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Individual Licensing of Copyrighted Works

  • Kaya Köklü
Chapter
Part of the MPI Studies on Intellectual Property and Competition Law book series (MSIP, volume 27)

Abstract

Only some years ago right holders were increasingly losing control over their copyrighted works in the online world. But times have changed. Right holders are gaining back control over their works. Technological development allows right holders to individually license their works to users and retain control over the works even in cases of large-scale use in the online world. Individual licensing enables the right holders to individually determine the conditions of access to the copyrighted work as well as the scope of permitted use. Individual licensing and pricing are often much more lucrative to right holders than any collective remuneration system. Especially in the entertainment sector, users also benefit from the existing competition among right holders and intermediaries, which obviously leads to innovative services and products with more reasonable prices. However, this development is not free of problems. Particularly, limitations and exceptions are increasingly losing their relevance in the online world, which requires a certain intervention on the international level. In the area of scientific publications, there are major pricing problems. Scientific works are usually not substitutable, as scholars generally do not have an alternative source of equal information available. This obviously causes a lack of competition, which leads to unreasonable pricing models by scientific publishers. The pricing problems could be tackled by introducing an obligation to grant fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory licenses and access conditions which need to be accompanied by efficient price-control mechanisms.

Keywords

Individual licensing Scientific publishing Harmonization Limitations and exceptions Technological protections measures Licensing contracts Price control 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Attorney at lawMunichGermany

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