From Community Analysis to Prototype: Creating an Online Matchmaker for Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients

Chapter

Abstract

Since about five years, the MIT Center for Collective Intelligence, Cambridge, U.S., and the Chronic Collaborative Care Network (C3N) at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital, Cincinnati, U.S., have been working together to improve care for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients by harnessing methods of computational social science. The goal of this contribution is (1) to present an approach in measuring communication patterns and sentiments within online communities of IBD patients, (2) to analyze the enablers for a better connectedness of community members, and (3) to introduce a prototype application of a collective intelligent online network for IBD patients, named “YouMeIBD”. The mobile application, developed within an interdisciplinary student class at MIT and four other universities, aims to improve the connectedness, well-being and diffusion of innovations in a community of IBD patients.

Keywords

Social network analysis Sentiment analysis Coolhunting Patient community Collaborative innovation network Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) 

References

  1. Adams CP, Brantner VV (2006) Estimating the cost of new drug development: is it really $802 million? Health Aff 25(2):420–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alic MSM (2000) Inflammatory bowel diseases are diseases of higher socioeconomic status: dogma or reality? Am J Gastroenterol 95:3332–3333. doi:10.1016/S0002-9270(00)02123-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aral S, Walker D (2011) Creating social contagion through viral product design: a randomized trial of peer influence in networks. Manag Sci 57:1623–1639. doi:10.1287/mnsc.1110.1421 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baebler L, Gloor P, Kaminski J, Marticke L, Dellal G (2011) YouApp—it’s all about YOU: finding patients like myself on Facebook. In: Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on Collaborative Innovation Networks COINs 2011, Basel, Switzerland, 8–10 September 2011. http://www.ickn.org/documents/COINs11_YouApp.pdf. Accessed 1 Apr 2015
  5. Bastian M, Heymann S, Jacomy M (2009) Gephi: an open source software for exploring and manipulating networks. Third international AAAI conference on Weblogs and Social Media. https://www.aaai.org/ocs/index.php/ICWSM/09/paper/view/154/1009. Accessed 1 May 2015
  6. Bernstein CN, Kraut A, Blanchard JF, Rawsthorne P, Yu N, Walld R (2001) The relationship between inflammatory bowel disease and socioeconomic variables. Am J Gastroenterol 96:2117–2125. doi:10.1016/S0002-9270(01)02509-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Burisch J, Munkholm P (2013) Inflammatory bowel disease epidemiology. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 29:357–362. doi:10.1097/MOG.0b013e32836229fb CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Burisch J, Jess T, Martinato M, Lakatos PL (2013) The burden of inflammatory bowel disease in Europe. J Crohns Colitis 7:322–337. doi:10.1016/j.crohns.2013.01.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Burt RS (2001) Structural holes versus network closure as social capital. In: Lin N, Cook KS, Burt RS (eds) Social capital theory and research. Aldine de Gruyter, New York, pp 31–56Google Scholar
  10. Byrne D (1971) The attraction paradigm. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. CCFA (2015) Crohn’s and Colitis Foundation of America. Fact book. http://www.ccfa.org/assets/pdfs/updatedibdfactbook.pdf. Accessed 1 May 2015
  12. CDC (2014) Center for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/ibd/ibd-epidemiology.htm. Accessed 20 Nov 2014
  13. Christakis NA, Fowler JH (2011) Connected: the surprising power of our social networks and how they shape our lives. Little, Brown, Boston, p 256Google Scholar
  14. Cialdini RB (2001) The science of persuasion. Sci Am 284:76–81. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0201-76 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cohen RD (2002) The quality of life in patients with Crohn’s disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 16:1603–1609. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2036.2002.01323.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cohen RD (2005) Worms, germs and IBD: is it your mother’s fault? Gastroenterology 129:1127–1128. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2005.06.076, discussion 1128–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. COINs Class (2010). https://sites.google.com/site/coincourse2010/home. Accessed 1 Apr 2015
  18. COINs Class (2011). https://sites.google.com/site/coincourse2011/home. Accessed 1 Apr 2015
  19. COINs Class (2012). https://sites.google.com/site/coincourse2012/home. Accessed 1 Apr 2015
  20. COINs Class (2013). https://sites.google.com/site/coincourse2013/home. Accessed 1 Apr 2015
  21. COINs Class (2014). https://sites.google.com/site/coincourse2014/home. Accessed 1 Apr 2015
  22. COINs Class (2015). https://sites.google.com/site/coincourse2015/home. Accessed 1 Apr 2015
  23. Cooke WT (1981) Factors in the management of Crohn’s disease: a discussion paper. J R Soc Med 74:757Google Scholar
  24. Crohn BB, Ginzburg L, Oppenheimer GD (1984) Regional ileitis. A pathological and clinical entity. JAMA 251:73–79. doi:10.1001/jama.251.1.73 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Datamonitor (2010) Commercial insight: inflammatory Bowel disease—future market prospects rely on addressing cost and safety. Research and Markets. Abstract: http://goo.gl/x6JSZw. Accessed 20 Nov 2014
  26. DiMasi JA, Hansen RW, Grabowski HG (2003) The price of innovation: new estimates of drug development costs. J Health Econ 22:151–185. doi:10.1016/S0167-6296(02)00126-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Duchmann R, Zeitz M (2005) Crohn’s disease: current pathogenetic paradigms. Mucosal Immunol 3:1265–1286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dunbar RIM (1992) Neocortex size as a constraint on group size in primates. J Hum Evol 22:469–493. doi:10.1016/0047-2484(92)90081-J CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dutton G (2013) Big need in IBD: drugs to slow progression. Genetic Eng Biotechnol News 33(14):14–14. doi:10.1089/gen.33.14.05 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Economou M, Pappas G (2008) New global map of Crohn’s disease: genetic, environmental, and socioeconomic correlations. Inflamm Bowel Dis 14:709–720. doi:10.1002/ibd.20352 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Elliott DE, Weinstock JV (2012) Helminth-host immunological interactions: prevention and control of immune-mediated diseases. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1247:83–96. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06292.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Elliott DE, Li J, Blum A, Metwali A, Qadir K, Urban JF, Weinstock JV (2003) Exposure to schistosome eggs protects mice from TNBS-induced colitis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 284:G385–G391. doi:10.1152/ajpgi.00049.2002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Elliott DE, Summers RW, Weinstock JV (2007) Helminths as governors of immune-mediated inflammation. Int J Parasitol 37:457–464. doi:10.1016/j.ijpara.2006.12.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Emerson RM (1962) Power-dependence relations. Am Sociol Rev 27:31. doi:10.2307/2089716 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Eysenbach G, Powell J, Englesakis M, Rizo C, Stern A (2004) Health related virtual communities and electronic support groups: systematic review of the effects of online peer to peer interactions. BMJ 328:1166. doi:10.1136/bmj.328.7449.1166 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fiocchi C (1998) Inflammatory cowel disease: etiology and pathogenesis. Gastroenterology 115:182–205. doi:10.1016/S0016-5085(98)70381-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fowler JH, Christakis NA (2008) Dynamic spread of happiness in a large social network: longitudinal analysis over 20 years in the Framingham Heart Study. BMJ 337:a2338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Flowers S (2014) Medical user innovation in the context of chronic disease: the creation of Helminthic therapy. Workshop on medical user innovation and medical commons, NYU School of Law, 15–17 May 2014. Working paper. http://goo.gl/VVdyWQ. Accessed 20 Nov 2014
  39. Flowers S, Hopkins M (2013) Autoimmune disease: patients self-treat with parasitic worms. Nature 493:163. doi:10.1038/493163c CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Fuehres H, Kaminski J, Gloor P, Zhang X (2011) Finding a cure for Crohn’s disease—analyzing medical conditions in online communities. In: Proceedings of the Sunbelt 2011, St. Pete’s Beach, Florida, 10–13 February 2011Google Scholar
  41. Gallant MP (2003) The influence of social support on chronic illness self-management: a review and directions for research. Health Educ Behav 30:170–195. doi:10.1177/1090198102251030 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Garn H, Renz H (2007) Epidemiological and immunological evidence for the hygiene hypothesis. Immunobiology 212:441–452. doi:10.1016/j.imbio.2007.03.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gazzard BG, Price HL, Libby GW, Dawson AM (1978) The social toll of Crohn’s disease. Br Med J 2:1117–1119. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.6145.1117 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Geboes K, Collins S (1998) Structural abnormalities of the nervous system in Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Neurogastroenterol Motil 10:189–202. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2982.1998.00102.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gibson TB, Ng E, Ozminkowski RJ, Wang S, Burton WN, Goetzel RZ, Maclean R (2008) The direct and indirect cost burden of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. J Occup Environ Med 50:1261–1272. doi:10.1097/JOM.0b013e318181b8ca CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gloor PA (2006) Swarm creativity: competitive advantage through collaborative innovation networks. Oxford University Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gloor PA, Cooper S (2007) Coolhunting: chasing down the next big thing. AMACOM, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  48. Gloor PA, Zhao Y (2004) TeCFlow—a temporal communication flow visualizer for social network analysis. ACM CSCW Workshop on Social Networks, pp 1–4Google Scholar
  49. Gloor PA, Laubacher R, Dynes SBC, Zhao Y (2003) Visualization of communication patterns in collaborative innovation networks—analysis of some W3C working groups. In: Proceedings of the twelfth international Conference on Information and Knowledge Management—CIKM’03 56. doi:10.1145/956873.956875
  50. Gloor PA, Grippa F, Borgert A, Colletti R, Dellal G, Margolis P, Seid M (2011) Towards growing a COIN in a medical research community. Procedia Soc Behav Sci 26. In: Proceedings COINs 2010, collaborative innovations networks conference, Savannah, GA, 7–9 October 2010. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.10.557
  51. Harhoff D, Henkel J, Von Hippel E (2003) Profiting from voluntary information spillovers: how users benefit by freely revealing their innovations. Res Policy 32(10):1753–1769CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Haythornthwaite C (2005) Social networks and internet connectivity effects. Inf Commun Soc 8:125–147. doi:10.1080/13691180500146185 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Heylen M, Ruyssers NE, Gielis EM, Vanhomwegen E, Pelckmans PA, Moreels TG, De Man JG, De Winter BY (2014) Of worms, mice and man: an overview of experimental and clinical helminth-based therapy for inflammatory bowel disease. Pharmacol Ther 143:153–167. doi:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2014.02.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Isaacs KL, Lewis JD, Sandborn WJ, Sands BE, Targan SR (2005) State of the art: IBD therapy and clinical trials in IBD. Inflamm Bowel Dis 11(Suppl 1):S3–S12. doi:10.1097/01.MIB.0000184852.84558.b2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kaminski J, Gloor P, Marticke L (2012) YouMeIBD—an interactive online matchmaker for patients of IBD/Crohn’s disease, Stanford Medicine X, Stanford University, Palo Alto, 28–30 September 2012. http://medicinex.stanford.edu/gloor-kaminski-abstract/. Accessed 20 Nov 2014
  56. Kappelman MD, Rifas-Shiman SL, Kleinman K, Ollendorf D, Bousvaros A, Grand RJ, Finkelstein JA (2007) The prevalence and geographic distribution of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis in the United States. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 5:1424–1429. doi:10.1016/j.cgh.2007.07.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Katz E (1957) The two-step flow of communication: an up-to-date report on an hypothesis. Public Opin Q 21:61. doi:10.1086/266687 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Katz E, Lazarsfeld PF (1957) Personal influence. Free Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  59. Kendall L (2002) Hanging out in the virtual pub: masculinities and relationships online. University of California Press, BerkeleyCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kidane YH, Gloor PA (2007) Correlating temporal communication patterns of the Eclipse open source community with performance and creativity. Comput Math Organ Theory 13:17–27. doi:10.1007/s10588-006-9006-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lakatos PL (2006) Recent trends in the epidemiology of inflammatory bowel diseases: up or down? World J Gastroenterol 12:6102–6108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lashner BA, Loftus EV (2006) True or false? The hygiene hypothesis for Crohn’s disease. Am J Gastroenterol 101:1003–1004. doi:10.1111/j.1572-0241.2006.00563.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lazarsfeld PF, Merton RK (1954) Friendship as a social process: a substantive and methodological analysis. Free Control Mod Soc 18:18–66Google Scholar
  64. Lazer D, Pentland A, Adamic L, Aral S, Barabási A-L, Brewer D, Christakis N, Contractor N, Fowler J, Gutmann M, Jebara T, King G, Macy M, Roy D, van Alstyne M (2009) Computational social science. Science 323:721–723. doi:10.1126/science.1167742 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Loftus EV (2004) Clinical epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease: incidence, prevalence, and environmental influences. Gastroenterology 126:1504–1517. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2004.01.063 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Loftus EV (2007) The burden of inflammatory bowel disease in the United States: a moving target? Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 5:1383–1384. doi:10.1016/j.cgh.2007.10.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Longobardi T, Jacobs P, Bernstein CN (2003) Work losses related to inflammatory bowel disease in the United States: results from the National Health Interview Survey. Am J Gastroenterol 98:1064–1072. doi:10.1111/j.1572-0241.2003.07285.x Google Scholar
  68. Lyytinen K, Damsgaard J (2001) What’s wrong with the diffusion of innovation theory? The case of a complex and networked technology. Reports Aalborg University Department of Computer Science R985010 187:1–20Google Scholar
  69. Malone TW, Laubacher R, Dellarocas C (2009) Harnessing crowds : mapping the genome of collective intelligence. Elements 1:1–20. doi:10.2139/ssrn.1381502 Google Scholar
  70. McLeod RS, Churchill DN, Lock AM, Vanderburgh S, Cohen Z (1991) Quality of life of patients with ulcerative colitis preoperatively and postoperatively. Gastroenterology 101:1307–1313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. McPherson M, Smith-Lovin L, Cook JM (2001) Birds of a feather: homophily in social networks. Annu Rev Sociol 27:415–444. doi:10.1146/annurev.soc.27.1.415 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Metcalfe B (1995) Metcalfe’s law: a network becomes more valuable as it reaches more users. InfoWorld 17:53–54Google Scholar
  73. Midgley DF, Dowling GR (1993) A longitudinal study of product form innovation: the interaction between predispositions and social messages. J Consum Res 19:611. doi:10.1086/209326 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Park KT, Bass D (2011) Inflammatory bowel disease-attributable costs and cost-effective strategies in the United States: a review. Inflamm Bowel Dis 17:1603–1609. doi:10.1002/ibd.21488 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Pentland A (2014) Social physics: how good ideas spread. Penguin Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  76. Portier K, Greer GE, Rokach L, Ofek N, Wang Y, Biyani P, Yu M, Banerjee S, Zhao K, Mitra P, Yen J (2013) Understanding topics and sentiment in an online cancer survivor community. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 2013:195–198. doi:10.1093/jncimonographs/lgt025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Probert CS, Brown M (2008) Are there any ethnic groups that are more likely to develop IBD? Inflamm Bowel Dis 14(Suppl 2):S24–S25. doi:10.1002/ibd.20601 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Reddy A, Fried B (2009) An update on the use of helminths to treat Crohn’s and other autoimmunune diseases. Parasitol Res 104:217–221. doi:10.1007/s00436-008-1297-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Retelny D, Robaszkiewicz S, To A, Lasecki W, Patel J, Rahmati N, Doshi T, Valentine M, Bernstein MS (2014) Expert crowdsourcing with flash teams. In: Proceedings of the 27th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology, ACM, 2014. doi:10.1145/2642918.2647409
  80. Rheingold H (1993) The virtual community: homesteading on the electronic frontier. Addison-Wesley, ReadingGoogle Scholar
  81. Rogers EM (2003[1962]) Diffusion of innovations, 5th edn. Free Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  82. Ruyssers NE, De Winter BY, De Man JG, Loukas A, Herman AG, Pelckmans PA, Moreels TG (2008) Worms and the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease: are molecules the answer? Clin Dev Immunol 2008:1–7. doi:10.1155/2008/567314 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Ruyssers NE, De Winter BY, De Man JG, Ruyssers ND, Van Gils AJ, Loukas A, Pearson MS, Weinstock JV, Pelckmans PA, Moreels TG (2010) Schistosoma mansoni proteins attenuate gastrointestinal motility disturbances during experimental colitis in mice. World J Gastroenterol 16:703–712. doi:10.3748/wjg.v16.i6.703 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Ryan B, Gross NC (1943) The diffusion of hybrid seed corn in two Iowa communities. Rural Sociol 8:15–24Google Scholar
  85. Sajadinejad MS, Asgari K, Molavi H, Kalantari M, Adibi P (2012) Psychological issues in inflammatory bowel disease: an overview. Gastroenterol Res Pract 2012. doi:10.1155/2012/106502
  86. Sonnenberg A (2009) Demographic characteristics of hospitalized IBD patients. Dig Dis Sci 54:2449–2455. doi:10.1007/s10620-009-0973-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Strachan DP (2000) Family size, infection and atopy: the first decade of the “hygiene hypothesis”. Thorax 55(Suppl 1):S2–S10. doi:10.1136/thorax.55.suppl_1.S2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Summers RW, Elliott DE, Qadir K, Urban JF, Thompson R, Weinstock JV (2003) Trichuris suis seems to be safe and possibly effective in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Gastroenterol 98:2034–2041. doi:10.1111/j.1572-0241.2003.07660.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Summers RW, Elliott DE, Urban JF, Thompson R, Weinstock JV (2005) Trichuris suis therapy in Crohn’s disease. Gut 54:87–90. doi:10.1136/gut.2004.041749 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Thukkani N, Williams JL, Sonnenberg A (2011) Epidemiologic characteristics of patients with inflammatory bowel disease undergoing colonoscopy. Inflamm Bowel Dis 17:1333–1337. doi:10.1002/ibd.21513 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Trivedi I, Keefer L (2015) The emerging adult with inflammatory bowel disease: challenges and recommendations for the adult gastroenterologist. Gastroenterol Res Pract. doi:10.1155/2015/260807
  92. Valente T (2010) Social networks and health: models, methods, and applications. Oxford University Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Van Assche G, Dignass A, Panes J, Beaugerie L, Karagiannis J, Allez M, Ochsenkühn T, Orchard T, Rogler G, Louis E, Kupcinskas L, Mantzaris G, Travis S, Stange E (2010) The second European evidence-based consensus on the diagnosis and management of Crohn’s disease: definitions and diagnosis. J Crohns Colitis 4:7–27. doi:10.1016/j.crohns.2009.12.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Velasquez-Manoff M (2008) The worm turns. New York Times, June 29 2008. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/06/29/magazine/29wwln-essay-t.html. Accessed 20 Nov 2014
  95. Venu N, Cohen RD (2011) The new economic reality in the world of IBD. In: Cohen RD (ed) Inflammatory bowel disease: diagnosis and therapeutics. Springer, New York. doi:10.1007/978-1-60327-433-3_19 Google Scholar
  96. Von Hippel E (1986) Lead users: a source of novel product concepts. Manag Sci 32(7):791–805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Von Hippel E (1994) “Sticky information” and the locus of problem solving: implications for innovation. Manag Sci 40:429–439. doi:10.1287/mnsc.40.4.429 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Wagner EH (2001) Meeting the needs of chronically ill people. Br Med J 323:945–946. doi:10.1136/bmj.323.7319.945 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Wasserman S, Faust K (1994) Social network analysis: methods and applications. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Weinstock JV, Elliott DE (2013) Translatability of helminth therapy in inflammatory bowel diseases. Int J Parasitol 43:245–251. doi:10.1016/j.ijpara.2012.10.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Weinstock JV, Summers RW, Elliott DE, Qadir K, Urban JF, Thompson R (2002) The possible link between de-worming and the emergence of immunological disease. J Lab Clin Med 139:334–338. doi:10.1067/mlc.2002.124343 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Weinstock JV, Summers RW, Elliott DE (2005) Role of helminths in regulating mucosal inflammation. Springer Semin Immunopathol 27:249–271. doi:10.1007/s00281-005-0209-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Wellman B (1988) Structural analysis: from method and metaphor to theory and substance. In: Wellman B, Berkowitz SD (eds) Social structures: a network approach. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  104. Wellman B (1992) Which ties provide what kinds of support? Adv Group Process 9:207–235Google Scholar
  105. Wellman B (2012) Is Dunbar’s number up? Br J Psychol 103:174–176. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8295.2011.02075.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Wicks P, Massagli M, Frost J, Brownstein C, Okun S, Vaughan T, Bradley R, Heywood J (2010) Sharing health data for better outcomes on PatientsLikeMe. J Med Internet Res. doi:10.2196/jmir.1549
  107. Wicks P, Vaughan TE, Massagli MP, Heywood J (2011) Accelerated clinical discovery using self-reported patient data collected online and a patient-matching algorithm. Nat Biotechnol 29:411–414. doi:10.1038/nbt.1837 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Xavier RJ, Podolsky DK (2007) Unravelling the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Nature 448:427–434. doi:10.1038/nature06005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Yu AP, Cabanilla LA, Wu EQ, Mulani PM, Chao J (2008) The costs of Crohn’s disease in the United States and other Western countries: a systematic review. Curr Med Res Opin 24:319–328. doi:10.1185/030079908X260790 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Witten/Herdecke UniversityWittenGermany
  2. 2.MIT Center for Collective IntelligenceMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA

Personalised recommendations