Therapeutic Applications of Electroporation
Transdermal electroporation is an active drug permeation enhancement technique that produces transient aqueous pores in the intercellular lipid matrix of the stratum corneum. The electroporation protocols are efficiently tailored to achieve desired mass transfer into and across the skin, for therapeutic agents ranging from smaller molecules to macromolecules. The potential of transdermal electroporation has been demonstrated through the development of various treatment modalities in several preclinical and clinical studies. The ability of electroporation to administer macromolecules like insulin through the skin could be a potential alternative for subcutaneous injections. Electroporation was also shown to be useful in noninvasive transcutaneous sampling of drugs and diagnostic analytes. The design of electrodes was found to have significant influence on the skin permeabilization and tolerability of electrical protocol. More research needs to be undertaken to optimize the electroporation protocol, and electrode design before transdermal electroporation could be implemented in clinical practice.
KeywordsSkin electroporation Fentanyl Insulin Co-enhancement techniques Microdialysis Noninvasive sampling Needle-type electrodes Intradermal vaccination Electrogene transfer and safety of needle-type electrodes
- Broderick KE, Shen X, Soderholm J, Lin F, McCoy J, Khan AS, Yan J, Morrow MP, Patel A, Kobinger GP, Kemmerrer S, Weiner DB, Sardesai NY (2011) Prototype development and preclinical immunogenicity analysis of a novel minimally invasive electroporation device. Gene Ther 18(3):258–265CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jadoul A, Tanojo H, Preat V, Bouwstra JA, Spies F, Bodde HE (1998) Electroperturbation of human stratum corneum fine structure by high voltage pulses: a freeze-fracture electron microscopy and differential thermal analysis study. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc 3(2):153–158CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Prausnitz MR, Edelman ER, Gimm JA, Langer R, Weaver JC (1995) Transdermal delivery of heparin by skin electroporation. Biotechnology (N Y) 13(11):1205–1209Google Scholar