondary to complete atrioventricular block. J Am Coll Cardiol 8: 1434‒1436PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Chan FY, Woo SK, Ghosh A, Tang M, Lam C (1990) Prenatal diagnosis of congenital fetal arrhythmias by simultaneous pulsed Doppler velocimetry of the fetal abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava. Obstet Gynecol 76: 200‒204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Chaoui R, Bollmann R, Hoffmann H, Göldner B (1991) Fetale Echokardiographie. Teil III: Die fetalen Arrhythmien. Zentralbl Gynaekol 113: 1335‒1350Google Scholar
  21. Clancy RM, Buyon JP (2004) Autoimmune-associated congenital heart block: dissecting the cascade from immunologic insult to relentless fibrosis. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol 280: 1027‒1035PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Clancy RM, Neufing PJ, Zheng P, O’Mahony M, Nimmerjahn F, Gordon TP, Buyon JP (2006) Impaired clearance of apoptotic cardiocytes is linked to anti-SSA/Ro and -SSB/La antibodies in the pathogenesis of congenital heart block. J Clin Invest 116: 2413‒2422PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Copel JA, Buyon JP, Kleinman CS (1995) Successful in utero therapy of fetal heart block. Am J Obstet Gynecol 173: 1384‒1390PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Cuneo BF, Strasburger JF, Wakai RT, Ovadia M (2006) Conduction system disease in fetuses evaluated for irregular cardiac rhythm. Fetal Diagn Ther 21: 307‒313PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Damiano RJ, Tripp HF, Asano T, Small KW, Jones RH, Lowe JE (1987) Left ventricular dysfunction and dilatation resulting from chronic supraventricular tachycardia. J Thorac Cardiovas Surg 94: 135‒143Google Scholar
  26. Eliasson H, Sonesson SE, Sharland G, Granath F, Simpson JM, Carvalho JS, Jicinska H, Tomek V, Dangel J, Zielinsky P, Respondek-Liberska M, Freund MW, Mellander M, Bartrons J, Gardiner HM; Fetal Working Group of the European Association of Pediatric Cardiology (2011) Isolated atrioventricular block in the fetus: a retrospective, multinational, multicenter study of 175 patients. Circulation 124: 1919‒1926PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Eronen M, Sirèn MK, Ekblad H, Tikanoja T, Julkunen H, Paavilainen T (2000) Short- and long-term outcome of children with congenital complete heart block diagnosed in utero or as a newborn. Pediatrics 106: 86‒91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Friedman DM, Kim MY, Copel JA, Llanos C, Davis C, Buyon JP (2009) Prospective evaluation of fetuses with autoimmune-associated congenital heart block followed in the PR Interval and Dexamethasone Evaluation (PRIDE) Study. Am J Cardiol 103(8): 1102–6PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Friedman DM, Llanos C, Izmirly PM, Brock B, Byron J, Copel J, Cummiskey K, Dooley MA, Foley J, Graves C, Hendershott C, Kates R, Komissarova EV, Miller M, Paré E, Phoon CK, Prosen T, Reisner D, Ruderman E, Samuels P, Yu JK, Kim MY, Buyon JP (2010) Evaluation of fetuses in a study of intravenous immunoglobulin as preventive therapy for congenital heart block: Results of a multicenter, prospective, open-label clinical trial. Arthritis Rheum 62: 1138‒1146PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Fouron JC (2004) Fetal arrhythmias: the Saint-Justine hospital experience. Prenat Diagn 24: 1068‒1080PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Fouron JC, Fournier A, Proulx F, Lamarche J, Bigras JL, Boutin C, Brassard M, Gamache S (2003) Management of fetal tachyarrhythmia based on superior vena cava/aorta Doppler flow recordings. Heart 89: 1211‒1216PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Ganz LI, Friedman PL (1995) Supraventricular tachycardia. N Engl J Med 332: 162‒173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Gembruch U (2009) Fetal tachyarrhythmia. In: Yagel S, Silverman N, Gembruch U (eds) Fetal cardiology 2nd ed., Informa Health Care, New York, pp 461‒481Google Scholar
  34. Gembruch U, Bald R, Hansmann M (1990) Die farbcodierte M-Mode-Doppler-Echokardiographie bei der Diagnostik fetaler Arrhythmien. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd 50: 286‒290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Gembruch U, Hansmann M, Redel DA, Bald R, Knöpfle G (1989a) Fetal complete heart block: Antenatal diagnosis, significance and management. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 31: 9‒22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Gembruch U, Holzgreve W (2003) Cardiac diseases in association with hydrops fetalis. In: Yagel S, Silverman N, Gembruch U (eds) Fetal cardiology. Martin Dunitz, London, pp 373‒401Google Scholar
  37. Gembruch U, Knöpfle G, Bald R, Hansmann M (1993a) Early diagnosis of fetal congenital heart disease by transvaginal echocardiography. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 3: 310‒317PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Gembruch U, Krapp M, Baumann P (1995) Changes of venous blood flow velocity waveforms in fetuses with supraventricular tachycardia. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 5: 394‒399PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Gembruch U, Krapp M, Germer U, Baumann P (1999) Venous Doppler in the sonographic surveillance of fetuses with supraventricular tachycardia. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 84: 187‒192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Gembruch U, Manz M, Bald R, Rüddel H, Redel DA, Schlebusch H, Nitsch J, Hansmann M (1989b) Repeated intravascular treatment with amiodarone in a fetus with refractory supraventricular tachycardia and hydrops fetalis. Am Heart J 118: 1335‒1338PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Gembruch U, Redel DA, Bald R, Hansmann M (1993b) Longitudinal study in 18 cases of fetal supraventricular tachycardia: Doppler-echocardiographic findings and pathophysiological implications. Am Heart J 1993: 1290‒1301Google Scholar
  42. Gembruch U, Somville T (1995) Intrauterine Diagnostik und Therapie fetaler Arrhythmien. Gynäkologe 28: 329‒345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Gest AL, Bair DK, Vander Straten MC (1993) Thoracic duct lymph flow in fetal sheep with increased venous pressure from electrically induced tachycardia. Biol Neonate 64: 325‒330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Gest AL, Martin CG, Moise AA, Hansen TN (1990) Reversal of venous blood flow with atrial tachycardia and hydrops in fetal sheep. Pediatr Res 28: 223‒226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Groves AMM, Allan LD, Rosenthal E (1995) Therapeutic trial of sympathomimetics in three cases of complete heart block in the fetus. Circulation 92: 3394‒3396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Hansmann M, Gembruch U, Bald R, Manz M, Redel DA (1991) Fetal tachyarrhythmias: transplacental and direct treatment of the fetus — a report of sixty fetuses. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1: 162‒170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Harris JP, Alexson CG, Manning JA, Thompson HO (1993) Medical therapy for the hydropic fetus with congenital complete atrioventricular block. Am J Perinatol 10: 217‒219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Ho SY, Esscher E, Anderson RH, Michaelsson M (1986) Anatomy of congenital complete heart block and relation to maternal anti-Ro-antibodies. Am J Cardiol 58: 291‒294PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Ho SY, Fagg N, Anderson RH, Cook A, Allan LD (1992) Disposition of the atrioventricular conduction tissues in the heart with isomerism of the atrial appendages: its relation to congenital complete heart block. J Am Coll Cardiol 20: 904‒910PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Hofbeck M, Ulmer H, Beinder E, Sieber E, Singer H (1997) Prenatal findings in patients with prolonged QT interval in the neonatal period. Heart 77: 198‒204PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Hosono T, Kawamata K, Chiba Y, Kandori A, Tsukada K (2002) Prenatal diagnosis of long QT syndrome using magnetocardiography: a case reprot and review of the literature. Prenat Diagn 22: 198‒200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Hutter D, Silverman ED, Jaeggi ET (2010) The benefits of transplacental treatment of isolated congenital complete heart block associated with maternal anti-Ro/SSA antibodies: a review. Scand J Immunol 72: 235‒241PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Izmirly PM, Costedoat-Chalumeau N, Pisoni CN, Khamashta MA, Kim MY, Saxena A, Friedman D, Llanos C, Piette JC, Buyon JP (2012) Maternal use of hydroxychloroquine is associated with a reduced risk of recurrent anti-SSA/Ro-antibody-associated cardiac manifestations of neonatal lupus. Circulation 126: 76–82PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. Izmirly PM, Saxena A, Sahl SK, Shah U, Friedman DM, Kim MY, Buyon JP (2016) Assessment of fluorinated steroids to avert progression and mortality in anti-SSA/Ro-associated cardiac injury limited to the fetal conduction system. Ann Rheum Dis 75: 1161‒1165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Jaeggi ET, Fouron JC, Fournier A, van Doesburg N, Drblik SP, Proulx F (1998) Ventriculo-atrial time interval measured on M mode echocardiography: a determing element in diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of fetal supraventricular tachycardia. Heart 79: 582‒587PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Jaeggi ET, Fouron JC, Silverman ED, Ryan G, Smallhorn J, Hornberger LK (2004) Transplacental fetal treatment improves the outcome of prenatallly diagnosed complete atrioventricular block without structural heart disease. Circulation 110: 1542‒1548PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Jaeggi ET, Hornberger LK, Smallhorn JF, Fouron JC (2005) Prenatal diagnosis of complete atrioventricular block associated with structural heart disease: combined experience of two tertiary care centers and review of the literature. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 26: 16‒21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Jaeggi ET, Silverman ED, Laskin C, Kingdom J, Golding F, Weber R (2011a) Prolongation of the atrioventricular conduction in fetuses exposed to maternal anti-Ro/SSA and anti-La/SSB antibodies did not predict progressive heart block. A prospective observational study on the effects of maternal antibodies on 165 fetuses. J Am Coll Cardiol 29;57: 1487–92Google Scholar
  59. Jaeggi ET, Carvalho JS, De Groot E, Api O, Clur SA, Rammeloo L, McCrindle BW, Ryan G, Manlhiot C, Blom NA (2011b) Comparison of transplacental treatment of fetal supraventricular tachyarrhythmias with digoxin, flecainide, and sotalol: results of a nonrandomized multicenter study. Circulation 124: 1747‒1754PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Jouannic JM, Delahaye S, Fermont L, Le Bidois J, Villain E, Dumez Y, Dommergues M (2003) Fetal supraventricular tachycardia: a role for amiodarone as second-line therapy. Prenat Diagn 23: 152‒156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Kähler C, Grimm B, Schleussner E, Schneider A, Schneider U, Nowak H, Vogt L, Seewald HJ (2001) The application of fetal magnetocardiography (FMCG) to investigate fetal arrhythmias and congenital heart defects (CHD). Prenat Diagn 21: 176‒182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Kanzaki T, Murakami M, Kobayashi H, Chiba Y (1991) Characteristic abnormal blood flow pattern of the inferior vena cava in fetal arrhythmias. J Matern Fetal Invest 1: 35‒39Google Scholar
  63. Kleinman CS, Copel JA (1991) Electrophysiological principles and fetal antiarrhythmic therapy. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1: 286‒297PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Kleinman CS, Copel JA (1993) Fetal cardiac dysrhythmias: diagnosis and treatment. In: Chervenak FA, Isaacson GC, Campbell S (eds) Ultrasound in obstetrics and gynecology. Little & Brown, Boston, pp 939‒951Google Scholar
  65. Kleinman CS, Copel JA, Weinstein EM, Santulli TV, Hobbins JC (1985) In utero diagnosis and treatment of fetal supraventricular tachycardia. Semin Perinatol 9: 113‒129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Ko JK, Deal BJ, Strasburger JF, Benson DW, Donovan M (1992) Supraventricular tachycardia mechanisms and their age distribution in pediatric patients. Am J Cardiol 69: 1028‒1031PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Kohl T (2003) Saving the smallest hearts – cardiac intervention for structural heart disease and arrhythmias in the fetus. In: Yagel S, Silverman N, Gembruch U (eds) Fetal cardiology. Martin Dunitz, London, pp 497‒517Google Scholar
  68. Kothari DS, Skinner JR (2006) Neonatal tachycardias: an update. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonanatl Ed 91: 136‒144Google Scholar
  69. Krapp M, Baschat AA, Gembruch U, Geipel A, Germer U (2002) Flecainide in the intrauterine treatment of fetal suparventricular tachycardia. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 19: 158‒164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Krapp M, Gembruch U, Baumann P (1997) Venous blood flow pattern suggesting tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy in the fetus. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 10: 32‒40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Krapp M, Kohl T, Simpson JM, Sharland G, Katalinic A, Gembruch U (2003) Review of diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of fetal atrial flutter compared with supraventricular tachycardia. Heart 89: 913‒917PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. Litsey SE, Noonan JA, O’Connor WN, Cottrill CM, Mitchell B (1985) Maternal connective tissue disease and congenital heart block. N Engl J Med 312: 90‒100Google Scholar
  73. Machado MVL, Tynan MJ, Curry PVL, Allan LD (1988) Fetal complete heart block. Br Heart J 60: 512‒515PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Maxwell DJ, Crawford DC, Curry PVM, Tynan MJ, Allan LD (1988) Obstetric importance, diagnosis, and management of fetal tachycardias. Br Med J 297: 107‒110Google Scholar
  75. Michaelsson M, Engle MA (1972) Congenital complete heart block: an international study of the natural history. Cardiovasc Clin 4: 85‒101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Mitchell JL, Cuneo BF, Etheridge SP, Horigome H, Weng HY, Benson DW (2012) Fetal heart rate predictors of long QT syndrome. Circulation 126: 2688‒2695PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Naheed ZJ, Strasburger JF, Deal BJ, Benson DW Jr, Gidding SS (1996) Fetal tachycardia: mechanisms and predictors of hydrops fetalis. J Am Coll Cardiol 27: 1736‒1740PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Nimrod C, Davies D, Harder J et al. (1987) Ultrasound evaluation of tachycardia-induced hydrops in the fetal lamb. Am J Obstet Gynecol 157: 655‒699PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Olàh KS, Gee H (1991) Fetal heart block associated with maternal anti-Ro (SS-A) antibody – current management. A review. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 98: 751‒755PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Packer DL, Bardy GH, Worley SJ et al (1986) Tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy: a reversible form of left ventricular dysfunction. Am J Cardiol 57: 563‒570PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Pisoni CN1, Brucato A, Ruffatti A, Espinosa G, Cervera R, Belmonte-Serrano M, Sánchez-Román J, García-Hernández FG, Tincani A, Bertero MT, Doria A, Hughes GR, Khamashta MA (2010) Failure of intravenous immunoglobulin to prevent congenital heart block: Findings of a multicenter, prospective, observational study. Arthritis Rheum 62: 1147‒1152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Reed KL (1989) Fetal arrhythmias: etiology, diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment. Semin Perinatol 13: 294‒304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Reed KL, Sahn D, Marx GR, Anderson C, Shenker L (1987) Cardiac doppler flows during fetal arrhythmias: physiologic consequences. Obstet Gynecol 70: 1‒6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Rein AJJT, O’Donnell C, Geva T, Nir A, Perles Z, Hashimoto I, Li XK, Sahn DJ (2002) Use of tissue velocity imaging in the diagnosis of fetal cardiac arrhythmias. Circulation 106: 1827‒1833PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Rice M, McDonald R, Reller M (1988) Fetal atrial septal aneurysm: a cause of fetal atrial arrhythmias. J Am Coll Cardiol 12: 1292‒1297PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Schmidt KG, Ulmer HE, Silverman NH, Kleinman CS, Copel JA (1991) Perinatal outcome of fetal complete heart block: a multicenter experience. J Am Coll Cardiol 91: 1360‒1366Google Scholar
  87. Schneider U, Haueisen J, Loeff M, Bondarenko N, Schleussner E (2005) Prenatal diagnosis of a long QT syndrome by fetal magnetocardiography in an unshielded bedside environment. Prenat Diagn 25: 704‒708PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Scott J, Maddison P, Taylor P, Essscher E, Scott O, Scinner R (1983) Connective tissue antibodies to ribonucleoprotein and congenital heart block. N Engl J Med 309: 209‒212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Simpson JM (2006) Fetal arrhythmias (Editorial). Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 27: 599‒606PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Simpson JM, Sharland GK (1998) Fetal tachycardias: management and outcome of 127 consecutive cases. Heart 79: 567‒581Google Scholar
  91. Simpson J, Silverman N (2003) Diagnosis of cardiac arrhythmias during fetal life. In: Yagel S, Silverman N, Gembruch U (eds) Fetal cardiology. Martin Dunitz, London, pp 333‒344Google Scholar
  92. Spinale FG, Tanaka R, Crawford FA, Zile MR (1992) Changes in myocardial blood flow during development of and recovery from tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy. Circulation 85: 717‒729PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Sirèn MK, Julkunen H, Kaaja R (1998) The increasing incidence of isolated congenital heart block in Finland. J Rheumatol 25: 1862‒1864PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Solomon DG, Rupel A, Buyon JP (2003) Birth order and recurrence rate in autoantibody-associated congenital heart block: implications for pathogenesis and familiy counseling. Lupus 12: 646‒647PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Sonesson SE, Salomonsson S, Jacobsson LA, Bremme K, Wahren-Herlenius M (2004) Signs of first-degree heart block occur in one-third of fetuses of pregnant women with anti-SSA/Ro 52-kd antibodies. Arthritis Rheum 50: 1253‒1261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Stevens DC, Hilliard JK, Schreiner RL et al (1982) Supraventricular tachycardia with edema, ascites, and hydrops in fetal sheep. Am J Obstet Gynecol 142: 316‒322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Stewart PA, Tonge HM, Wladimiroff JW (1983) Arrhythmia and structural abnormalities of the fetal heart. Br Heart J 50: 550‒554PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. Stewart PA, Wladimiroff J (1988) Fetal atrial arrhythmias associated with redundancy/aneurysm of the foramen ovale. J Clin Ultrasound 16: 643‒650PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Stinstra J, Goldbach E, van Leeuwen P, Lange S, Menendez T, Moshage W et al. (2002) Multicentre study of fetal cardiac time intervals using magnetocardiography. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 109: 1235‒1243Google Scholar
  100. Strasburger JF, Cuneo BF, Michon MM, Gotteiner NL, Deal BJ, McGregor SN et al. (2004) Amiodarone therapy for drug-refractory fetal tachycardia. Circulation 109: 375‒379PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Strasburger JF, Huhta JC, Carpenter RJ, Garson A, McNamara DG (1986) Doppler echocardiography in the diagnosis and management of persistent fetal arrhythmias. J Am Coll Cardiol 7: 1386‒1391PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Strizek B, Berg C, Gottschalk I, Herberg U, Geipel A, Gembruch U (2016) High-dose flecainide is the most effective treatment of fetal supraventricular tachycardia. Heart Rhythm 13: 1283‒1288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Taylor PV, Taylor KF, Norman A, Griffiths S, Scott JS (1988) Prevalence of maternal Ro (SS-A) and La (SS-B) autoantibodies in relation to congenital heart block. Br J Rheumatol 27: 128‒132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Van der Mooren K, Wladimiroff JW, Stijen T (1992) Fetal atrioventricular and outflow tract flow velocity waveforms during conducted and blocked supraventricular extrasystoles. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2: 182‒189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Vesel S, Mazić U, Blejec T, Podnar T (2004) First-degree heart block in the fetus of an anti-SSA/Ro-positive mother. Arthritis Rheum 50: 2223‒2226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Watson RM, Lane AT, Barnett NK, Bias WB, Arnett FC, Provost TT (1984) Neonatal lupus erythematosus: a clinical, serological and immunogenetic study with review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore) 63: 362‒378Google Scholar
  107. Wakai RT, Strasburger JF, Li Z, Deal BJ, Gotteiner NL (2003) Magnetocardiographic rhythm patterns at initiation and termination of fetal supraventricular tachycardia. Circulation 107: 307‒312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Wacker-Gussmann A, Strasburger JF, Cuneo BF, Wakai RT (2014) Diagnosis and treatment of fetal arrhythmia. Am J Perinatol 31: 617‒628PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  109. Willruth A, Steinhard J, Enzensberger C, Axt-Fliedner R, Gembruch U, Doelle A, Gorissen W, Fimmers R, Bahlmann F (2016) Fetal colour tissue Doppler imaging (cTDI): biventricular reference ranges for the time segments of the cardiac cycle in second and third trimesters of gestation. Arch Gynecol Obstet 294: 917‒924PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Zhao H, Strasburger JF, Cuneo BF, Wakai RT (2006) Fetal cardiac repolarization abnormalities. Am J Cardiol 98: 491‒496PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Deutschland 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • U. Gembruch
    • 1
  1. 1.Geburtshilfe u. PränatalmedizinUniversitätsklinikum BonnBonnDeutschland

Personalised recommendations