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Abstract

Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries have been continually developed since their introduction by Sony in 1991. Energy density is one of the key parameters for lithium-ion batteries. It was steadily increased by optimizing battery components such as electrode materials or electrolyte as well as by improving the cell construction technologies. The cell level progress during recent years is shown in Fig. 16.1. Both gravimetric (specific) and volumetric energy density were more than doubled.

The original version of this chapter was revised. The updated online version can be found at https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-53071-9_33

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Fig. 16.1
Fig. 16.2
Fig. 16.3
Fig. 16.4
Fig. 16.5
Fig. 16.6
Fig. 16.7
Fig. 16.8

Change history

  • 03 June 2019

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Notes

  1. 1.

    The theoretical (gravimetric) energy density is the stored chemical energy based on the pure electrode materials’ mass.

  2. 2.

    Initially, the terms “cell” and “battery” had strictly different definitions. An electrochemical cell is the smallest battery unit and consists of anode, cathode, electrolyte, separator, current collector, and housing. As opposed to that, a battery consists of at least two cells connected in series or in parallel. A 12-V lead battery for instance is made of six 2-V cells. Nowadays however, a cell is often called battery also. The electrochemical processes do not differ from cell to battery and this is why the present Chapter does not differentiate between those two terms. Specifying the practical energy densities however calls for a differentiation. All practical energy density values (with the exception of lead batteries) in this Chapter refer to cells.

  3. 3.

    The polysulfide species Sn 2– that form at the cathode during discharging dissolve in the electrolyte there. A concentration gradient versus the anode develops, which causes the polysulfides to diffuse toward the anode. Step by step, the polysulfides are distributed in the electrolyte.

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Janek, J., Adelhelm, P. (2018). Next generation technologies. In: Korthauer, R. (eds) Lithium-Ion Batteries: Basics and Applications. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-53071-9_16

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-53071-9_16

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