Meniscal Root Tears (ICL 6)

  • Nicolas PujolEmail author
  • Matthias J. Feucht
  • Christian Stärke
  • Michael T. Hirschmann
  • Anna Hirschmann
  • Alli Gokeler
  • Sebastian KopfEmail author


Detailed knowledge about the anatomy of the meniscal roots is crucial when performing root repair, since biomechanical studies have shown that non-anatomic root repair cannot restore native knee joint biomechanics [52, 83]. In addition, meniscal roots are under considerable risk for iatrogenic injuries during different surgical procedures such as meniscal cyst resection, reconstruction of the cruciate ligaments, or intramedullary tibial nailing [24, 55, 56].


Anterior Cruciate Ligament Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Posterior Cruciate Ligament Lateral Meniscus Meniscal Repair 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Abraham AC, Donahue TLH. From meniscus to bone: a quantitative evaluation of structure and function of the human meniscal attachments. Acta Biomater. 2013;9:6322–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Abraham AC, Villegas DF, Kaufman KR, Haut Donahue TL. Internal pressure of human meniscal root attachments during loading. J Orthop Res. 2013;31:1507–13.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Adams D, Logerstedt DS, Hunter-Giordano A, Axe MJ, Snyder-Mackler L. Current concepts for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a criterion-based rehabilitation progression. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2012;42:601–14.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ahn JH, Jeong HJ, Lee YS, Park JH, Lee JW, Park J-H, Ko TS. Comparison between conservative treatment and arthroscopic pull-out repair of the medial meniscus root tear and analysis of prognostic factors for the determination of repair indication. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2015;135:1265–76.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ahn JH, Lee YS, Yoo JC, Chang MJ, Park SJ, Pae YR. Results of arthroscopic all-inside repair for lateral meniscus root tear in patients undergoing concomitant anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Arthroscopy. 2010;26:67–75.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Allaire R, Muriuki M, Gilbertson L, Harner CD. Biomechanical consequences of a tear of the posterior root of the medial meniscus. Similar to total meniscectomy. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008;90:1922–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Amadi HO, Gupte CM, Lie DTT, McDermott ID, Amis AA, Bull AMJ. A biomechanical study of the meniscofemoral ligaments and their contribution to contact pressure reduction in the knee. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2008;16:1004–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Anderson L, Watts M, Shapter O, Logan M, Risebury M, Duffy D, Myers P. Repair of radial tears and posterior horn detachments of the lateral meniscus: minimum 2-year follow-up. Arthroscopy. 2010;26:1625–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Andrews SHJ, Rattner JB, Jamniczky HA, Shrive NG, Adesida AB. The structural and compositional transition of the meniscal roots into the fibrocartilage of the menisci. J Anat. 2015;226:169–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Arnoczky SP, Warren RF. Microvasculature of the human meniscus. Am J Sports Med. 1982;10:90–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bae J-H, Paik NH, Park G-W, Yoon J-R, Chae D-J, Kwon JH, Kim JI, Nha K-W. Predictive value of painful popping for a posterior root tear of the medial meniscus in middle-aged to older Asian patients. Arthroscopy. 2013;29:545–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Berlet GC, Fowler PJ. The anterior horn of the medical meniscus. An anatomic study of its insertion. Am J Sports Med. 1998;26:540–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bhatia S, Laprade CM, Ellman MB, Laprade RF. Meniscal root tears: significance, diagnosis, and treatment. Am J Sports Med. 2014;42:3016–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bin S-I, Kim J-M, Shin S-J. Radial tears of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. Arthroscopy. 2004;20:373–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Brown AA. The insertion of the anterior horn of the medial meniscus: an anatomic study. Muscles Ligaments Tendons J. 2013;3:210–2.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chang EY, Biswas R, DiCamillo P, Statum S, Tafur M, Bydder GM, Chung CB. Morphologic characterization of meniscal root ligaments in the human knee with magnetic resonance microscopy at 11.7 and 3 T. Skeletal Radiol. 2014;43:1395–402.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cho J-H, Song J-G. Second-look arthroscopic assessment and clinical results of modified pull-out suture for posterior root tear of the medial meniscus. Knee Surg Relat Res. 2014;26:106–13.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chung KS, Ha JK, Yeom CH, Ra HJ, Jang HS, Choi SH, Kim JG. Comparison of clinical and radiologic results between partial meniscectomy and refixation of medial meniscus posterior root tears: a minimum 5-year follow-up. Arthroscopy. 2015;31:1941.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Corea JR, Moussa M, al Othman A. McMurray’s test tested. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 1994;2:70–2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ellman MB, Laprade CM, Smith SD, Rasmussen MT, Engebretsen L, Wijdicks CA, Laprade RF. Structural properties of the meniscal roots. Am J Sports Med. 2014;42:1881–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Feucht MJ, Grande E, Brunhuber J, Burgkart R, Imhoff AB, Braun S. Biomechanical evaluation of different suture techniques for arthroscopic transtibial pull-out repair of posterior medial meniscus root tears. Am J Sports Med. 2013;41:2784–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Feucht MJ, Grande E, Brunhuber J, Rosenstiel N, Burgkart R, Imhoff AB, Braun S. Biomechanical comparison between suture anchor and transtibial pull-out repair for posterior medial meniscus root tears. Am J Sports Med. 2014;42:187–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Feucht MJ, Kühle J, Bode G, Mehl J, Schmal H, Südkamp NP, Niemeyer P. Arthroscopic transtibial pullout repair for posterior medial meniscus root tears: a systematic review of clinical, radiographic, and second-look arthroscopic results. Arthroscopy. 2015;31:1808–16.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Feucht MJ, Minzlaff P, Saier T, Lenich A, Imhoff AB, Hinterwimmer S. Avulsion of the anterior medial meniscus root: case report and surgical technique. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2015;23:146–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Feucht MJ, Salzmann GM, Bode G, Pestka JM, Kühle J, Südkamp NP, Niemeyer P. Posterior root tears of the lateral meniscus. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2015;23:119–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Forkel P, Herbort M, Schulze M, Rosenbaum D, Kirstein L, Raschke M, Petersen W. Biomechanical consequences of a posterior root tear of the lateral meniscus: stabilizing effect of the meniscofemoral ligament. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2013;133:621–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Forkel P, Herbort M, Sprenker F, Metzlaff S, Raschke M, Petersen W. The biomechanical effect of a lateral meniscus posterior root tear with and without damage to the meniscofemoral ligament: efficacy of different repair techniques. Arthroscopy. 2014;30:833–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Forkel P, Reuter S, Sprenker F, Achtnich A, Herbst E, Imhoff A, Petersen W. Different patterns of lateral meniscus root tears in ACL injuries: application of a differentiated classification system. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2015;23:112–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fowler PJ, Lubliner JA. The predictive value of five clinical signs in the evaluation of meniscal pathology. Arthroscopy. 1989;5:184–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Freutel M, Scholz NB, Seitz AM, Ignatius A, Dürselen L. Mechanical properties and morphological analysis of the transitional zone between meniscal body and ligamentous meniscal attachments. J Biomech. 2015;48:1350–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Geeslin AG, Civitarese D, Turnbull TL, Dornan GJ, Fuso FA, LaPrade RF. Influence of lateral meniscal posterior root avulsions and the meniscofemoral ligaments on tibiofemoral contact mechanics. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2015 Aug 7. [Epub ahead of print].Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gupte CM, Bull AMJ, Thomas RD, Amis AA. A review of the function and biomechanics of the meniscofemoral ligaments. Arthroscopy. 2003;19:161–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Habata T, Uematsu K, Hattori K, Takakura Y, Fujisawa Y. Clinical features of the posterior horn tear in the medial meniscus. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2004;124:642–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hauch KN, Villegas DF, Haut Donahue TL. Geometry, time-dependent and failure properties of human meniscal attachments. J Biomech. 2010;43:463–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hing W, White S, Reid D, Marshall R. Validity of the McMurray’s test and modified versions of the test: a systematic literature review. J Man Manip Ther. 2009;17:22–35.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ihn JC, Kim SJ, Park IH. In vitro study of contact area and pressure distribution in the human knee after partial and total meniscectomy. Int Orthop. 1993;17:214–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Jackson JL, O’Malley PG, Kroenke K. Evaluation of acute knee pain in primary care. Ann Intern Med. 2003;139:575–88.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    James EW, LaPrade CM, Ellman MB, Wijdicks CA, Engebretsen L, LaPrade RF. Radiographic identification of the anterior and posterior root attachments of the medial and lateral menisci. Am J Sports Med. 2014;42:2707–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Johannsen AM, Civitarese DM, Padalecki JR, Goldsmith MT, Wijdicks CA, LaPrade RF. Qualitative and quantitative anatomic analysis of the posterior root attachments of the medial and lateral menisci. Am J Sports Med. 2012;40:2342–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Johnson DL, Swenson TM, Livesay GA, Aizawa H, Fu FH, Harner CD. Insertion-site anatomy of the human menisci: gross, arthroscopic, and topographical anatomy as a basis for meniscal transplantation. Arthroscopy. 1995;11:386–94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kale A, Kopuz C, Dikici F, Demir MT, Corumlu U, Ince Y. Anatomic and arthroscopic study of the medial meniscal horns’ insertions. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2010;18:754–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Karachalios T, Hantes M, Zibis AH, Zachos V, Karantanas AH, Malizos KN. Diagnostic accuracy of a new clinical test (the Thessaly test) for early detection of meniscal tears. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2005;87:955–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kim J-H, Chung J-H, Lee D-H, Lee Y-S, Kim J-R, Ryu K-J. Arthroscopic suture anchor repair versus pullout suture repair in posterior root tear of the medial meniscus: a prospective comparison study. Arthroscopy. 2011;27:1644–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kim SB, Ha JK, Lee SW, Kim DW, Shim JC, Kim JG, Lee MY. Medial meniscus root tear refixation: comparison of clinical, radiologic, and arthroscopic findings with medial meniscectomy. Arthroscopy. 2011;27:346–54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Koenig JH, Ranawat AS, Umans HR, Difelice GS. Meniscal root tears: diagnosis and treatment. Arthroscopy. 2009;25:1025–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kohn D, Moreno B. Meniscus insertion anatomy as a basis for meniscus replacement: a morphological cadaveric study. Arthroscopy. 1995;11:96–103.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Konan S, Rayan F, Haddad FS. Do physical diagnostic tests accurately detect meniscal tears? Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2009;17:806–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kopf S, Colvin AC, Muriuki M, Zhang X, Harner CD. Meniscal root suturing techniques: implications for root fixation. Am J Sports Med. 2011;39:2141–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kopf S, Stärke C, Gwinner C, Becker R. Meniskusinsertion. Arthroskopie. 2015;28:13–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kurosaka M, Yagi M, Yoshiya S, Muratsu H, Mizuno K. Efficacy of the axially loaded pivot shift test for the diagnosis of a meniscal tear. Int Orthop. 1999;23:271–4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    LaPrade CM, Ellman MB, Rasmussen MT, James EW, Wijdicks CA, Engebretsen L, LaPrade RF. Anatomy of the anterior root attachments of the medial and lateral menisci: a quantitative analysis. Am J Sports Med. 2014;42:2386–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    LaPrade CM, Foad A, Smith SD, Turnbull TL, Dornan GJ, Engebretsen L, Wijdicks CA, LaPrade RF. Biomechanical consequences of a nonanatomic posterior medial meniscal root repair. Am J Sports Med. 2015;43:912–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    LaPrade CM, James EW, Cram TR, Feagin JA, Engebretsen L, LaPrade RF. Meniscal root tears: a classification system based on tear morphology. Am J Sports Med. 2015;43:363–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    LaPrade CM, LaPrade MD, Turnbull TL, Wijdicks CA, LaPrade RF. Biomechanical evaluation of the transtibial pull-out technique for posterior medial meniscal root repairs using 1 and 2 transtibial bone tunnels. Am J Sports Med. 2015;43:899–904.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    LaPrade CM, Smith SD, Rasmussen MT, Hamming MG, Wijdicks CA, Engebretsen L, Feagin JA, LaPrade RF. Consequences of tibial tunnel reaming on the meniscal roots during cruciate ligament reconstruction in a cadaveric model, part 1: the anterior cruciate ligament. Am J Sports Med. 2015;43:200–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    LaPrade MD, LaPrade CM, Hamming MG, Ellman MB, Turnbull TL, Rasmussen MT, Wijdicks CA, LaPrade RF. Intramedullary tibial nailing reduces the attachment area and ultimate load of the anterior medial meniscal root: a potential explanation for anterior knee pain in female patients and smaller patients. Am J Sports Med. 2015;43:1670–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    LaPrade RF, LaPrade CM, James EW. Recent advances in posterior meniscal root repair techniques. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2015;23:71–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    LaPrade RF, LaPrade CM, Ellman MB, Turnbull TL, Cerminara AJ, Wijdicks CA. Cyclic displacement after meniscal root repair fixation: a human biomechanical evaluation. Am J Sports Med. 2015;43:892–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Lee DW, Ha JK, Kim JG. Medial meniscus posterior root tear: a comprehensive review. Knee Surg Relat Res. 2014;26:125–34.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Lee DW, Kim MK, Jang HS, Ha JK, Kim JG. Clinical and radiologic evaluation of arthroscopic medial meniscus root tear refixation: comparison of the modified Mason-Allen stitch and simple stitches. Arthroscopy. 2014;30:1439–46.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Lee JH, Lim YJ, Kim KB, Kim KH, Song JH. Arthroscopic pullout suture repair of posterior root tear of the medial meniscus: radiographic and clinical results with a 2-year follow-up. Arthroscopy. 2009;25:951–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Malanga GA, Andrus S, Nadler SF, McLean J. Physical examination of the knee: a review of the original test description and scientific validity of common orthopedic tests. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2003;84:592–603.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Marsh CA, Martin DE, Harner CD, Tashman S. Effect of posterior horn medial meniscus root tear on in vivo knee kinematics. Orthop J Sports Med. 2014;11;2(7).Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Marzo JM, Gurske-DePerio J. Effects of medial meniscus posterior horn avulsion and repair on tibiofemoral contact area and peak contact pressure with clinical implications. Am J Sports Med. 2009;37:124–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Masouros SD, McDermott ID, Amis AA, Bull AM. Biomechanics of the meniscus-meniscal ligament construct of the knee. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2008;16:1121–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Matheny LM, Ockuly AC, Steadman JR, LaPrade RF. Posterior meniscus root tears: associated pathologies to assist as diagnostic tools. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2015;23:3127–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Meserve BB, Cleland JA, Boucher TR. A meta-analysis examining clinical test utilities for assessing meniscal injury. Clin Rehabil. 2008;22:143–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Moon H-K, Koh Y-G, Kim Y-C, Park Y-S, Jo S-B, Kwon S-K. Prognostic factors of arthroscopic pull-out repair for a posterior root tear of the medial meniscus. Am J Sports Med. 2012;40:1138–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Nelson EW, LaPrade RF. The anterior intermeniscal ligament of the knee. An anatomic study. Am J Sports Med. 2000;28:74–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Neogi DS, Kumar A, Rijal L, Yadav CS, Jaiman A, Nag HL. Role of nonoperative treatment in managing degenerative tears of the medial meniscus posterior root. J Orthop Traumatol. 2013;14:193–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Nguyen JC, De Smet AA, Graf BK, Rosas HG. MR imaging-based diagnosis and classification of meniscal tears. Radiographics. 2014;34:981–99.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Ozkoc G, Circi E, Gonc U, Irgit K, Pourbagher A, Tandogan RN. Radial tears in the root of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2008;16:849–54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Petersen W, Tillmann B. Collagenous fibril texture of the human knee joint menisci. Anat Embryol (Berl). 1998;197:317–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Petersen W, Forkel P, Feucht MJ, Zantop T, Imhoff AB, Brucker PU. Posterior root tear of the medial and lateral meniscus. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2014;134:237–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Pula DA, Femia RE, Marzo JM, Bisson LJ. Are root avulsions of the lateral meniscus associated with extrusion at the time of acute anterior cruciate ligament injury? A case control study. Am J Sports Med. 2014;42:173–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Ren A-H, Zheng Z-Z, Shang Y, Tian C-Y. An anatomical study of normal meniscal roots with isotropic 3D MRI at 3T. Eur J Radiol. 2012;81:e783–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Röpke EF, Kopf S, Drange S, Becker R, Lohmann CH, Stärke C. Biomechanical evaluation of meniscal root repair: a porcine study. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2015;23:45–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Seo H-S, Lee S-C, Jung K-A. Second-look arthroscopic findings after repairs of posterior root tears of the medial meniscus. Am J Sports Med. 2011;39:99–107.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Shelbourne KD, Roberson TA, Gray T. Long-term evaluation of posterior lateral meniscus root tears left in situ at the time of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Am J Sports Med. 2011;39:1439–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Shybut TB, Vega CE, Haddad J, Alexander JW, Gold JE, Noble PC, Lowe WR. Effect of lateral meniscal root tear on the stability of the anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee. Am J Sports Med. 2015;43:905–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    De Smet AA, Blankenbaker DG, Kijowski R, Graf BK, Shinki K. MR diagnosis of posterior root tears of the lateral meniscus using arthroscopy as the reference standard. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2009;192:480–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Solomon DH, Simel DL, Bates DW, Katz JN, Schaffer JL. The rational clinical examination. Does this patient have a torn meniscus or ligament of the knee? Value of the physical examination. JAMA. 2001;286:1610–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Stärke C, Kopf S, Gröbel K-H, Becker R. The effect of a nonanatomic repair of the meniscal horn attachment on meniscal tension: a biomechanical study. Arthroscopy. 2010;26:358–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Stärke C, Kopf S, Lippisch R, Lohmann CH, Becker R. Tensile forces on repaired medial meniscal root tears. Arthroscopy. 2013;29:205–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Sung JH, Ha JK, Lee DW, Seo WY, Kim JG. Meniscal extrusion and spontaneous osteonecrosis with root tear of medial meniscus: comparison with horizontal tear. Arthroscopy. 2013;29:726–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Śmigielski R, Becker R, Zdanowicz U, Ciszek B. Medial meniscus anatomy-from basic science to treatment. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2015;23:8–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Urban WP, Nyland J, Caborn DN, Johnson DL. The radiographic position of medial and lateral meniscal horns as a basis for meniscal reconstruction. Arthroscopy. 1999;15:147–54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Villegas DF, Haut Donahue TL. Collagen morphology in human meniscal attachments: a SEM study. Connect Tissue Res. 2010;51:327–36.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Villegas DF, Hansen TA, Liu DF, Donahue TLH. A quantitative study of the microstructure and biochemistry of the medial meniscal horn attachments. Ann Biomed Eng. 2008;36:123–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Vyas D, Harner CD. Meniscus root repair. Sports Med Arthrosc. 2012;20:86–94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Wilmes P, Anagnostakos K, Weth C, Kohn D, Seil R. The reproducibility of radiographic measurement of medial meniscus horn position. Arthroscopy. 2008;24:660–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Wilmes P, Pape D, Kohn D, Seil R. The reproducibility of radiographic measurement of lateral meniscus horn position. Arthroscopy. 2007;23:1079–86.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    You M-W, Park JS, Park SY, Jin W, Ryu KN. Posterior root of lateral meniscus: the detailed anatomic description on 3T MRI. Acta Radiol. 2014;55:359–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ESSKA 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicolas Pujol
    • 1
    Email author
  • Matthias J. Feucht
    • 2
  • Christian Stärke
    • 3
  • Michael T. Hirschmann
    • 4
  • Anna Hirschmann
    • 5
  • Alli Gokeler
    • 6
  • Sebastian Kopf
    • 7
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Traumatology, Versailles HospitalUniversity of West Parisrue de VersaillesFrance
  2. 2.Department of Orthopedic Surgery and TraumatologyFreiburg University HospitalFreiburgGermany
  3. 3.Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryOtto-von-Guericke UniversityMagdeburgGermany
  4. 4.Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and TraumatologyKantonsspital Baselland (Bruderholz, Liestal, Laufen)BruderholzSwitzerland
  5. 5.Clinic of Radiology and Nuclear MedicineUniversity of Basel HospitalBaselSwitzerland
  6. 6.Center of Human Movement SciencesUniversity of Groningen, University Medical CenterGroningenThe Netherlands
  7. 7.Center for Musculoskeletal SurgeryCharité – University Medicine BerlinBerlinGermany

Personalised recommendations