Individual Theta/Beta Based Algorithm for Neurofeedback Games to Improve Cognitive Abilities
NeuroFeedback Training (NFT) can be used to enhance cognitive abilities in healthy adults. In this paper, we propose and implement a neurofeedback system which integrates an individual theta/beta based neurofeedback algorithm in a “Shooting” game. The system includes an algorithm of calculation of an Individual Alpha Peak Frequency (IAPF), Individual Alpha Band Width (IABW) and individual theta/beta ratio. Use of the individual theta/beta ratio makes the neurofeeback training more effective. We study the effectiveness of the proposed neurofeedback system with five subjects taking 6 NFT sessions each. As the neurofeedback protocol based on the power of individual theta/beta ratio training is used, each neurofeedback training session includes an IAPF, IABW and individual theta/beta ratio calculation. Subjects play the “Shooting” game to train cognitive abilities. The feedback on the player’s brain state is given by the color of the shooter’s target. If the target turns from “blue” to “red”, the player is in the “desired” brain state and is able to shoot. IAPF and IABW parameters calculated before and after NFT sessions are used for neurofeedback efficiency analysis. Our hypothesis is that after the neurofeedback training by playing the “Shooting” game, the individual alpha peak frequency increases. The results show that all subjects overall have a higher individual alpha peak frequency values right after the training or the next day.
KeywordsEEG Neurofeedback training Neurofeedback game Individual alpha peak frequency Individual alpha band width Theta/beta training
This research was done for Fraunhofer IDM@NTU, which is funded by the National Research Foundation (NRF) and managed through the multi-agency Interactive & Digital Media Programme Office (IDMPO) hosted by the Media Development Authority of Singapore (MDA). The “Shooting” game is original and designed by NTU final year student Qiuyu Xiang using UDK game engine.
- 1.Fernández, T., Harmony, T., Fernández-Bouzas, A., Díaz-Comas, L., Prado-Alcalá, R., Valdés-Sosa, P., Otero, G., Bosch, J., Galán, L., Santiago-Rodríguez, E., Aubert, E., García-Martínez, F.: Changes in EEG current sources induced by neurofeedback in learning disabled children. an exploratory study. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback 32(3−4), 169–183 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 7.Lubar, J.F.: Neurofeedback for the management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders. In: Schwartz, M.S. (ed.) Biofeedback: A Practitioner’s Guide, 2nd edn, pp. 493–522. Guilford Press, New York (1995)Google Scholar
- 10.Liu, Y., Sourina, O., Hou, X.: Neurofeedback games to improve cognitive abilities. In: 2014 International Conference on Cyberworlds (CW), 6–8 Oct 2014, pp. 161−168 (2014)Google Scholar
- 14.Yamaguchi, H.: Characteristics of alpha-enhancement biofeedback training with eyes closed. Tohoku Psychologica Folia (1980)Google Scholar
- 16.Gruzelier, J.H.: EEG-neurofeedback for optimising performance, I: A review of cognitive and affective outcome in healthy participants, Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews (2013)Google Scholar
- 17.Becerra, J., Fernandez, T., Roca-Stappung, M., Diaz-Comas, L., Galán, L., Bosch, J., Espino, M., Moreno, A.J., Harmony, T.: Neurofeedback in healthy elderly human subjects with electroencephalographic risk for cognitive disorder. J. Alzheimers Dis. 28(2), 357–367 (2012)Google Scholar
- 18.Escolano, C., Aguilar, M., Minguez, J.: EEG-based upper alpha neurofeedback training improves working memory performance. In: 2011 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBC, pp. 2327–2330 (2011)Google Scholar
- 21.Escolano, C., Aguilar, M., Minguez, J.: EEG-based upper alpha neurofeedback training improves working memory performance. In: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBC, pp. 2327−2330 (2011)Google Scholar
- 25.Pope, A.T., Bogart, E.H.: Extended attention span training system: video game neurotherapy for attention deficit disorder. Child Study J. 26(1), 39–50 (1996)Google Scholar
- 34.Emotiv. http://www.emotiv.com