Skip to main content

Surgery for Duodenal and Gastric Neuroendocrine Tumors

  • 836 Accesses

Part of the Springer Surgery Atlas Series book series (SPRISURGERY)


Duodenal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) (also called carcinoid tumors) are rare, with an incidence in the population of approximately 1 per million. They may be found incidentally on endoscopy as a mass in the submucosa at endoscopy (Fig. 14.1), or they can produce hormones that cause clinical syndromes. These tumors can make somatostatin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), or more commonly, gastrin. When they make gastrin, it is called the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES). Duodenal NETs may be either benign or malignant, but even when malignant, they have a low malignant potential. In general, they have an excellent prognosis.


  • Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome
  • ZES
  • Neuroendocrine tumor
  • Carcinoid tumor
  • Gastrin

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-662-54067-1_14
  • Chapter length: 12 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
USD   149.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-662-54067-1
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   199.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   279.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Figure 14.1
Figure 14.2
Figure 14.3
Figure 14.4
Figure 14.5
Figure 14.6
Figure 14.7

Suggested Reading

  1. Hoffmann KM, Furukawa M, Jensen RT. Duodenal neuroendocrine tumors: classification, functional syndromes, diagnosis and medical treatment. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2005;19:675–97.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Knigge U, Hansen CP. Surgery for GEP-NETs. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2012;26:819–31.

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Norton JA, Fraker DL, Alexander HR, Jensen RT. Value of surgery in patients with negative imaging and sporadic Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Ann Surg. 2012;256:509–17.

    CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  4. Norton JA, Melcher ML, Gibril F, Jensen RT. Gastric carcinoid tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia-1 patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome can be symptomatic, demonstrate aggressive growth, and require surgical treatment. Surgery. 2004;136:1267–74.

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. O’Toole D, Delle Fave G, Jensen RT. Gastric and duodenal neuroendocrine tumors. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2012;26:719–35.

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Scherübl H, Jensen RT, Cadiot G, Stölzel U, Klöppel G. Management of early gastrointestinal neuroendocrine neoplasms. World J Gastrointest Endosc. 2011;7:133–9.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jeffrey A. Norton .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2017 Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Norton, J.A. (2017). Surgery for Duodenal and Gastric Neuroendocrine Tumors. In: Howe, J. (eds) Endocrine and Neuroendocrine Surgery. Springer Surgery Atlas Series. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Download citation

  • DOI:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-662-54065-7

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-662-54067-1

  • eBook Packages: MedicineMedicine (R0)