From Indifferentiability to Constructive Cryptography (and Back)
The concept of indifferentiability of systems, a generalized form of indistinguishability, was proposed in 2004 to provide a simplified and generalized explanation of impossibility results like the non-instantiability of random oracles by hash functions due to Canetti, Goldreich, and Halevi (STOC 1998). But indifferentiability is actually a constructive notion, leading to possibility results. For example, Coron et al. (Crypto 2005) argued that the soundness of the construction C(f) of a hash function from a compression function f can be demonstrated by proving that C(R) is indifferentiable from a random oracle if R is an ideal random compression function.
The purpose of this short paper is to describe how the indifferentiability notion was a precursor to the theory of constructive cryptography and thereby to provide a simplified and generalized treatment of indifferentiability as a special type of constructive statement.
We would like to thank the TCC Test-of-Time award committee for selecting our paper for the award of this instantiation of TCC. Very sadly, our coauthor Clemens Holenstein passed away in 2012 and could neither receive the award nor contribute to this paper. Discussions with many people have contributed immensely to shaping our described viewpoint of cryptography. Of particular help were discussions with Joël Alwen, Christian Badertscher, Ran Canetti, Sandro Coretti, Grégory Demay, Yevgeniy Dodis, Peter Gaži, Martin Hirt, Dennis Hofheinz, Daniel Jost, Christian Matt, Christopher Portmann, Phil Rogaway, Gregor Seiler, Björn Tackmann, Stefano Tessaro, Daniel Tschudi, Daniele Venturi, Stefan Wolf, and Vassilis Zikas.
- 4.Bellare, M., Rogaway, P.: Random oracles are practical: a paradigm for designing efficient protocols. In: ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security, pp. 62–73 (1993)Google Scholar
- 5.Canetti, R., Universally composable security: a new paradigm for cryptographic protocols. In: Proceedings of the 42nd IEEE Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, FOCS 2001, pp. 136–145. IEEE Computer Society Press, October 2001. Full version, http://eprint.iacr.org/2000/067
- 6.Canetti, R., Goldreich, O., Halevi, S.: The random oracle methodology, revisited. In: Proceedings of the 30th Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing, STOC 1998, pp. 209–218. ACM (1998)Google Scholar
- 11.Dodis, Y., Reyzin, L., Rivest, R.L., Shen, E.: Indifferentiability of permutation-based compression functions and tree-based modes of operation, with applications to MD6. In: Dunkelman, O. (ed.) FSE 2009. LNCS, vol. 5665, pp. 104–121. Springer, Heidelberg (2009). doi:10.1007/978-3-642-03317-9_7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 17.Maurer, U., Renner, R.: Abstract cryptography. In: Chazelle, B. (ed.) The Second Symposium on Innovations in Computer Science, ICS 2011, pp. 1–21. Tsinghua University Press, January 2011Google Scholar
- 20.Maurer, U., Tackmann, B.: On the soundness of authenticate-then-encrypt: formalizing the malleability of symmetric encryption. In: Proceedings of the 17th ACM Conference on Computer and Communication Security (ACM-CCS), pp. 505–515. ACM, October 2010Google Scholar
- 22.Portmann, C., Matt, C., Maurer, U., Renner, R., Tackmann, B., Boxes, C.: Quantum information-processing systems closed under composition. eprint, arXiv:1512.02240 (2016)