Proof of Space from Stacked Expanders

Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9985)

Abstract

Recently, proof of space (PoS) has been suggested as a more egalitarian alternative to the traditional hash-based proof of work. In PoS, a prover proves to a verifier that it has dedicated some specified amount of space. A closely related notion is memory-hard functions (MHF), functions that require a lot of memory/space to compute. While making promising progress, existing PoS and MHF have several problems. First, there are large gaps between the desired space-hardness and what can be proven. Second, it has been pointed out that PoS and MHF should require a lot of space not just at some point, but throughout the entire computation/protocol; few proposals considered this issue. Third, the two existing PoS constructions are both based on a class of graphs called superconcentrators, which are either hard to construct or add a logarithmic factor overhead to efficiency. In this paper, we construct PoS from stacked expander graphs. Our constructions are simpler, more efficient and have tighter provable space-hardness than prior works. Our results also apply to a recent MHF called Balloon hash. We show Balloon hash has tighter space-hardness than previously believed and consistent space-hardness throughout its computation.

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Copyright information

© International Association for Cryptologic Research 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA

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