Lignin-Based Phenol–Formaldehyde (LPF) Resins/Adhesives

  • Chunbao XuEmail author
  • Fatemeh Ferdosian
Part of the Green Chemistry and Sustainable Technology book series (GCST)


This chapter presents a comprehensive overview on the synthesis of lignin-based phenol–formaldehyde (LPF) resin and its characteristics for using it as wood adhesives. Lignin has a phenolic structure with high hydrophobicity that makes it as a promising bioreplacement of phenol in the synthesis of PF resins. However, lignin has low reactivity toward formaldehyde compared with phenol due to its high molecular weight and steric hindering. To improve the reactivity of lignin, various chemical modifications such as methylolation, demethylation, phenolation, sulphonation, hydrolytic depolymerization, and reductive depolymerization were conducted on lignin before incorporation in the synthesis of lignin-based phenol–formaldehyde resins. Effects of some factors including the type of lignin, substitution ratio, and reaction conditions on the performance of the obtained LPF resins were discussed in detail.


Lignin-based phenol–formaldehyde (LPF) resins Reactivity of lignin Chemical modifications Methylolation Demethylation Phenolation Sulphonation Hydrolytic depolymerization Reductive depolymerization 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical and Biochemical EngineeringUniversity of Western OntarioLondonCanada

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